Student Achievement and its link to Motivation

Published:

This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.

Universities being autonomous bodies as degree awarding institutions and given the present scenario of Pakistan, the level of students' engagement and motivation towards educational institutions have been doubtful. Numerous instances have been reported in Pakistani media , print or otherwise, condemning educational institutions of not producing well motivated and equipped students which in turn add up to a big pool of jobless human resource of Pakistan. Following completion of higher secondary education level, students necessitate motivational status ahead of it to facilitate academic success (McKenzie & Schweitzer, 2001). Students necessarily have to evolve into learners competent of discriminating in "how to learn", "how to ask questions" and "how to transmit ideas" that aid in getting proper advantage of a university education. Unfortunately, the willingness of students in achieving academic success and actions to learn is completely overshadowed by whatever they hope to earn (Teese, 2002). It's supposed to act as a go-between by their goals or reasons behind going to a university, and, motivation is the main centerfold to these goals. Students go into university adhering upon what they already know, most of them thrash about to adapt their knowledge and learning practices to the teaching and learning culture of universities and this transition challenge and process is destined to them. The learning and teaching strategies at a university are different from their prior experiences. To coup up, students may become aware of the issues and become prepared and motivated to struggle.

Student achievement has motivation vital to it. In order to learn and to solve problems; additional time, effort and resources are devoted by motivated students. (Ming 2000). Robin Mc Daniel postulates academic motivation as either an internal or an external force, student behavior results due to either external or internal factors. The idea of an individual's feelings that their own judgments and actions set up their destiny shows an internal locus. Individuals using an external locus believe on outside forces being responsible for the events that take place in their lives and they feel having lesser control over situations.

Academically, motivation is "a student's enthusiasm, need, desire and compulsion to participate in, and be successful in, the learning process" (Bomia et al 1997). In university, motivation accounts with what to facilitate students to frequently be present at classes, complete their work, and whether or not they are active participants and learners

All the universities are required to teach a similar curriculum to students as the courses are being assigned from The Higher Education Commission of Pakistan per degree. The universities follow a tight set of requirements directed from the HEC and are rated on standards defined by HEC. On the basis of these ratings and the market stature and reputation of universities, students prefer one university over other before taking admission into any university. Fortunately, in Peshawar the City University Of Science And Information Technology and the Institute Of Management Sciences are the two most preferred institutions as the number of students enrolling every session is increasing continually since their foundation in the recent years. Both institutions have outgrown themselves and achieved marvels in recent years.

"City university of Science & Information Technology, Peshawar with its slogan "carving intelligence", is among pioneering private universities, in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, and offers diverse range of bachelors and masters courses in undergraduate and post graduate programs"

"The Institute of Management Sciences, a revolutionary business school in the Peshawar, This government body of higher education grew out of the University of Peshawar; Established in May 1995, the Institute of Management Sciences was the first of its kind in Khyber Pakhtunkha to encourage education based on research and training in the fields of business administration, management sciences, and related disciplines."

The proposed topic is a very first attempt of its kind in vicinity of Peshawar. The study is founded on notion of school motivation. Moreover as school may be regarded as any education driven entity, so the word school or university would be used interchangeably here. Besides, the version of the inventory of school motivation is used here as it was adopted by Japanese studies of university motivation (that would be discussed further on in here) and regarded as the Inventory of University Motivation. This study would be a great help in predicting whether if there is a difference in university motivation of students of both institutions? Moreover, the results would help to determine the efficacy of either of the mentioned institutions in keeping students motivated towards learning at their respective institutions. Further more some additional measures would also be taken into account and the flow of university motivation would be overlooked on different factors from the literature.

Literature

Micheal Rost, senior editor of world view quotes

"Motivation has been called the "neglected heart" of teaching. As teachers, we often forget that all of our learning activities are filtered through our students' motivation. In this sense, students control the flow of the classroom. Without student motivation, there is no pulse; there is no life in the class".

Motivation can be conceptualized as students' energy and drive to engage in learning and plays a large part in students' interest in and enjoyment of school and study. Motivation also underpins students' achievement (Ali & McInerney 2006). Students with a positive academic motivation foster with in a desire to learn, like learning-related activities, and believe that attending an institution for education is important. Positive academic motivation aids success at academics and to realize that learning is rewarding and important in all aspects of life (Brown 2009).

Controlling and enhancing factors that direct and impact upon students' urge to achieve and learn have interested researchers from long enough and has been the heart of hundreds of studies. (Natasha et al, 2008). Plausibly the foremost job of all indigenous learning authorities is assisting students to get familiarized with an ambiance somewhere they know how to learn for themselves a delight of gaining possible worthy education. The objective of serving students to gain the "self-motivation" which than onwards, directs into a long-lasting aspiration to gain knowledge, ought to be of the prime importance in an educator's mind (Ron Renchler 1992).

Nearly all educationalists deem motivation an essential for learning effectively.. It is understood that at hand are numerous foundations for motivating a student, furthermore mostly everybody desires the students more "motivated" and "engaged".

Single universal perception in studies going on student's motivation hold identifying learner traits which are contributive to commitment with education. Studies hub on what learners carry toward their education via means of objectives, standards or rationale. From time to time these variables may be out looked upon as trait-like characters which are to be valid cross conditions. Every now and then they may be used as variables being explicit to singular context. A succeeding common loom begins by means of proposition so as to the education settings are vital. Numerous sorts of education occurrences encourage motivation and commitment. Accordingly what considered necessary is additional cautious concentration towards scheming and putting into practice settings that make the most of the prospect meant for vigorous, exigent learning occurrences. Simultaneously at hand are the characteristics of peer groups, class-settings, day to day responsibilities, and instructors which are well-known to generate downbeat atmosphere and discomfort, or personal standards mismatched to education and consequence is dullness, no commitment, troublemaking approaches and dropping out eventually.

Successful educational institutions with their high standards of academic achievement are known to have a culture famed to have a goal set that is well defined, valued and promoted by all members of management, that of the faculty and also on part of the students.

.

School motivation's importance is also highlighted by Eccles, Midgeley, and Adler (1984), they advocate

"As individuals mature they turn out to be additionally dexterous, well-informed, and capable; they happen to be better able to take responsibility, make decisions, and control their lives. They also feel more able to take responsibility and to make academic decisions. One would hope that with increasing grade level, students would assume greater autonomy and control over their lives and learning. In addition, one would hope that institutions would provide an environment that would facilitate task involvement."

Motivation is the main reason behind every behavior and its dynamics. Proper energy channeled in a suitable direction is what motivation is all about. in recent years, couple of studies (Hidi & Harackiewicz, 2000), (Eccles & Wigfield, 2002) aggregated towards youngsters distinguishable on part of their inability of bonding with education and institutional settings of so They are chiefly known to be bored, uninterested, cut off, not engaged to schooling activities and display minimal motivation towards learning. Further more these were described of being of the disengaged kind, who do not value their relationships with their teachers, do not deem school to be important in their life and they do not consider any value for their peers. These students display feelings of not fitting in, often frequently, and they eventually tend to sack their schooling off. Student motivation is the element that leads students' attitude towards learning process. High motivation and engagement in learning is a consisted link to reduce dropout rates and increase levels of student performance. Academic performance is either positively influenced or negatively affected by motivation depending on whether if its driven on internally or by external stimuli respectively. (Afzal, Ali, Aslam & Hamid, 2010).

Associations with instructors, relations with peers, atmosphere of the classroom, as well as methods that are accounted ingeniously for teaching and learning, and almost everything that happens in the class were deemed vital aspects underneath students' engagement. Student's participation in extracurricular was adopted as an index of affiliation with schooling and identifying ones self with it. Later when gender differences were considered, male students' engagement was related by key factors as classroom climate and perception of schooling (Finn 1989). Students are "more likely to be engaged if they attend schools with high average socio-economic status, strong disciplinary climate, good student-teacher relations and high expectations for student success" (Willms 2003). Almost similar outcomes were reported via diverse facet of "school participation" for determining engagement (Fullarton, 2002)

Competency and understanding are the main focal heads which crave the motivation of engaged students, relatively than a desire for "a good grade, a teacher's approval, or acceptance", they posses a love for learning (Newmann 1992). Students almost certainly are to be engaged into education once they are energetic and are given a little pick and charge over the learning process, when the syllabus is individualized, authentic, and related to students' interests (Yair, 2000).

Engagement and Commitment in comprehension activities is also a key forecaster of academic accomplishment upon considerations of explicit reading practices like time depleted for reading and variety of the reading content. Upon taking engagement behavior an outcome, residential environment and availability of reading material deemed important. Teacher- student relationship and classroom environment were also contributive (Kirsch et al. 2002). Taking in account from reading, it's obvious that the contextual environmental supports from teachers and parents or home are important for stronger achievement.

All people work better and harder when they are motivated to perform, an obvious psychological principle. And when there is something in it for them--a reward.  In university, the reward may be a good grade, praise from the teacher or, with older students, the understanding that hard work and optimum performance will get them a scholarship (perhaps) or secure their position in the work force

Most small scale researches have identified and investigated definite motivational components and their relationship to behavior of students and their achievement. They comprise of performance and mastery goals, self efficacy, situational and individual importance towards interest, affiliation, task averting, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, self and perceived competence, social loafing and learned helplessness.

Family unit dynamics for instance parental education level plus parental supports and expectation in support of their offspring give the impression to apply a little pressure on students' motivation (Beyer 1995). The relationship between parents' education and tendency of students to pursue and register in higher education has been suggested as a positive relationship (Hossler and Stage 1992). It may be because may be the parents with more education might have a greater concern in the education of their children than those with lesser education level. Similar is the case for relationship between students' motivation and involvement of parents. The later has a positive effect on the former (Paulson 1996). Similarly relationship exists among students' views of support and considerations from parents, teachers, and peers and academic achievement (McInerney, Dowson, & Yeung, 2005).

Very few studies discuss the relationship of motivation as affected by the environment of an institutional education setting (Quaglia and Cobb 1996). The expectations and aspirations of the teachers, as perceived by the students, have a momentous outcome upon the own aspiration of the students (Wilson and Wilson 1992). Achievements in academic front and motivation are here to being strongly related by a sense of support and belonging (Goodenow, 1993). Students' development and students' motivation may be maintained or may be hindered by the environment at an educational institute or entity

The absence of a sense of attachment can cause a feeling of loneliness at study setting. Subsequently failure at school may ultimately be the result .

Mainly students' adjustment at a study setting entails association between them and their teachers, moreover, the safety of the study setting, and the parent-institution association, add up to the students' educational accomplishment (Esposito, 1999). Sense of belonging at the academic institution and class, sense of support at the class setting and the institute and the sense of being safe at the institution or at the classroom are the factors influencing motivation of students' within the climate of an academic institute. (Maehr and Midgley 1991)

Given below figure embosses the theoretical framework of this study:

Hypothesis:

In light of the literature, following hypothesis are developed:

H1: There exists a statistically significant mean disparity among mean university motivation of students at IMS and mean university motivation of students at CUSIT

H01: There exists no statistically significant mean disparity among mean university motivation of students at IMS and mean university motivation of students at CUSIT

H2: There exists a statistically significant mean disparity among mean university motivation of female students and mean university motivation of male students

H02: There exists no statistically significant mean disparity among mean university motivation of female students and mean university motivation of male students

H3: There exists a statistically significant mean disparity among mean university motivation of bachelors students and mean university motivation of masters students.

H03: There exists no statistically significant mean disparity among mean university motivation of bachelors students and mean university motivation of masters students.

H4: There exists a statistically significant mean disparity among mean university motivation of morning students and mean university motivation of evening students

H04: There exists no statistically significant mean disparity among mean university motivation of morning students and mean university motivation of evening students

H5: There exists a statistically significant mean disparity among mean university motivation of employed students and mean university motivation of unemployed students

H05: There exists no statistically significant mean disparity among mean university motivation of employed students and mean university motivation of unemployed students

Methodology:

Data collection was done by questionnaires. The general inventory of university motivation (IUM-Gen) was used as a 5 point likert scale based questionnaire and was distributed electronically among the random student sample. The feed back on the questionnaires was collected and scored.

Participants

The study was conducted upon the CUSIT, Pakha Ghulam Peshawar and the IMSciences, Hayatabad Phase 7, Peshawar. The students of morning and evening shifts constituted the sample, which is a mix from various departments of both universities

Instrument

IUM (GEN) i.e.: general inventory of university motivation (Da Silva and McInerney 2005)was used in this study. The inventory originates its construct from inventory of school motivation and the personal investment model (Maehr & McInerney, 2004). Both instruments have been widely used in cross cultural studies and for cross cultural validations.

In this study I am going to follow the IUM-Gen. The questions are behavioral.and relate to thought about and perceived aims and goals of motivational behavior.

They include : "Task (Mastery): Task involvement and Effort , Ego (Performance): Competition and Social Power, Social solidarity: Affiliation and Social concern, Extrinsic: Praise and Token rewards "

The IUM-Gen is a well validated inventory commonly used cross culturally and there is sufficient evidence along multicultural studies done for validation of this inventory. There is not a need to change or mould any response items in the inventory.

The students responded on a 5-point likert scale (1 = strongly disagree to 5 = strongly agree).

Along with the IUM-Gen, behavioral responses based on likert scale referring to "parental support and expectations", "parental involvement", "university climate" and "teacher support and expectation" would be used as reported by Maya in her study in 2001.

Bio- demographic index for students would also be included, referring to students' age, gender, employment, class shifts and grade/ semester level attained.

Sample and Analysis:

Simple random sampling be done off the population of both universities combined. I aimed at as many as possible participants I could have from all shifts and all departments. The students of both morning and evening shift constituted the sample. Both universities operate in two shifts; morning and evening. At hand students were approached regardless of class or course or semester, randomly, and students were asked for their volunteered feedback on the inventory. They then forwarded the same link to their university fellows either virally or via personal contacts.

The Course of analysis was done first by taking means of the variables from factor analysis and an Independent Samples t-test was used for analyzing the differential relationship.

Data Collection:

The questionnaires were circulated online on a Google Spreadsheet link. Online mode of data collection was selected because of lesser availability of time and ease of instant computation of the questionnaire form values. Second reason being the fact of higher attention and ease on part of respondents as they had filled up the questionnaire form in their free time. It was an assumption that, this way, respondents would be volunteering willingly. The immediate respondents were kindly asked for sharing the same spreadsheet with their class and university fellows, so any willing student can fill and submit. The classes and persons were randomly selected and sequencing was not to be observed. The forwarding of the emails to their class mates and their peers was random on their behalf as not every one returned the responses but only the ones willingly filling it. Maximum outreach was struggled for and overall 440 responses came back.

Given below are the tabulated details of the frequencies

Given below are the tabulated frequency details from CUSIT only.

From IMSciences, total of 251 respondents were gathered. Out of these 251 respondents, 77 were from masters program, 88 from bachelors program and 86 were from MS program. 34 respondents were employed and remaining 217 were unemployed. Female respondents accounted for 93 and male respondents accounted for 158 in count. 125 respondents study in evening shift and in morning shift there are 126 respondents. The responses from MS students would be removed in hypothesis testing as the respondants from MS are only from the IMsciences and no student of city university were from MS program

Given below are the tabulated frequency details from IMSciences..

Analysis:

Questionnaire was coded in order to run for the factor analysis. The coded factor items of the questionnaire are as shown in appendix 9.

A) FACTOR ANALYSIS

Primarily in order to do initial solution, from the correlation matrix, three minimum values with magnitude > 0.3 were found (consult Appendix 1). Further more diagnostics were carried out.

Of them Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure of sampling adequacy (KMO test) values were observed, (consult Appendix 2), and it was 0.85 which gave sufficient grounds for further analysis. Bartlett's test of Sphericity (consult Appendix 2), was also significant.

The diagonal anti image correlation values were all above 0.5 (consult Appendix 3), and predicted adequacy of variables.

Communalities show each variable's amount of variances incorporated (consult Appendix 4),initial values were all on a perfect 1, but for extraction values, variables with values under 0.5 were phased out and the process was iterated until all values were above 0.5.

Eigen values (consult Appendix 5) > 01 are selected as a factor. There are eight factors in this case and all eight contribute the variances (in percentages) 23.517%, 9.774%, 8.372%, 6.882%, 5.656%, 5.064%, 4.192% and 3.527% cumulatively these eight factors put in 69.985% variances.

Next the component matrix values were observed (consult Appendix 6), the values below 0.4 were asked to be suppressed so they would not be visible in the table. The variables with no values above 0.4 were removed and the whole process was repeated again until all variables had values above 0.4.

For rotated component matrix, complex structures were identified (consult Appendix 8), each was removed and followed by the whole process being iterated, until there were reduced factors, new Eigen values and new percentage variations

The variables of TS3 TS4 Ts5 TS6 TS7 load on factor 1, P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 load on factor 2, SC1 SC2 SC3 SC4 load on factor 3, Sp3 Sp4 Sp5 Sp6 load on factor 4, PS1 PS2 PS3 load on factor 5, E4 E5 E6 load on factor 6, T2, E2 E3 load on factor 7 and C1 C2 C5 load on factor 8 (consult Appendix 8)

In all 32 variables were removed by factor analysis. Facets of School Climate (ScC4, ScC3, ScC2, and ScC1), Affiliation (A1, A2 and A3) and Parental Involvement (PI1 and PS5) were entirely removed due to failure of any of their variables to load on any of the factors. Other facets also had some of the variables removed and the remaining list of facets and variables is shown in appendix 10:

Hypothesis Testing By an Independent Samples T-Test

The variables from factor analysis were taken mean of respective of each of their nine facets. Summing up the means of all these nine facets the result was mean university motivation of all the respondents. Now we would look at the results of independent samples t-test respectively with each of the hypothesis.

H1: There exists a statistically significant mean disparity among mean university motivation of students at IMS and mean university motivation of students at CUSIT

H01: There exists no statistically significant mean disparity among mean university motivation of students at IMS and mean university motivation of students at CUSIT

Since the significance value is not less than 0.05, so the null hypothesis of no disparity is not rejected and it's concluded that there is a no significant disparity among the mean university motivation of students of CUSIT and IMS.

H2: There exists a statistically significant mean disparity among mean university motivation of female students and mean university motivation of male students

H02: There exists no statistically significant mean disparity among mean university motivation of female students and mean university motivation of male students

Since the significance value is less than 0.05, so the null hypothesis of no mean disparity is rejected and its concluded that there is are significant mean disparity among the mean university motivation of male and female students overall of both universities.

H3: There exists a statistically significant mean disparity among mean university motivation of bachelors students and mean university motivation of masters students.

H03: There exists no statistically significant mean disparity among mean university motivation of bachelors students and mean university motivation of masters students.

Since the significance value is less than 0.05, so the null hypothesis of no mean disparity is rejected and its concluded that there are significant mean disparity among the mean university motivation of bachelors and masters students overall of both universities.

H4: There exists a statistically significant mean disparity among mean university motivation of morning students and mean university motivation of evening students

H04: There exists no statistically significant mean disparity among mean university motivation of morning students and mean university motivation of evening students

Since the significance value is less than 0.05, so the null hypothesis of no mean disparity is rejected and its concluded that there are significant mean disparity among the mean university motivation of morning and evening students overall of both universities.

H5: There exists a statistically significant mean disparity among mean university motivation of employed students and mean university motivation of unemployed students

H05: There exists no statistically significant mean disparity among mean university motivation of employed students and mean university motivation of unemployed students

Since the significance value is greater than 0.05, so the null hypothesis of no mean disparity is not rejected and its concluded that there are a no significant mean disparity among the mean university motivation of employed and unemployed students overall of both universities.

Conclusion:

From all these final results, it is concluded that with significant level of 0.876 there is a no significant disparity among the mean university motivation of students of CUSIT and IMS. Then onward with analyzing the relation ships overall on both universities over gender, shift timings (morning\evening), employed\unemployed and grade level (bachelors\masters). So, with significant level of 0.000 there are significant mean disparity among the mean university motivation of male and female students overall of both universities. With significant level of 0.030 there are significant mean disparity among the mean university motivation of bachelors and masters students overall of both universities. With significant level of 0.005 there are significant mean disparity among the mean university motivation of morning and evening students overall of both universities. With significant level of 0.242 there are a no significant mean disparity among the mean university motivation of employed and unemployed students overall of both universities.

Implications:

The problem is of no lead in providing students a necessary motivation towards university. Despite their efforts and claims, students of both universities have no mean disparity in their university motivation.

The universities are going to be presented with these findings and they can take measures necessary for changing existing or placing new policies in light of these findings.

Overall challenge of gearing motivational practices towards students can be now met with specialized polices on basis of their gender, shift, program and employment. Focused policies may be considered dependent upon the university's considerations.

By considering the need for a joint and mutual endeavor of major interest groups--administrators, parents, instructors and students-- effective student motivation may best be fostered. Behaviors like instructor's keenness and energy, emphasizing mastery and learning in spite of grades, energetic participation, maintaining the students' interest, vastly optimizing use of teamwork and breaking learning content into small packages that can be conquered and that will in some way produce a feeling of accomplishment and success will help motivate students to go forward. (Junaidu. S, 2004)

They should concern themselves to identifying and to value the individuality of the student clients to support them in becoming truly motivated and engaged. Recently uttered six first year curriculum design principles (Kift, 2008) can be adapted to logical first year learning and teaching in order to improve student motivation. Kifts's chronological principals -- "Diversity, Design, Transition, Engagement, Assessment and Evaluation/Monitoring," -- can be used as a baseline for the first year curriculum and can may be induce self learning and self motivation among students. Through the development of checklists from these principles, universities can ensure best practice throughout by the better optimal allotment for resources to first year programs, concerns about the costs of engagement strategies and student transition could be cancel out (Yorke, 2006) which should then create savings in following years.

Limitations:

At the foremost, in this study only two universities have been considered, because time span for the study was short. Age is not accounted into the study. And most importantly students' university motivation might get overshadowed by academic points and marketability of programs offered.

This study does not take into account factors such as individual beliefs and values. The fact that learners are individuals, with their own beliefs and values, may have a significant consequence on their motivational dispositions.

This study does not take a sample size of members from every age group, socio-economic status, or different ethnic / theocratic groups and, therefore, the results cannot be generalized for the entire population. Future research studies need to be conducted to analyze the effects of demographic factors such as age, groups, ethnicity on factors supporting motivation. Such future studies may also not support confident generalizations across various domains.

Future recommendations:

How student motivation in a university setting can be increased?

Indexes such as attendance, failing grades, dropout intentions, GPA, and enrollment in more challenging courses can be considered further on.

Broaden the study sample to whole KPK.

Contradistinctive case of all government and all non government DAIs in KPK.

Cluster into departments and compare department wise in observed sample.

Writing Services

Essay Writing
Service

Find out how the very best essay writing service can help you accomplish more and achieve higher marks today.

Assignment Writing Service

From complicated assignments to tricky tasks, our experts can tackle virtually any question thrown at them.

Dissertation Writing Service

A dissertation (also known as a thesis or research project) is probably the most important piece of work for any student! From full dissertations to individual chapters, we’re on hand to support you.

Coursework Writing Service

Our expert qualified writers can help you get your coursework right first time, every time.

Dissertation Proposal Service

The first step to completing a dissertation is to create a proposal that talks about what you wish to do. Our experts can design suitable methodologies - perfect to help you get started with a dissertation.

Report Writing
Service

Reports for any audience. Perfectly structured, professionally written, and tailored to suit your exact requirements.

Essay Skeleton Answer Service

If you’re just looking for some help to get started on an essay, our outline service provides you with a perfect essay plan.

Marking & Proofreading Service

Not sure if your work is hitting the mark? Struggling to get feedback from your lecturer? Our premium marking service was created just for you - get the feedback you deserve now.

Exam Revision
Service

Exams can be one of the most stressful experiences you’ll ever have! Revision is key, and we’re here to help. With custom created revision notes and exam answers, you’ll never feel underprepared again.