Study Of British And Government School Systems Education Essay

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Creativity is defined as the tendency to generate or recognize ideas, alternatives, or possibilities that may be useful in solving problems, communicating with others, and entertaining ourselves and others. Generally, creativity is taken as a process of seeing or creating relationships comprising process of discrimination from many alternatives and synthesizing elements in altogether new and original ways (Pesut 1990, Sternberg 2003).

Creativity is important at both the individual and the societal levels. At the individual level, creativity is related to solving real life problems. At the societal level, creative individuals pioneer progress in science, technology and the beauty in arts (Sternberg, 1999). Creativity is important at the global level as it help to build an interactive world that strengthens human civilization. Starko (1995) argues that human beings would have no advancement in art, literature, science, and invention if human creativity did not exist. Ironically, educators sometimes teach students about creative and distinguished people, but ignore teaching that fosters students' creative thinking in their classrooms. The importance of schooling in the development of creativity in students has been mentioned in many studies about creativity. The classroom is mean to open new pathways in children's creativity (Cropley, 1994; Fishkin, Cramond, & Olszewski-Kubilius, 1999; Runco & Albert, 1990; Sternberg, 1999). Therefore, teachers can play important roles to enhance any components of students' creativity.

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There are many valid and important reasons for being concerned with creativity assessment. For example, helping to remove creativity from the realm of mystery and superstition; helping students to recognize their own strengths and talents; enabling people to know and understand themselves better; expanding students' risk-taking parameters; helping teachers to discover unrecognized or untapped potential/talent; providing baseline data for assessing individuals or groups and results which can guide teachers in planning and conducting appropriate and challenging instruction; highlighting current educational problems such as 'marking to the assessment criteria'; helping in the recognition and 'reward' processes for students; providing a common language for communication among professionals about the nature of creative abilities and skills; giving a boost to students who tend to fall outside society's norm behavioral standards and are judged badly as a result of poor academic work (Balcin, 2005).

There are certain cautions which should be kept in mind while talking about creative children. First, creativity is not a dichotomous trait, i.e., "one has it or does not have it." To some extend creativity exists in all children. Also, creativity has been considered a domain of adult life, since the creative products are most often manifest at that period. But creative persons, (those in whose lives we can study the creative process), have had a history in which the nurture and development of the attributes of creativity occurred. Educationists recently have become aware of the responsibilities of the teacher in the nurturing process as well as of the environmental factors which do enhance or inhibit the early stimulation of the creative potential. Second, when studying creative children it must be considered that both experience and opportunity have limited "creative expressions" or products, so that such children are not as readily identifiable as are creative adults. If we did not attempt to identify creative children and the factors that influence development of this potential, then there would not be any reason to consider creativity a domain of educators, as they play an important role in stimulating creativity.

Education is the vital component of our life and cannot be considered in isolation or viewed in a vacuum. It has to be used as powerful instrument of socio-economic and political changes concomitant to global technology development. In deep terms, education system of a nation, its socio-economic and geo-political factors have direct and deep relationship to play an effective role in the over all economic development of the country.

Pakistan is an Islamic republic and Islam has given maximum emphasis on acquiring knowledge. It is being growingly realized in developing countries including Pakistan that education is a basic human right and an essential prerequisite for development. Article 37(b) of the 1973 constitution of Islamic republic of Pakistan states that the state shall remove illiteracy and provide free and compulsory secondary education within minimum possible period (Yousuf, 2002).

Ghafoor (1990) examines the structure of formal education, which Pakistan inherited in 1947, underwent changes over the past fifty years or so. Brief description of each level of education is given below.

Primary education

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Primary education consists first five years of schooling. Normally a child is admitted to grade-1 at the age of 5+. Pre-primary (which is locally called kachi) is very limited and remains unrecognized. It is not a pre- requisite for admission to grade-1. There are mosque schools, which teach up to grade-III.

Middle level

This is junior secondary level which compresses of grade 6th to 8th. A middle school may either have grade-VI to VIII or may also have primary section of grade -I to V. Secondary School in Pakistan begin from grade 9 and lasts for four years. Upon completion of grade 10, students are expected to take a standardized test administered by a regional 'Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education' or BISE. Upon successful completion of this examination, they are awarded a 'Secondary School Certificate' or SSC. This used to be called matriculation certificate.

Higher secondary schools

Grade-XI and XII in general education is called intermediate level (or higher secondary level). The institutions, which impact instruction at grade-XI and XII are called intermediate colleges; whereas others imparting instruction from grade-VI to XII are called higher secondary schools. Students then enter a college and complete grades 11 and 12. Upon completion of grade 12, they again take a standardized test which is also administered by the regional boards. Upon successful completion of this test, students are awarded the 'Higher Secondary (School) Certificate' or HSSC. This used to be called the F.Sc. /F.A. or intermediate. There are many streams students can choose for their 11 and 12 grades, such as pre-medical, pre-engineering, humanities, social sciences and commerce.

Madrassah Education

Along with modern education system there is also religious education system, which provides Islamic education. These institutions have their own management system without interference from the provincial or federal governments. However, grants-in-aid are provided to these institutions by the government. During 2000 there were 6761 religious institutions with an enrollment of 934,000, of which 132,000 were female students in 448 institutions (Khan, 2002). Efforts have been made by the present government to bring the Madrassah in the mainstream under Education Sector Reforms. The main purpose of conventionalizing Madrassah is to enlarge employment opportunities for their graduates. Pakistan Madrassah Education Boards are established to regulate the Madaris activities

There also exist a different and parallel system of education at parallel grade levels in Pakistan which are not maintained by the BISE but by CIE and Edexcel International London Examinations for O' Level and A' Level . Other qualifications include 'International General Certificate of Secondary Education' or IGCSE which replaces SSC. GCE O Level, IGCSE and GCE AS/A Level are managed by British examination boards of 'Cambridge Assessment' or CIE of the company of 'University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate' or UCLES. These qualifications are coming to be more respected socially and in terms of job employment. . 'Advanced Placement' or AP is an alternative option but much less common than GCE or IGCSE. This replaces the secondary school education as 'High School Education' instead. AP exams are also monitored by a North American Examination Board, 'College Board' and can only be given under supervision of centers which are registered with the College Board, unlike GCE O/AS/A Level and IGCSE which can be given privately. (Secondary Education, 2010). Some private elite schools follow these alternative systems only. Yet other private schools go for both the Cambridge and government systems. They select 'bright' students whose parents can afford to pay for Cambridge system, while, others are asked to go for Matric system. Both systems are poles apart in terms of syllabi, choices of subjects from any discipline, conduct of exams, style and type of papers, reliability and credibility (Naqvi, 2002).

In terms of education, creativity is an essential element which is necessary for learning (Isaksen & Murdock, 1993). Starko (1995) suggests that learning is a creative process that involves students making information relevant, by linking previous knowledge and new knowledge, in an individually meaningful format. She attributes this meaningfulness to the individual's creativity. Unfortunately, most school environments do not support, and many actively suppress, creative expression. Torrance and Safter (1986), for instance, assert that teachers are often not properly prepared to develop, support, or evaluate creativity in their students. In addition, much theory and research shows that creative students often lose their creative potential (Shaughnessy, 1991). If education strives to prepare children for a productive life in society, the educational system must accept responsibility for supporting and developing creativity (Cole, Sugioka & Lynch, 1999).

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Due to the socio-cultural norms and authoritarian attitudes of parents, teachers and elders in Pakistan, children in general are emotionally and psychologically suppressed. They are expected to be passive and blindly obedient which leads to a lack of confidence in them. School culture loads them with lots of homework and poor quality of teaching forces them to take private tuition in addition to formal schooling. Learning, especially in government schools, is mostly curriculum based and teacher-centered. Children tend to do better in subjects requiring rote memory but do poorly on basic comprehension and understanding. Moreover, the concepts in textbooks are often at a much higher level than the cognitive level of the children for which the books have been written, leaving pupils no choice but to rote-learn them (Hayes, 1987; National Education Policy, 1992; Report on National Textbook Conference, 1994; Warwick and Reimers, 1995; Farooq, 1996).

According to Rogers (1993), people allow themselves to be guided by their expectations, considering these to be a highly reliable source from which one can attribute meaning to one's experiences. Rogers also determined how a teachers' interest in their work increases and in subsequence, how interest in their students improves, bettering the preparation of their lessons, when dealing with pupils who have a greater capacity to learn. The relevance of teachers' expectations with respect to the behavior of their pupils is particularly significant when referring to childhood stages in education, as this is when the child can be most easily influenced and is excessively dependent on the attitude and approval of their teachers. In this respect, Rogers (1993) found that the younger the pupil is, the more susceptible they are to the influence of a teacher's behavior towards them.

Rogers (1993) states that there are two basic conditions which are necessary to promote the development of creativity: first is the psychological safety of pupil which refers to three aspects, a) Unconditional acceptance of pupils, b) Authenticity, c) Empathetic understanding. Second is their psychological freedom; this refers to the liberty of the pupils to express themselves, feel and think; a freedom which involves responsibility and encourages the development of a focus of internal evaluation.

Likewise for Menchen (1999), the creative dimension is one of the most relevant factors in Childhood Education, as he considers that it synthesizes all dimensions and expresses the aspiration to develop well-rounded individuals.

Similarly Madrid (2003) has stated that the brain has the faculty to adapt flexibly to environmental circumstances and to respond to the demands of our surroundings. For this reason it is fundamental to develop this capacity in order to be able to respond to change. It is necessary to develop the critical qualities of the human mind, and this capacity therefore needs to be worked on, mainly during the Childhood stage in education, when cerebral plasticity is at its highest (Castaño, 2002; Monville, 2001; Retana, Acevedo, Lef, Arias and Salazar, 2004). For Madrid, the Childhood stage in Education shows great potential in prolonging creative spontaneity of the child to the full, so that a rich source of creative knowledge is acquired, which will be the basis of creative capacity.

There are four main theories of creativity: the psychoanalytic tradition (including Freud's discussion of creativity as the sublimation of drives and Winnicott's work on development which makes creativity central and intrinsic to human nature), the cognitive tradition (stemming from Galton's work and including Mednick's exploration of the associative process and Guilford's exploration of divergent production of ideas and products), the behaviorist tradition (including Skinner's discussion of chance mutation in the repertoire of Behaviors), the humanistic tradition (including Rogers, May and Maslow whose discussions focused on the self-realizing person acting in harmony with their inner needs and potentialities)(Craft, 2003).

Some educational programs contain behaviorist assumptions within them (Rhyammer & Brolin, 1999). Broadly speaking, behaviorists place emphasis on the importance of the environment in influencing the behavior of the individual. Behaviorist assume that creativity is learned and that it can be fostered through stimulus, reinforcement and response and that individuals learn to be creative at different rates, although all can be taught, to become more creative by this method. There have been some studies which support the idea that behavior which is encouraged and rewarded will persist (Rhyammer & Brolin, 1999).

Certain approaches to education may possibly foster greater creativity than others. For example, some have claimed that Montessori education (Dantus, 1999, Cane, 1999) is particularly effective in fostering life-long creative skills. These writers suggest that self-expression which is encouraged in Montessori education, holds the key to enabling individual agency and on a larger scale recovering human authenticity and a new approach to creativity which seeks a less technologically dominated world.

A study compared the development of music creativity among elementary school students (Kiehn, 2007), which indicated that music creativity growth stage exists from Grade 2 to 4, followed by a developmental leveling between Grade 4 and Grade 6 .A significant grade-level difference emerged for music creativity scores, with Grade 2 students scoring significantly lower than Grade 4 and 6 students. There also were significant gender differences for music creativity test scores, with boys scoring higher than girls.

Experts (Baer, 1996; Prieto, Ferrando, Ferrándiz, Bermejo & Sánchez. 2006; Strom & Strom 2002) have considered childhood education as the most important stage in the life of an individual to stimulate and bring out his/her creative capacity. Various longitudinal studies, like those of Nickerson (1999) and Plucker and Renzulli (1999), have highlighted the fact that, implanting creativity in the period of childhood education, has a great influence on creativity levels that will become apparent at levels of higher educational. For this reason, it is of utmost importance for teachers to create a positive learning environment. This environment should encourage and motivate the child to learn and to make sense of what he/she is learning as well as to overcome obstacles and to develop his/her full potential and capabilities.

Between the ages of about ten and fifteen years old students become aware to the physiological and emotional changes of adolescence. At the same time, they become aware of the wider social environment and their place within it. They look for adult role models to help them in managing identity issues which are developing at that time. Learning experiences need to help them to make sense of changes, and to find personally satisfying methods of managing and evaluating the worth of vast amounts of information available through technology. Middle and secondary school needs its own identity and focused curricula to channel the vitality of adolescent years and to give students confidence that appropriate risk-taking, creativity, the challenging of both authoritative voices of the past and the messages embedded in their own culture, can provide them with important strategies for learning in senior school and throughout life To achieve these complex educational outcomes, at a time when students' personal agendas are very compelling, requires teachers committed (Arnold, 2000).

Evidence shows that, when a child feels accepted and respected, they progressively develop the ability to express feelings, emotions and thoughts, and feel confident to create and develop a free, flexible and open line of thought that leads to knowledge, experimentation and discovery (Collins & Amabile, 1999; Cropley, 1992).

Balke (1997) suggests that, play is essential in the development of creativity in early childhood and primary education. The association of play with creative development can be misleading although some play may be creative. Play is necessary to creativity, but not all play is necessarily creative (Craft 2003). For example, snakes and ladders is not creative whereas hide and seek or other dramatic play may be. Hence in the early years, early learning goal 'creative development' which incorporates play may be slightly misleading in that not all play is creative.

Researchers should not trap themselves by looking only at the poles or extremities of creativity (Gruber, Terrell, and Wertheimer, 1990). Instead they should look at varying degrees of creativity i.e., everyday creativity in order to understand the entire concept. The studies on the dimensions of creativity have been recently compared to other factors of the intellect, so creativity is not as clearly defined. Due to this, the variables which influence creative development have also not been sharply identified.

A research examines the extent to which the level of creativity and different components of creativity predicts intelligence in the undergraduate students of 6 Malaysian universities (Naderi & Abdullah, 2010). The components include Environmental sensitivity; Initiative, Intellectuality, Self-strength, Individuality and Artistry among undergraduate students predict intelligence. This study implies that creativity is important factors that influence the intelligence of students.

The conception of creativity is frequently related to intelligence (Furnham & Bachtiar, 2008). In a study (Furnham & Bachtiar, 2008), intelligence [as measured by the Wonderlic Personnel Test (WPT) [1] ] was not correlated with any of the creativity [as measured by the Divergent Thinking (DT), Biographical Inventory of Creative Behaviours (BICB) [2] , Self-Rating of creativity (SR), Barron-Welsh Art Scale (BWAS) [3] ].

A study done by Salhberg (2010) reveals that all national education systems in UK are based on two underlying models, one is an economic model and other is intellectual model. The economic model of education is industrialism that views education as the production of knowledge and skills for predetermined purposes and markets (Robinson, 2009).Teaching and learning is guided by the principles of efficiency and rationalism and therefore are programmed by a predetermined schedule. The logic of the economic model of education is based on a belief in competition and information as the key drivers of educational improvement .The intellectual model, in turn, views intelligence mainly as an academic ability that is dominated by memory and rote academic skills rather than by broader intellectual, interpersonal or creative processes. This model assumes that intelligence can and should be measured to determine individuals' educational progress (Sahlberg, 2010).

An important factor in the development of creativity is teacher's expectations and motivation, which plays a vital role in uprising creativity in students. Santrock (2003) has established that is it necessary for teachers to rely on a child's natural curiosity to prevent the deterioration of creative capacity. To do this, teachers should provide pupils with exercises and activities that will motivate them to find perceptive solutions to problems, allowing the children to choose their own areas of interest, which will in turn their decisions.

A study assesses the effects that teachers' positive expectations had on their student's verbal creativity (Justo, 2008). In this study the researcher had worked with an experimental teacher who holds high expectations of the creativity of students, and a control teacher, where this was not the case and who's positive, favorable expectations of pupils were not high. The statistical analyses carried out shows a significant increase in the verbal creativity variables evaluated (fluency, flexibility and originality) in the experimental group in comparison to the scores of the control group.

Csikszentmihalyi (1996) also pointed out that the provision of a congenial environment by teachers and parents is of great importance to students' learning, and that the environment should not be built for the cultivation of highly creative geniuses but rather to allow every individual leaner to generate some ideas. In other words, in this new era of creative teaching, teachers too must adjust their knowledge and attitude toward teaching (Cropley, 2001).

Morganett (1995) provides five examples of personal experiences, which can be used to enhance the teacher-student relationship in the classroom, especially in a creative environment. First, at the beginning or end of class, ask students about current events, magazine or newspaper articles, or personal events that could be tied into the class discussion. Second, use work time during class to talk with students individually about their assignment or even personal matters. During this time, Morganett (1995) suggests that giving at least one positive comment during the interaction will promote positive teacher-student relations. Third, take the opportunity to wish the class or individual students a good week (at the beginning of the week) or a good weekend (at the end). Fourth, take advantage of any irregulars in the time schedule to talk with students about their interests and activities, while sharing some of yours. Fifth, use discussions or short presentations for students to talk about topics decided by the class, hobbies, or other interesting experiences and life goals.

Another important factor in developing of creativity is the school curriculum (Seltzer & Bentley, 1999). Creativity is relevant across the curriculum and is not subject-specific, although it is manifest distinctly in different subjects. Although creativity is often associated with the creative and performing arts, but opportunities for developing learner creativity exist across the curriculum. Mathematics, and ICT [4] , for example, both provide distinct kinds of opportunities for learner creativity and each involves different strategies to maximize this (Craft, 2001). It could be argued that the way in which the curriculum is presented and organized within the time available in a school day may offer greater or fewer opportunities for fostering learner and teacher creativity. As it might be argued that where the curriculum is taught as discrete subjects, this may constrain learner and teacher creativity, in discouraging thinking about themes which cross the subject boundaries (Craft, 2001).

Creativity can be learned' and the school curriculum should be restructured 'to reflect forms of learning which develop creative ability' (Seltzer & Bentley, 1999). Seltzer and Bentley (1999) establish the following fundamental characteristics, which are inherent in education centers that encourage creativity among pupils. Relationships based on safety and trusts are essential in an environment where people feel prepared to confront risks and to learn from failure (trust) and when pupils are allowed to make their own decisions with regard to what they wish to do and how they intend to do it, will a creative application of knowledge and ability become possible (Freedom of action).

A study with the purpose of identifying characteristics comprising a supportive environment for creativity in a college classroom was framed by (Cole & Sugioka, 1999). The classroom activities also represented another important element of this supportive environment. These activities were designed in ways that challenged students' current perception of creativity as a 'one moment' in time expression and changed these perceptions to view creativity as a process that can be cultivated and developed within the context of the classroom. School systems and more specifically, college classrooms often overlook the impact of creativity on the process of learning, and only recognize creativity when it is framed in an extreme example (e.g., a student who is gifted in writing poetry).

Study done by Dehaan (2009) suggests that instruction to support the development of creativity requires inquiry-based teaching that includes clear strategies to promote cognitive flexibility. Students need to be repeatedly reminded and shown how to be creative, to integrate material across subject areas, to question their own assumptions, and to imagine other viewpoints and possibilities.

According to British teachers, creativity could be fostered by: building confidence, having a creative teacher, enjoying some free choice at home, having an involved and supportive family, and enabling pupils to have some degree of choice over learning methods (Fryer & Collings, 1991). The global climate of a school, such as the socioeconomic level and classroom differences within the same socioeconomic level schools significantly influenced students' performance (Dudek, Strobel & Runco, 1993).

Shapiro (1993) suggests that the proper selection of classroom activities can create a positive classroom climate in which values can be shared and challenged, expectations revealed and discussed, and students can have the opportunity to take leadership roles in the class. In this type of classroom setting, students are more apt to take risks and share their creative ideas. In supporting creativity through classroom activities, teachers need to address common misconceptions about creativity and teach creative processes and methods of enhancing students' creative expression. Creativity in education has been hindered by a common misconception of creativity as mysterious (undefined), magical (only certain people have the "gift"), madness (to be creative you have to be strange or abnormal) (Isaksen, 1991), and even a one-step process consisting of a "eureka" moment (Wright, 1990). These beliefs have hindered the teaching of creativity. Despite these misconceptions of creativity, teachers can create a supportive environment for creativity by encouraging students to see creativity as a learned process, which can be attained through effort and practice (Wright, 1990).

School system has a huge impact on the creativity of the children. Renuka Sharma (2004) in her study compared emotional intelligence and creativity of students in three types of schools: Gurukuls, Public schools and Govt. schools. Overall comparison of students of three types of schools in terms of their performance on verbal measures of creative thinking suggests that Public School students have scored significantly high on all the measures of creativity i.e.,

fluency, flexibility, originality, and elaboration than the students of Gurukuls, and Govt. schools. It suggests that Public Schools tend to provide more stimulating and prompting environment for the cultivation and enhancement of divergent thinking capacities among their students than Gurukuls, and Govt. schools. Govt. and Gurukul students have not found to be significantly different from each other in terms of their performance on creativity tests. It implies that both the Gurukuls and Govt. schools do not tend to provide contributory environment for the cultivation of creative thoughts among their students.

Keeping the above literature in mind the rationale behind this investigation is to understand and assess the creativity level in the Government and British School System. The school system has an immense influence on a child's creative expression, as it may either stimulate or inhibit it. Although there is wealth of work done on creativity, education systems independently but no studies are available examining the creativity level with reference to school systems specifically British and government schools in Pakistan. Moreover, the study will also enable the readers to understand that whether creativity is something which can be learnt or is it intuitive ability of a student. As this study deals with the students of age group between 14 and 16 years i.e. age bracket in which students learn maximum, thus making this study an effective way to gauge the maximum effect of both school systems. Simultaneously, this study will also draw a comparison between both school systems' ability to impart creativity, with the help of 'Creative Behavior Inventory', thus providing a comprehensive guideline for parents to select a suitable School System for their children.

Hypothesis

Level of creativity is higher in students of British school system as compared to government school system in secondary students.

Discussion

The present study examined and assessed the creativity level of Government and British School Systems in the students of 9th and 10th grade. The hypothesis of the study was that the creativity level of students of British School System is higher then that of Government school system.

To prove the hypothesis sixty students, both boys and girls, were selected from six different schools of Rawalpindi and Islamabad. The students were taken from Olevels and Matric. Hobbies were assessed on the basis of indoor, out door activities, and both. Indoor activities include listening to music, reading, net surfing, singing, writing, cooking, painting, dancing, gaming, texting, stitching, car collection, coin collection, playing guitar, mehndi application, drawing, etc, where as outdoor activities included gardening and all the sports activities which includes playing football, swimming, playing cricket etc. Those students who had both the indoor and out door hobbies were placed in the both indoor and out door activities category. Majority of the students from British Schools System participated in the extra curricular activities and most of them participated for more then two times (Table 2).

The results indicate a significant difference between the two School Systems i.e. British and Government School System (Table 3, 4). The result on the creative behavior inventory demonstrates that creative behavior of the British Schools participant is high compared to Government School participants and these results are highly significant (Table 3). It proves the hypothesis that creativity level of British School students is higher than Government School students. A very high difference in the creativity level is seen in performing art which includes items like choreographed a dance, received an award for acting etc. The difference is also high for music, science and mathematics category (t = 4.62 & t = 3.89 respectively).

These prominent differences are due to fewer amounts of opportunities provided for music, performing art, and science and mathematic. These results favors Santrock (2003) conclusion that teachers should provide pupil with exercise that will motivate them towards finding a solution to their problems, where as, these activities in Government schools are considered to be wastage of time. A little difference is also seen in arts (painted an original picture, etc.) and non-scalable (entered a speech contest, took and developed your own photographs etc.) category. British school students have performed high in these categories too. Although opportunities for arts and speech etc are provided by the Government School too but in many of them teachers have autonomy in their own classrooms to decide how teaching and learning is arranged. Curricula, textbooks and educational guidelines normally specify the content and schedule for teaching but methodology is, very often, up to a teacher to decide. The teachers hence focus on the academic achievement of the students neglecting there creative potencies. It is incorporated in the mind of the Government student, by their teachers, that participating in these activities will have a negative effect on their grades. The need for change in school curriculum is required to develop creative ability which is also proved by seltzer & Bentley (1999).An impressive difference is seen in the craft category in which government students have scored more then British School students.

The result on the creative cognitive inventory reveals that government students have greater potential of creativity provided they are given suitable incentives. British school system provides the opportunities for its students to express creativity, where else Government school students do not get the opportunities to express their creativity, so the behavior manifestation of creativity is low in them compared to British school students, for instance, Roots School System provides the student with special classes for creative writing, arts, music, dramatics etc. It also has special clubs including dance club, drama club, writers club, art and craft work shops but none of government schools have these activities separately for the purpose of incorporating and utilizing creativity in their students, leaving it unexpressed. This result favors the study of Csikszentmihalyi (1996) that provision of suitable environment by teachers should be provided in order to every individual to generate some creative idea. Government School does not provide a platform for the manifestation of these creativity expressions Government schools remain fixed to their curriculum. Standardizing teaching and learning through fixed teaching schemes and preset learning outcomes is, however, the worst enemy of creativity which is apparent in government schools. There are a number of examples how standardization negatively affects schools and teaching (Sacks, 2000). When teachers teach by following externally set teaching standards and aim at narrow academic student achievement, they tend not to take risks, not to try new ways to teach and, not to be more creative.

Creativite behavior is learned (Rhyammer & Brolin, 1999) and this is proved by the hypothesis, as British School students showed a higher score in creative behavior compared to government school students. Results revealed are same as concluded by Rhyammer & Brolin (1999) who suggested that level of creativity is influenced by the environment. If the environment is supportive, encouraging, more stimulating and reinforcing, creativity could be fostered in the students. The process of reinforcement is also illustrated in the study of Marganett (1995) who says one positive comment by teacher can enhance creative environment for students and can also enhance the teacher student relationship.

The results reveal that Cambridge or the British school students participate more in extracurricular activities related to literary, i.e. speech competitions, mathematic competitions, spellathon, reading competitions, etc and performing arts i.e. dramatics, singing competitions, art and craft competitions, etc. unlike Government school students. The reason for this difference is that the above mentioned competitions are completely absent in the Government schools. It could also been from the above results that one category i.e., sport in which not much difference is seen but even then a little difference is there.

T-test was applied to see the gender difference in the data. It was seen that the performance of girls was higher compared to that of boys in over all creative behavior, although this difference is not very significant (t =1.58, p = .12). A possible reason for this could be that all these activities like literature, craft, art etc. are all indoor activities and girls mostly like indoor activities unlike boys. Boys on the other hand are careless and do not bother to participate any activity which requires extra time. They mostly stick to sports and gaming like PS2 or X-box [5] etc. There is only one category, i.e. music, on which boys have scored high as boys are more interested in music compared to girls. This is also proved by Keihn, 1999 in his study that boy's performance in music creativity is higher then girls.

The gender difference is not very obvious in creative cognition. The creative cognition of girls is a little higher than boys (t = 1.41, p = .16), which proves that boys have equal creative capabilities. If only boys put these capabilities to use they can be equally creative in behavior like girls.

From the above study it is concluded that studying in Cambridge school can inculcate and encourage better creative potentials. Creativity is an essential life skill, which needs to be foster by the education system, as this is an era of competition and academic studies are not enough in order to excel now. Hence British schools or the Cambridge schools is actually a place that promotes creativity through arts, music, play and problem solving in various parts of curriculum and thus advances it rather than extinguishes it.

The above study is beneficial for Education policies maker in order to develop appropriate methods, activities and provide opportunities for students rather then just raising standards, extending time for learning or having more computers in schools. It is necessary for the progress of the new educational system to bid farewell to the medieval mode of learning. The times have gone when prescribed text books were expected to be committed to memory and poured out during the test. Now only that education system can succeed which draws out the creative potential of the student, regardless of the fact whether he belongs to an English medium school or an Urdu medium school, for creativity comes as naturally to the average student as it comes to the clever and brilliant one. Therefore it is the responsibility of the teacher to engage the development of the original and innovative ideas among the pupils as their motivation can bring out the creative potentials of the students (Iqbal, 2007). The educationist can work on changing the culture of schools. Sarason (1990) in his study predicts that most educational reforms will fail unless the culture of the school will become the locus of change. It is time for the educationist, policy makers and parents to take step in order to get out of the orthodox view of education and follow the more contemporary trends.

The present study has a few limitations that must be taken into consideration. First the sample size was very small so the results could not be generalized. Second limitation was faced on the basis of time constrain. Another limitation was on the basis of limited financial resource. Problem was also faced on the basis of permissions in different government schools of Islamabad. Principals of the government school there were not very cooperative. The study neither included private schools nor village schools near Rawalpindi / Islamabad.

On the basis of present study it is suggested that the sample size in future studies may be increased for better results. Private schools which just provide matriculation and not O-levels may also be included in further researches or they may be separately compared with either Cambridge or Government School System. Further researches may also focus on gender differences in the creativity level. Studies may be done to find out the creative potentials of the teachers of Cambridge and Government School Systems. Moreover, researches may be done on the techniques which if fostered by the school systems in order to enhance creativity in their students, specifically government schools. Furthermore the questionnaires could also be administered in Urdu in the future studies.