The focus of this study is to identify the factors contributing to acceptance and usage of online to study among e-PJJ student in UiTM Shah Alam. It is to find out whether the factors come from the students or the technology itself. The researchers used Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to study the behavior of the students toward e-learning and Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) to study the e-learning technology.
2.2 Definition of E-Learning
Malaysia has been transforming into a global leader in IT development and application by mixing technology in learning which had bring tremendous effects on the levels of education. Education is one of the most critical and crucial tools that drive our transformation from middle income to high income nation due to its impact on productivity and human capital development. Nowadays, teaching and learning using technology has brought a great impact towards the improvement of the systems and levels of education in Malaysia. Time and space no longer a problem and provides its own advantages.
Malaysia is trying to adapt and adopt with the changes in the education systems that occur just to meet with the developed countries like Unites States of America, Europe, Japan and Singapore. Distance Learning or also known as E-Learning as defined by Muhammad Rais Abdul Karim et.al in their article The Experience of The E-Learning Implementation at the Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Malaysia at page 50 as a network or online learning that takes place in a formal context and uses a range of multimedia technologies (Garisson and Anderson, 2003). Nowadays, more and more adults are going back to school just to get side by side with the youngsters in academic quest. These adults are picking up what they had left off from schools years ago just to hunt for suitable jobs that meet suitable requirement.
The use of technology in education has facilitated many changes in Malaysia especially in education systems. One of the way how Malaysia had transformed in education is how education itself been delivered in the simplest and fastest way. Today's learning environments have the technological means which alter the styles of learning systems from traditional type of classroom environment to blended learning type of classroom environment. One of the most popular alternatives for them to continue learning is through the distance education programmed that had been offered by both the public and also the private universities. Distance education can be briefly explain as a separation of teachers and students and technology acted as medium for interaction of learning among them.
In Malaysia, E-Learning has been introduced to the students who are undergoing open and distance learning programmes. This type of education systems had been widely accepted as a means for higher education to provide broader access and to achieve cost efficiencies while maintaining quality programs. According to Hazri Jamil et al in the journal of Teacher Professional Development in Malaysia: Issues and Challenges page 85 stated that, educational systems around the world have been experiencing changes and reforms. Stepping into the millennium, many societies around the world are engaging with the serious and promising educational reforms.
According to Mohd Taha Ijab et.al in journal Teaching and Learning of E-Commerce Courses Via Hybrid E-Learning Model in UNITAR page 82 stated that, Universiti Tun Abdul Razak were the first E- Learning University in Malaysia. It has been introduced in September 1998 which offers a hybrid model that combines three important components. These three components are interactive, multimedia content on CDs and on the Web, face to face meeting and internet based support systems that provide continuous interaction between the students and the faculty. There are only two under graduate programmes that had been introduced and they are the Bachelor of Business Administration (BBA) and Bachelor of Information Technology (BIT). Those who were registering this E-Learning are basically from working individuals who have either failed to get a place in other universities or who have had some post-secondary qualification and are intended to improve themselves.
Distance learning program was offered by the university with the aim of providing opportunities for the working population in Malaysia to further their studies. All students who enrolled in InED's e-PJJ program are working adults and have at least a year of working experiences. One of the universities that had been adopting this distance learning is by UiTM itself. UiTM had done this distance learning through blended learning. Students were supplied with self-instructional materials or study guide to help them with their learning. The face to face meeting that is known as seminar only permits the course facilitator to conduct discussion with their students.
All universities have their aims and objectives which to educates their students and that includes UiTM. UiTM objectives is to make sure that their students will turn out to be some one that is professionals with high calibre who will be independent, with morally upright in competing with others. In order for UiTM students to compete with those people who are out there, they need to know and have the skills and knowledge of ICT. ICT should be at their fingertips. Nowadays computers have invaded almost every aspect of our lives.
Besides that, in the information era nowadays ICT is like the foundation for all of our needs. According to Rugayah Hashim et.al in the journal ANTECENDENTS OF ICT ATTITUDES OF DISTANCE EDUCATION STUDENTS stated that, preparation for today's world of technology requires students to find and use information more rapidly (Waterhouse, 2005). Lifelong learning is also an important factor for career achievement. To facilitate accomplish educational goal, educators have the accountability to prepare students for tomorrow's changing point in education. Information Communication Technology (ICT) has a central role in maintaining the quality of higher education in Malaysia. It will also be the basis for the competitive advantage of the universities. According to Raja Maznah Raja Hussain, the IT agendas were initially driven by technological and scientific forces and innovations as well as the supply and demands (Bajunid, 2002). Formal and informal education programs are being offered by using E- Learning approach.
However, there are few challenges that need to be faced by the adult students, the faculty itself, and advisors because they have and need to transform from the traditional face to face education environment to these kind of high tech environment. These kind of environment are not that familiar to most of the adults which requiring some skills with the computers. Their ability to adapt and adopt to the new learning environment and its challenges is crucial to ensure their success in completing their programs.
2.3 Theory of Planned Behavior
Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) is widely studied social psychological theory of human behavior (Klobas and Renzi, 2008). TPB is an extension of Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA). TPB emerged as the original theory (TRA), had limitation in dealing with behavior that is not under control (Ajzen, 1991). That is the reason why TPB is developed as not all behavior totally voluntary and under control. TRA only focus on the behavior that is under control. TPB is very similar like TRA but it takes additional construct which is perceived behavior control (Chuttur, 2009). Perceived behavior control is the individual's perception of the extent to which performance of the behavior is easy or difficult (Ajzen, 1991). The TRA and the TPB have been used widely to predict and explain behavioral intentions and actual behaviors (Millar and Shevlin, 2003). Ajzen proposed the TPB in where the individual's behavior is best predicted by his/her intentions. He stated that intentions are predicted by attitudes about the behavior, the subjective norms which is the individual's perception of others belief that the behavior should be performed or not and the individual's perception of their control over the behavior (Cameron et al, 2012). Ajzen's TPB has been used to predict many different behaviors. Barnett and Presley also said that a person's performance of a particular behavior is determined by his/her behavioral intention to perform the behavior. Attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioral control are the elements that need to be studied as these three are determinants of individual intention to perform such behavior. Intention will lead to behavior to perform such action. The combination of attitude, subjective norm and also perceived behavioral control leads to formation of behavioral intentions. According to Ajzen and Fishbein (2005), behavioral intentions are thought to result from beliefs about performing the behavior which consist of behavioral belief, normative belief and control beliefs. These beliefs can be influenced of various background factors for instances personal factors such as personality, self esteem, emotions, and demographics factors such as gender, education, age, as well as environment factors such as stress and ICT exposures (Dixon and Siragusa, 2008).
In this research, TPB will be used to study the students' behavior on e-learning and contributing factor to the acceptance and use online to study. TPB is one of the several models that have been used to predict user acceptance and intention to use information system (Barnett and Presley, 2008). According to Korpelainen in her research, TPB is one of the most cited theories in ICT system implementation and adoption. The development of the TPB led researchers to consider the use of the TPB for predicting people's behavior towards technology use. According to Siragusa and Dixon, the TPB suggests that intentions to engage and interact with a particular program or software element is influenced by attitudes towards using ICT, perceived social pressure to do so and by perceptions of control over the interaction.
2.3.1 Attitude and Behavioral Belief
Attitude toward the behavior and refers to person's evaluation of the behavior. The person's might have favorable or unfavorable evaluation of the behavior (Ajzen, 1991). According to Ajzen and Fishbein's expectancy-value model of attitude, attitude is formed and developed from the beliefs people hold about the object of the attitude. Barnett and Presley also stated that attitude of a person is influenced by his/ her behavioral beliefs. Ajzen stated in this theory, the more favorable the attitude towards behavior; the stronger should be an individual's intention to perform the behavior. People tend to form favorable attitudes toward behaviors that they believe have desirable consequences and form unfavorable attitudes toward behaviors that associate with largely undesirable consequences. "Droba (1993) described an attitude as mental disposition of the human individual to act for or against a specific object". According to Rhodes and Courneya, attitudes are the overall evaluation made by individual to perform specific behavior. Ajzen (2000) stated that attitude consist of two subcomponents, which are affective (eg:enjoyable/unenjoyable) and also instrumental (eg:beneficial/harmful). In this research, attitude of the students towards electronic learning could be the contributing factors to use online learning to study. It is considered as internal factors, which come from the individual itself. "Awareness of user attitudes toward computers is a critical factor in enhancing the acceptance of computers as well as understanding current user behavior and shaping future behavior, such as computer usage." (Al-Jabri and Al-Khaldi, 1997). The attitude of the students towards e-learning could be influenced by their belief about this mode of studies. If they believe that e-learning benefited them, they tend to have favorable attitude towards online learning which will influenced their intention to use it to study. Besides, the students' confident level towards e-learning could be the factor of their attitude. According to Kurt and Hamburger, students with high self-esteem tended to express positive attitudes toward e-learning and prefer the online mode of learning, while students with low self-esteem tended to express negative attitudes.
2.3.2 Subjective Norms and Normative Belief
Subjective norms consist of a person's beliefs about whether other important people think he or she should engage in the behavior (Conner and Armitage, 1998). These important people refer to the people that will be affected with that particular person's behavior. According to Ajzen, subjective norms represent "the perceived social pressure to perform or not to perform the behavior". From this definition, it can be seen subjective norms assess the social pressure on a person to perform a behavior or not to perform it. Subjective norm consist of two components which are injunctive (e.g: whether one believes their social network wants them to perform the behavior) and also descriptive component (eg: whether one's social network performs a behavior, Ajzen, 2000) (Rhodes and Courneya, 2010).
"Normative beliefs are concerned with the likelihood that important referent individuals or groups approve or disapprove of performing a given behavior" (Ajzen, 1991, pp195). These normative beliefs were multiplied by motivation to comply with the referent, how much the person bother whether the referent approved or disapproved. Bernett and Presley said that subjective norms are determined by perceived expectation of significant others multiplied by his or her motivation to comply with these expectations. Motivation to comply is the degree, to which the person needs to comply with the desires of the referent (Conner and Armitage, 1998).
In this research, the e-PJJ students might consider their families, employers or lecturers thoughts that they should engage in e-learning and use it to study or not. These significant people will affect the students' intention to use online learning to study. The students will be motivated to perform the behavior which is to use online learning to study if those important people approved and encourage them to do so. According to Knowles and Kerkman (2007), external motivation for college students could be continuing eligibility for scholarships, loans, or promotions at work which might be the contributing factors to accept e-learning and use it to study. Intratat also stated that external motivation is influenced by external environmental factors such as rewards, social pressure, punishment, maintaining identity, and group acceptance.
2.3.3 Perceived Behavioral Control and Control Beliefs
Perceived Behavioral Control (PBC) is the individual's perception of the ease or difficulty to perform the behavior (Ajzen, 1991). PBC could influence the intention and also the behavior of an individual. PBC is more important in influencing a person's behavioral intention when the behavior is not totally under volitional control (Conner and Armitage, 1998; Chiou, 1998). According to Scialdone and Zhang, perceived behavioral control combined with behavioral intention is a predictor of behavior. PBC consists of two components (Ajzen, 1991; Taylor and Todd, 1995), which the first component is the availability of resources needed to engage in the behavior. It could be access to money, time, and other resources. The second component is the person's self-confidence in the ability to conduct the behavior (Chiou, 1998). Ajzen stated that present view of PBC is compatible with Bandura's concepts of self efficacy (1977, 1982). The research done by Bandura and his associate shows that people behavior is highly influenced by individual confidence in ability to perform it (Ajzen, 1991). According to Rhodes and Courneya, there are two components under PBC which are self efficacy (e.g.: ease/difficulty) and also controllability (e.g.: personal control over the behavior). It also known as perceived difficulty and perceived control (Kraf et al, 2005). According to Ajzen (2002b), the self-efficacy component of PBC deals with the ease or difficulty of performing a behavior, with individual confident that they could perform it if they want to. PBC are influenced by beliefs concerning whether one has access to the necessary resources and opportunities to perform the behavior successfully, weighted by the perceived power of each factor to facilitate or slow down behavior (Ajzen, 1988, 1991). The perception of factors probably to facilitate or slow down the performance of the behavior is referred to as control beliefs (Conner and Armitage, 2008). These factors consist of internal control factors (e.g., information, personal deficiencies, skills, abilities, and emotions) and external control factors (e.g., opportunities, dependence on others, barriers). Baraghani stated that control belief is the perception of the existence or absence of required resources such as time, money, skills, and cooperation of others to perform such behavior. Individual who perceive that they have access to the necessary resources and there are the opportunities or lack of obstacles to perform the behavior is likely to have a high level of PBC (Ajzen, 1991). This control belief might be based on past experiences with the behavior which could be influenced by other secondary information and also families' and friends' experience (Ajzen, 1991). In investigating factors contributing towards the acceptance and use on online to study, PBC could be the factor determining the students' intention to engage in e-learning. PBC would be a similar construct to Computer Self Efficacy (CSE) (Bagozzi et al., 1992). Self-efficacy is as a person's self assessment of his or her own capabilities about an action (Bandura, 1986). According to Schunk (2005), "self-regulated learners are more self-efficacious for learning than are students with poorer self-regulatory skills; the former believe that they can use their self-regulatory skills to help them learn" (p. 87). Baraghani (2008) said that PBC has motivational influenced for behavioral intentions. When a person believe that he/she has little control over performing behavior resulted from lack of resources and opportunities, his/her intention to perform the behavior may be low even if he/she has favorable attitudes and social pressure towards the behavior. According to Miller et al, PCB would be defined as whether or not an individual could use the online tools to successfully participate and engage in the course. In this research, the resources could be the knowledge to use online to study and also the online tools to study.
TPB hypothesized three determinants of intention (Ajzen, 1991). The first determinant is attitude, second determinant is subjective norms and last determinant is perceived behavioral control. Individual's intention to perform a specific behavior is the essential factor in TPB as well as TRA. The development of behavioral, normative and control beliefs influence the formation of an attitude towards the behavior, the subjective norm and PBC which then produces intention and the behavior itself (Siragusa and Dixon, 2008). Basically people will perform given behavior if they have intention to do it and vice versa. Ajzen assumed intention to capture the motivational factors that influence a behavior. The factors are indications of how hard people are willing to try, of how much of an effort they are planning to put in order to perform the behavior. Conner and Armitage also stated that intentions represent a person's motivation in the sense of her or his conscious plan or decision to exercise effort to carry out the behavior. In simpler words, the higher the intention to perform the behavior, the more likely the behavior will be performed by the person. In TPB, intention and PBC should interact in order to predict behavior. As for this research, the students' intention to accept and use of e-leaning will lead to the performance of the behavior (use online to study). There are several factors that could lead to intention to accept and use online to study that can be investigated through the three determinants of intention in TPB. It could be the attitude of the students, subjective norms to use e-learning, and also the students' control to use online learning and resources posses by the students such as time, money, etc. Liaw and Huang (2011) found that self-efficacy and motivation including enjoyment and usefulness are major predictors of learners' behavioral intention of using e-learning. Abdel-Wahab (2005) wrote on "modeling students' intention to adopt e-learning: a case from Egypt", and the results of the study suggested that the best predictors that can be used in modeling a student intention to adopt e-learning includes: attitudes towards e-learning, usefulness of e-learning, ease of e-learning use, pressure to use e-learning, and the availability or resources needed to use e-learning.
Behavior is performed when the person has strong intention to do it. Behavioral responses can be either expressions of behavioral intentions or evident (Ajzen, 2005). Behaviors may be defined as action performed by a person. According to Byrka, behavioral responses are expressions of an intention to perform or not to perform a certain behavior. This research use TPB to predict the behavior of the students towards e-learning. In this context, the behavior is the use of online to study. The determinants of intention will be identified and thus the factors contributing to use online to study among e-PJJ students can be determined at the end of this research. Active use of World Wide Web technologies is the behavior in one of pilot study of TPB in electronic learning done by Barnett and Presley (2008).
2.4 Technology Acceptance Model
In 1985, Fred Davis suggested the technology acceptance model (TAM). It examines the mediating role of perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness in their relation between systems characteristics (external variables) and the probability of system use (an indicator of system success). Davis proposed TAM to address why the users especially the EPJJ students accept or reject using internet in their studies. TAM is the adaption of the theory of reasoned action TRA that had been proposed by Fishbein and Ajzen to explain the behaviour of people in the specific situation. TAM has become so popular that it has been cited in most of the research that deals with the user acceptance towards the technology.
Today, this research on technology acceptance is still on going and thus an understanding of the assumptions, strengths and limitations of the Technology Acceptance Model is essential for everyone who is willing to study about the user acceptance towards the technology. Technology Acceptance Model introduced two new concepts and they are perceived usefulness which belief that using an application will increase one's performance and perceived ease of use is beliefs that one's use of an application will be free of effort. These both perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness are influenced by external variables. Therefore, we can predict users' willingness to accept technology based on their perception by using TAM model.
Basically the aim or objectives of TAM is to understand the impact of external variables on our beliefs, attitudes and intention. By using TAM we can recognize what are the significant factors that influenced user acceptance towards the usage of internet. One of the factors that had been discovered why consumers are reluctant to use internet is because of cost benefit patterns that the users must deals. According to Jen-Her Wu and Shu-Ching Wang in the journal What drives mobile commerce? An empirical evaluation of the revised technology acceptance model stated that, consumers must deals with non-negligible costs in switching between different brands of products or relative services in various markets (Chen and Hitt and Plouffe et al).
According to Fathi Elloumi in Value Chain Analysis: A Startegic Approach To Online Learning many of these institutions rushed to offer any conceivable course, and attempted to replicate the classroom experience online (Kilmurray, 2003) but most of them failed to deliver the real value that could earn a sustainable and profitable return from learners. By failing to follow appropriate business strategies, many online learning institutions reduced the likelihood that they could gain any competitive advantage. They failed to capitalize on the Internet's capacity to support convenience, service, high quality learning, customization, richness, and other features of value to learners.
Furthermore, frustrating experiences, such as slow connections, poor quality, out-of-date content, missing links, and errors have irritated the online users. Unfortunately, consumers must pay for all these frustrations. The users are unable to access the internet whenever they are in need. Consumers are the one who need to pay for all these frustrations. Consumers especially the EPJJ students should have the easy way to access portals anytime from anywhere. Because of that, traditional face- to-face learning systems are more favoured by the students in continuing their studies. Besides that, the EPJJ students also claimed that they appreciated the self-organized learning concept. They have to change their learning habits as they were mostly used to a traditional way of learning.
Besides that, the other reasons why EPJJ students are reluctant in using internet as their medium of learning are because of their own attitudes. These students were apprehensive and probably anxious towards the usage of ICTs. These students probably like to use ICT as their medium for learning but, they feels anxious and uncertain of what to do with certain features in customized software. These EPJJ students seems to needs time to adopt and adapt with the usage of internet since distance learning itself has been defined by Muhammad Rais Abdul Karim and Yusup Hashim in their article The Experience of The E-Learning Implementation at the Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Malaysia at page 50 as a network or online learning that takes place in a formal context and uses a range of multimedia technologies (Garisson and Anderson, 2003).These EPJJ students basically do not have proper and adequate training on the usage of their certain features in customized software that is required. These students were expected to do their own based on the instruction and manual that has been provided by that course.
Differences between genders also affected the attitude of these EPJJ students towards the usage of internet as their medium for learning. There are barriers between women with the access towards the usage of ICT. Although the internet is growing in Malaysia, but women are still under represented in almost every aspects of computer culture from programming to product design to everyday use compared to men. Access to the Internet or computer networking for women is contingent since they have little knowledge about hardware and software of a computer. The usage of sophisticated and trendy ICT has further marginalized the gap between the men and women in the usage of computers especially those EPJJ students that is already married which has limited access and not convenient since they have family commitment and also responsibility to focus on.
Next, age also play its role towards the factors contributing to acceptance and online learning usage among the EPJJ students. These EPJJ students are basically those at the age of 30 years and above and they must possess a minimum level of ICT skills to enable them to operate the features in the customized software. Without these skills, they will not be able to operate the systems for their purposes of learning and discussion and other activities that are required. All EPJJ students regardless of their age must have the necessary ICT skill and knowledge as to enable them to engage in e-learning. There will be difficulties for those older EPJJ students since they need to cop not only with their studies but also in the usage of ICT. The younger generations in Malaysia were fortunate since they had been exposed with the usage of ICT at an early age compared to their elders. They were already introduced with ICT at the primary school levels whereas the older generations were introduced to ICT later and mostly at their workplace. These older generations sees ICT as something that is new and unfamiliar especially with all the hardware and software.
EPJJ students also feel that the online methods of learning are one of the factors contributing towards the acceptance and the usage of online as a medium of learning among them. In general, the traditional learning method is paper-based, whereas the online learning medium is Web-based therefore, the type of content will play an important role for learners in the design of an online course. In the journal Extending the TAM model to explore the factors that affect Intention to Use an Online Learning Community page 601 stated that Online Course Design is a key factor in determining the success or failure of online learning (McGiven, 1994). These students needs time to adopt and adapt with these kind of web based learning which they are unfamiliar with. If they are unfamiliar with the software that they need to know, then it will leads to the implication that will affects learners' perceptions about the ease of use and usefulness of such courses.
In addition, the previous journal that had been cited quoted from Berge (1999) suggests the Online Course Design should be considered from the viewpoint of interaction between peers and instructors. Moreover Rovai (2004) also pointed out that the requirements of learners should be considered when designing an online curriculum so that they can cope with the changes that occurred in their learning systems. When users get greater satisfaction with an online curriculum for example it is interesting, diverse, not too hard, and meets the needs of users at different levels the stronger their feelings about its perceived usefulness will be. Besides that, when the system design is developed in a more user-friendly form, users will feel more comfortable and find the system easier to use.
INDEPENDENT VARIABLES (IV) DEPENDENT VARIABLE (DV)
2.5 Conceptual Framework
USE OF E-LEARNING TO STUDY
PERCEIVED EASE OF USE
PERCEIVED BEHAVIORAL CONTROL
FIGURE 2.1: The Conceptual Framework of Factors Contributing to Acceptance and Usage of Online/E-Learning to Study
Under TPB, it consists of independent variables which are attitude, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control that could influence the intention to use online learning to study. Since TPB is used to predict human behavior (Ajzen, 1991), we try to test the hypothesis from each independent variables to identify whether are there any significant association between these variables.
The first independent variable is attitude of the e-PJJ students. Attitude of a person is resulted from the person's belief and evaluation (Ajzen and Fishbein, 1980). Wangpipatwong (2008) in his research at Bangkok University stated that the intention of using e-learning in influenced by students attitude towards computer and their perception of e-learning. According to research done by Bertea (2009), data analysis revealed a positive attitude of students towards e-learning whereby the mean registered a value around 3.5 (measured from 1 to 5). Liaw (2004) also find out that there is a reliability of attitudes toward search engines as a learning tool was to be highly accepted.
(H1) There is a significant relationship between attitude and use of online to study among e-PJJ students
2.6.2 Subjective Norms
Subjective norms are one of the independent variables. Subjective norms refer to a person's beliefs about whether other important people think he or she should engage in the behavior (Conner and Armitage, 1998). According to Siragusa and Dixon, approximately one third (36%) of the respondent in their research perceived that people who are important to them think they should engage with ICT, while 60% thought that people important to them would approve of their engagement with ICT. Karahanna et al. 1999 in their research suggests a positive relationship between subjective norms and intended behavior.
(H2) There is a significant relationship between subjective norms and use of online to study among e-PJJ students
2.6.3 Perceived Behavioral Control
Other independent variable is Perceived Behavioral Control (PBC). PBC is referred to a person's perception of how easy or difficult it would be to perform a behavior (Ajzen 1991). It may include two components (Ajzen, 1991; Taylor and Todd, 1995) which are the availability of resources needed to engage in the behavior and access to money, time, and other resources, and also person's self-confidence in the ability to carry out the behavior. According to Yu and Yu, 2010, PCB remains important contributors in terms of explaining behavioral intentions as well as attitude and subjective norms. The results were consistent with previous studies (Morris and Venkatesh, 2000; Ndubisi, 2006; Shih, 2008; Sivo et al, 2007; Taylor andTodd, 1995; Venkatesh and Davis, 2000; Wiethoff, 2004). Fusilier and Durlabhji in their research found out that PBC and subjective norms were significantly and positively related to behavioral intention to use internet.
(H3) There is a significant relationship between perceived behavioral control and use of online to study among e-PJJ students
2.6.4 Perceived Ease of Use
(H0) There is no significant relationship between perceived ease of use and use of online to study among e-PJJ students
(H1) There is a significant relationship between perceived ease of use and use of online to study among e-PJJ students
2.6.5 Perceived Usefulness
(H0) There is no significant relationship between perceived usefulness and use of online to study among e-PJJ students
(H1) There is a significant relationship between perceived usefulness and use of online to study among e-PJJ students