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The definition of participation is merely a course of involvement in dissimilar groups of communal life: Economic political, cultural, social, and others. Empowerment Participation in Policy Action on Ageing
Student motivation and participation deteriorations in physical education as pupils' develop through their lives at school. (Mowling et al. 2004) This has therefore become an issue for physical education teachers and coaches as they have to motivate pupils in their sessions. These days Physical education teachers and coaches are faced with trying to make their sessions motivational and enjoyable Sports session use a model with can help to positive experiences during the session to mimic the types of genuine sport.
T = task: make tasks challenging and diverse
A = authority: give the pupils choice and leadership roles.
R = recognition: give recognition to pupils privately and based on individual progress.
G = grouping: promote cooperation, learning and peer interaction
E = evaluation: ase evaluation on task mastery and individual progress.
T = time: adjust requirements to individual capabilities.
(Model from learning to teach Physical education in the secondary school)
Two areas of motivation has been extensively researched in education and sport settings, they are intrinsic motivation and achievement motivation. (Treasure and Roberts 2001; Zahariadis and Biddle 2004)
Another way teachers, coaches and participants encourage participation is by means of motivation, this can be either extrinsic or intrinsic.
Intrinsic motivation comes from the player or participant and it helps to motivate the player to perform and to hopefully succeed. It also occurs when people take part in an activity because they want to, the reasons can include social factors and the want, to achieve a personal goal. Whereas extrinsic motivation can be just as simple as a 'well done' or another sort of reward such as a medal or a financial reward. (Gill 2000)
Physical educators need to have an understanding of how children learn and also how they are motivated so that they can adapt their sessions to suit. A pupils learning can be affected by a number of factors, such as the child's relationship with the teacher, there previous experiences and knowledge of an activity, the social factors and motivation, but also the learning sessions a physical educator organises. (Learning to teach Physical education in the secondary school)
An understanding of learning through theories, Bruner (1960), Vygotsky (1962) and Piaget (1962). These theories help physical educators to gain more of an understanding of how people learn, as they can then adapt their sessions. For example, Piaget's theory (1962) talks about people learning only if their educational experiences are duly harmonized to their present levels of beliefs and perceptive. By understanding this theory it can help you to see the physical demands of a task on a pupil, but also the need to identify the intellectual demands of a task on a pupil, so that then it can be used to identify an individual's performance. (Learning to teach Physical education in the secondary school) Physical educators have to remember that getting pupils motivated mean success. If you can get pupils to set themselves there own ILO's (independent learning objectives) this will help pupils to gain more success in physical settings and sessions. Setting ILO's can help pupils to keep focused and on target, once achieved it can this can improve motivation and a general good feeling among pupils. Physical educators must make sure that pupils ILO's are achievable, obtainable, appropriate and challenging. Physical educators also may need to adjust ILO's if pupils set unreasonable and unachievable goals as this will affect their motivation. Physical educators must also make sure that they don't put pressure on students to perform activities in front of the class this can also demoralise pupils and be demotivating for the partakers. (Learning to teach Physical education in the secondary school)
Physical educators, when planning there sessions must make sure that there lesson's cannot be to challenging so pupils dont feel like they are failures, as this can also being a big demotivationg factor. For example in badminton, the teacher has to make sure that they are using the correct technique, and not be worried about getting the shuttlecock over the net. It must focus on the technique. If it is the first time that the pupils have played badminton, they may find it difficult to keep a rally and play in the full court, so therefore the physical educator will need to adapt the session to cater for every ability. Although the method is significant, it is important that physical educators adapt the session for the pupils that are struggling, for example getting the pupil to try and use dissimilar equipment, so that they are able to partake. This can be achieved my standing closing to the net or even lowering the net.
Pupils' perception of sessions can be effected due to the motivational climate. (Weinberg and Gould 2003). A student based environment that is apparent to be involving positive strengthening of exertion and effort, collaboration and development. Physical education teachers and coaches have to make sure that all there sessions are inclusive and to make sure they suit all abilities such as disabilities and injuries, to ensure that all students feel motivated and want to come back.
Physical educators need to be able to praise pupils, White (1992) states "that the majority of teachers believe that being positive, honest and fair with pupils is fundamental to good classroom practise." (White,1992)Learning to teach Physical education in the secondary school) If physical educators think about and consider how best to motivate pupils it should show encouraging responses from pupils. As a physical educator it is important to give praise and thanks to reward and encourage. By doing these things it can give satisfaction and reinforce encouraging behaviour to pupils in the lessons or classes. (Learning to teach Physical education in the secondary school)
Marland summary of praise, "Each lesson, you should try to find some word of praise for a handful of fairly ordinary but commendable things: a well-answered question, the good use of a word, a helpful act". (Marland, 1993)
As Marland has said above, it is always important in every lesson to find some worlds of praise during a lesson, this can be in the way of a good technique or by a well answered question.
Pupils do not like to be criticised, pupils shouldn't be criticised as this can demoralise pupils, but, also not make them want to continue or even turn up for the lesson. Praise provides strengthening of confidence and motivation, this makes pupils feel better and valued. Physical educators need to praise and reward pupils who are doing tasks, and putting effort into whatever they are doing.
It is imperative that physical educators makes sessions and lessons at school enjoyable to ensure that when they leave school that they have confidence to carry on, for example the confidence to join a team. But in many cases this hasn't been the case many people are leaving school and college having not enjoyed their experiences, which therefore has a knock on effect on there confidence in carry on any form of physical activity. For this not to happen, physical educators need to encourage participation when teaching lessons at school, the lessons need to have a optimistic climate within the lesson, this will enable pupils to succeed, but also to help build their confidence. Therefore this will improve self esteem and self motivation. This therefore relates back to physical literacy, as it promotes motivation to establish optimistic outlook to physical activity.
Teachers and coaches can encourage participation in sport and physical activity in many ways, firstly by planning and delivering well structured lessons and by making those lessons fun and enjoyable. This will help to promote participation as they will feel motivated to attend the next session.
In conclusion, this report has discussed how teaches and coaches can encourage participation in sport and physical activity. Physical educators need to make sure that all their sessions and lesson are well planned, and that they are all inclusive. If the sessions are not inclusive it can diminish confidence, this can therefore lead to pupils leaving school and not partaking in any form of sport and physical activity.