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The basic demonstration to effectiveness of instruction relative to student achievement is if the students are able to do what they have been taught in the class. We can use multiple measures to ensure that we have a reliable demonstration of teacher effectiveness, because all measures provide a limited representation of teacher performance and are prone to error.
In a scheme to analyze the effectiveness of instruction, three types of confirmation can be analyzed and regarded in combination. This is a step by NCLB to ensure "highly qualified teachers" i.e. HQT for all students. The three types of confirmation are:
Performance based assessments of teaching: through well planned performance-based assessments of teaching features of teaching that are considerably linked to teacher effectiveness can be distinguished, as measured by student accomplishment gain.
Evaluation of successful teaching practice: to demonstrate effectiveness teaching practices can be assessed, that are linked with preferred student result and the accomplishment of school objective through organized compilation of proof regarding teacher planning and instruction, talks with parents and students or assistance to the school. These practices as well as the proof as to how these changes have influenced student participation and knowledge are documented.
Teacher contributions to student learning: through classroom assessments, documentations and valid tests many an analysis of student accomplishment can be made, which is used to demonstrate teacher effectiveness. This measure is affected by students' previous teachers and added factors.
(Anderson, 2004, pg.27)
Should educators teach to the standards from national groups such as national technology or content standards?
Content standards aim to promote the highest accomplishment of every student, defining knowledge, concepts and skills to be obtained at each level, assures a much better quality of instruction. Standards set up by the state or national groups are in available in many different formats and usually represent a specific content area, setting a broad guideline of what needs to be taught. Using national standards as tests specification limits innovation and educators tend to execute test defined curriculum rather than conceiving instructional activities according to their own students' learning. Customization should be incorporated with standardization, providing content for instruction and at the same time allowing flexibility.
In your state, do the state NCLB tests demonstrate student achievement towards content standards?
The no child left behind NCLB movement was taken up by California and some other states, observing the poor NAEP scores (National Assessment of Educational Progress). In California, as well as other states where NCLB has been implemented there can be seen a gradual but positive increase in students' achievement. Statistics indicate that after its implementation there have been improved tests scores, improvement over local standards which failed to provide oversight to special education and increased accountability through yearly standardized tests to decide if schools are living up to the standard. Also these tests offer attention to minority population eliminating racist and ethnic gaps by making focus on the academic achievement of low-income and racial and ethnic groups.
Through these tests there has been an overall improvement in the quality of education as it requires schools to improve their performance, and if they fail to meet the AYP for two or more years it has to offer its eligible students a chance to transfer to high performing schools.
How should teachers/educators be held accountable for student learning?
It has undoubtedly been proved that effective teachers play an active role in student learning and enables them to meet difficult standards. Therefore teachers should be held accountable to some level, though student is responsible for their own learning. Firstly to ensure the improvement of teacher quality appropriate qualification check, careful monitoring, teacher evaluation, support for initial teachers including initial license and system of certification and compensation should be developed.
Secondly, teachers should be held accountable at certain levels after being appointed. They should be accountable at the district level through standard-based assessments of students, at the national level to ensure that the teacher is capable and has gained the required knowledge, at the state level through licensing process with a provisional license period, compensation system, and through teacher evaluation.
How should administrators and managers evaluate the effectiveness of instruction for learner/student achievement relative to national standards?
The best way by which administrators evaluate effectiveness of instruction relative to national standards is through teacher assessment performance. A performance assessment for beginning teachers also helps to improve their practice.
(Chad and Charles, 2003)
If you are outside of the school system how learning should be measured in your organization?
Measure of effectiveness or instruction is also essential in other organizations outside the school system. A check and balance system should be in place with monitoring and qualifications verification and a system of standards and objectives should be set up for each department so that employees are accountable is standards are not met.
How can you measure the success of a training or presentation? What qualitative measures can be used?
We can measure the success of training through several ways. We can estimate the success by the student numbers, which indirectly represents that the training is tackling a requirement and the design and methodology is meeting expectation. Efficiency, which is actually the amount of time to complete training, and also the performance schedule, is a good means of measuring success of training.
However, certain qualitative measures are a fine indication of the success of a training or presentation. We can evaluate its success by the reactions and feedbacks, in terms of learning and behavior change as well as performance change. A successful training will produce positive reactions, which will influence the learning and reflect in the quality of work.