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The theory on general intelligence factor by Spearman was based on his analysis of intelligence test scores. He noticed a distinctive pattern while correlating performance in subtests measuring various cognitive functions and overall intelligence test (Sternberg, 2004). Comparing scores of subtests is referred to as factor analysis. It appeared that all scores correlated closely with each other; in other words, if an individual scores high in one test, it is very likely that his or her scores will also be high in other parts of the test. He concluded that a strong correlation exists between individual mental abilities and general intelligence factor defined as g, which accounts for the entire cognitive functions related to intelligence (Sternberg, 2004). The theory could not explain extraordinary cases such as gifted individuals who are at the same time dyslexic. Therefore his conclusions are limited to aspects of intelligence measured in the psychometric tests which leaves little room for other types of intelligences such as application of knowledge to real-life situations.
Thurstone Theory of Specific Intelligence
Similar to Spearman, Louis Thurstone, strongly advocates the factor analysis was an approach in revealing the latent psychological structure that explain test performances that are observable. It is his belief that leaving the factorial solutions axes unrotated was a mistake. Solving this is psychologically arbitrary. He proposed that the simple structure was best in cleaning the columns of a factor pattern matrix so that the test loadings are either low or high relatively on specific factors, instead of large values of moderate ones. Though a simple structure rotation, Thurstone and Thurstone (1941) argued there are seven basic mental abilities. First is verbal comprehension which refers to the capability to understand material presented verbally. Measurement of this ability would entail tests like reading comprehension and vocabulary. The second is verbal fluency. This ability involves the rapid production of words, phrases, or sentences and is measured by requiring the examinee to produce in a short period of time as many words starting with a specific letter. The third is number which is the ability to compute or calculate rapidly. In the assessment of this ability, the individual will be subjected to tests which require solutions to numerical or word arithmetic problems. Memory is the fourth mental ability according to the theory. This is defined as the ability to recall sets of numbers, letters, words, and the like. The next is perpetual speed which is the rapid recognition of numbers, letters, words and other symbols. To determine the level of perceptual speed in an individual, he or she must undertake proofreading tests. Inductive reasoning is the type of reasoning that proceeds from specific to general. Tests like letter and number series measure this ability. The last is spatial visualization which involves manipulating objects, shapes, and other geometric patterns visually.
Cattell's Types of Mental Abilities
According to Cattell (1971), occupying the apex of the hierarchy is general ability and below it are two abilities which he referred to as fluid ability or gf and crystallized ability or gc. The former is the aptitude to flexibly think and abstractly reason while the latter is the amount of knowledge accumulated over time resulting from the application of the former. In testing, the former will involve figural analogies and numerical series while the latter entails general information and vocabulary. Gustafsson (1988) mentioned that it is extremely complicated to statistically distinguish fluid from general ability. Assessments evaluating fluid ability are similar to those employed for measuring what is supposedly pure g. An illustration of such is the Raven Progressive Matrices (Raven, 1986) which aims to measure individual's ability to fill in the blank in a matrix composed of figural drawings.
In education, a classification of learning objectives exists and this is contained in Bloom's taxonomy. This classification was presented first in 1956 in the work entitled, "The Taxonomy of Educational Objectives", "The Classification of Educational Goals", and "Handbook I: Cognitive Domain". In 1981, it was viewed as an essential and foundational element in education basing on the results of the survey by Shane entitled "Significant writings that have influenced the curriculum: 1906-1981".
Educational objectives according to Bloom are divided into three domains as follows: affective, psychomotor, and cognitive. The aim of this theory is to encourage educators to center on the three domains enabling their approach to education to be more holistic. Skills associated with the affective domain are ways individuals respond emotionally and ability to feel another individual's joy or pain. Objectives in the affective domain point towards the growth and awareness in feelings, emotions, and attitudes. Under the affective domain are five levels starting with the lowest then progressively the highest: receiving, responding, valuing, organizing, and characterizing. In receiving, the attention given by a student is passive. If the student does not receive, there is no occurrence of learning. For responding, the student participates actively in learning since he or she not only pays attention to a stimulus but reacts to it in a certain manner. When a student places value on a piece of information, phenomenon, or object, he or she is said in the third level which is valuing. For organizing, a student puts together various ideas, information, and a value, accommodating them in the schema of the student then compares, relates, and elaborates on what lessons were learned. The highest level is termed characterizing which involves holding a specific value or belief that has significantly influenced the behavior of a student that it develops into a characteristic. Skills associated with the psychomotor domain focus on the physical manipulation of tools or instruments. Unlike the affective domain, there are no subcategories created for the psychomotor domain. In the cognitive domain, the skills mainly concentrate on three aspects: knowledge, comprehension, and critical thinking. A student is considered knowledgeable if he or she exhibits high memory of materials previously learned such as concepts, terminologies, facts, and the like. It could be knowledge of specifics, means in dealing with specifics, and the abstraction and universals. Comprehension demonstrates the student's grasp or understanding of ideas and facts through organization, comparison, translation, interpretation, description, and statement of main ideas. The next level is application which means the use of new knowledge in solving problems. This is followed by analysis which requires the examination and breaking of information into parts by making inferences and findings pieces of evidence to support conclusions or generalizations. The next is synthesis which is the ability to compile bits of information by combining the elements in a novel pattern. Examples of which include producing a plan or course of action or deriving a set of abstract relationships. The highest level is evaluation which is aimed at presenting and defending opinion by passing judgment on the validity or reliability of ideas or quality of information.
Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences
Howard Gardner in his 1983 book, Frames of Mind, simply put, "intelligence is the ability of solve problems or to create products, that are valued within one or more cultural settings". He argued that in psychometrics, intelligence does not adequately include the wide array of human abilities. During a child's conception, mastering the multiplication table does not necessarily mean he or she exhibits more intelligence than a child who proved to be stronger in another type of intelligence and therefore 1) learns the material using a different approach, 2) excels in an area beyond mathematics, or 3) may look at multiplication from a deeper perspective resulting in slowness that masks a potentially higher mathematics intelligence compared to intelligence in a child who has easily memorized the multiplication table. This theory sparked a variety of responses; many psychology experts resisted the differentiation of intelligence being empirically unsupported and some showed support on the theory's practical value.
The theory articulated eights types of intelligence namely: spatial, linguistic, logical-mathematical, kinaesthetic, musical, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalist. Those who are spatially intelligent have the ability to visualize using the mind's eye and are therefore excellent in solving puzzles. Careers suited for these individuals are architecture, designing, or art. Linguistic is related to words either written or spoken. Individuals who are highly verbal or linguistically intelligent have an outstanding command of language. They are excellent in memorizing words and dates, story- telling, writing, and reading. They best learn by debate, discussion, taking down notes, reading, and listening to classroom discussions. They are very likely to learn a foreign language more easily since they have the ability to manipulate and comprehend structure and syntax. Those who are linguistically intelligent find the following careers fitted: teaching, poetry, politics, journalism, philosophy, law enforcement, law, and writing. The next class of intelligence is logical-mathematical which is related to numerical ability, reasoning, abstractions, and logic. While it is the assumption that those possessing this type of intelligence are naturally excellent in computer programming, chess, mathematics and other activities involving numerical facility, it can be accurately defined by placing less weight on traditional mathematical aptitude and more stressed on performing complicated calculations, scientific thinking, investigation, abstract patterns of recognition, and reasoning abilities. It is correlated with what "intelligence" or "IQ" is traditionally about. Economists, doctors, engineers, mathematicians, physicists, and scientists are examples of careers for those high in this type of intelligence. The next is kinaesthetic intelligence which pertains to the skill for controlling body motions and capability in handling objects. Theoretically, learning among individuals high in kinaesthetic intelligence entails muscular movement or physical movement and excel in dance or sports. Examples of careers for kinaesthetically intelligent include armed forces as soldiers, builders, musicians, actors, dancers, athletes and many others. Musical intelligence is sensitivity to music, tones, rhythms, and sounds. Individuals exhibiting this type of intelligence have the ability to sing, compose music, and play musical instruments. Because this intelligence has a significant auditory element, musically inclined students learn by listening to lectures. Skills in language are further developed when the base intelligence is music. Moreover, their utilization of rhythms or songs in learning is observable. They possess high sensitivity to timbre, melody, tone, meter, pitch, and rhythm. Musically intelligent individuals usually are composers, writers, orators, disc-jockeys, conductors, singers, or instrumentalists. Interpersonal intelligence refers to the ability to effectively interact with other people. In theory, they are considered to be extroverts and sensitive to the moods, temperaments, and feelings of others, and in group discussions, they are highly participative. They are effective communicators, followers or leaders. They tend to learn by discussing and debating on certain topics. For this type of intelligence, the following careers will be best suited: social workers, teachers, managers, politicians, and salespersons. In contrast to the former, intrapersonal intelligence refers to self-reflective and introspective capabilities. Individuals high in intrapersonal intelligence have high intuition and introversion. They are adept in interpreting their own motivations and feelings. This means they have a deeper comprehension of themselves and recognize their strengths and weaknesses. Examples of careers for intrapersonal intelligence are writers, lawyers, theologians, psychologists, and philosophers. In the last type of intelligence which is naturalistic, students know more about the natural environment. Farming, gardening are some of the activities they should venture professionally.
Goleman's Theory of Emotional Intelligence
In 1995, Goleman presented a mixed model of emotional intelligence which is composed of five areas which include knowledge of individual emotions, management of emotions, self motivation, recognition of others' emotions, and handling of relationships. In motivation, he listed particular attributes such as "marshalling emotions, delaying gratifications, stifling impulsiveness, and entering flow states" (p. 43). He acknowledged that his concept was departing from emotional intelligence and embraced a broader view. He stated that "ego resilience is quite similar to (this model of) emotional intelligence in that it includes social and emotional competencies (p. 44). He noted "There is an old-fashioned word for the body of skills that emotional intelligence represents: character (p. 285). Goleman (1998) claimed that success in family life, education, or employment could be accounted for by emotional intelligence.
Among young people, he said, emotional intelligence will make them less rude or aggressive, more popular, and become more educationally excellent. They would also decide not to engage in risky behaviors involving use of prohibited drugs, sexual activity, and smoking. In the workplace, it translates in cooperation and working together more effectively. Generally, emotional intelligence confers "an advantage in any domain in life, whether in romance and intimate relationships or picking up the unspoken rules that govern success in organizational politics" (p. 36). Goleman noted "At best, IQ contributes about 20% to the factors that determine life success, which leaves 80% to other factors" (p. 34). The 20% was mathematically computed from the fact that the correlation coefficient of IQ with other criteria is 0.45. Goleman wrote that emotional intelligence "suggests it can be as powerful, and at times more powerful than IQ" (p. 34). He also suggested that emotional intelligence is equally or even more powerful than intelligence quotient and it strongly determine success in the performance of tasks when the correlation coefficient is greater than 0.45.
Sternberg's Triarchic Theory on Intelligence
Formulated in 1985 by human intelligence research Robert J. Sternberg, the triarchic theory of intelligence broke was a landmark in intelligence research as it defied the psychometrics and took a more cognitive methodology. He defined intelligence as "mental activity directed toward purpose adaptation to, selection and shaping of, real-world environments relevant to one's life" (p. 45). This implies that intelligence is the ability of the individual to deal with changes in the environment throughout his or her life. His theory is subdivided into three salient parts: componential, experiential, and practical.
How the mind works involves a series of elements and components labeled as meta-, performance, and knowledge acquisition components (Sternberg, 1985). Metacomponents are utilized in solving problems and making decisions which require majority of managing the mind. These components are termed sometimes as the homunculus which is a metaphorical representation of the person inside an individual's head which controls actions and often noted to attract an infinite reversion of homunculi that control each other (Sternberg, 1985). The next set of components according to Sternberg is the performance components. These are basically the processes that result in the perception of problems using long-term memory, relationships of objects with each other, and application of these relations to another set of objects (Sternberg, 1997). The last set is the knowledge-acquisition components which are employed in obtaining new knowledge and information. These are the components that selectively choose relevant from the irrelevant pieces of information. They can also merge selectively the bits of information collected. Gifted students show proficiency in the use of these components enabling them to learn more rapidly than regular students (Sternberg, 1997). While he explained the similarity of the three components in the triarchic theory, contexts and tasks vary depending on the type of intelligence (Sternberg, 2001).
The componential subtheory has a close association with analytical giftedness according to Sternberg. This aspect of giftedness is crucial in a person's ability to recognize solutions not often perceived. Unfortunately, individuals endowed with this type of giftedness are not very creative with their ideas. This giftedness is most often tested. The second stage of the theory is the experiential subtheory. What is dealt in this stage is the manner by which the task is completed with regard to the degree of familiarity. The role of experience in task performance is divided into two: novelty and automation. In a novel situation, the individual has had no previous experience. Individuals who are excellent in dealing with novel situations are capable of taking the task and seek new methods in solving problems that most people would not consider (Sternberg, 1997). In an automated process, the task has been performed more than once and can be completed automatically without too much thinking. If the process becomes automatized, it can proceed parallel with similar or other processes. The concern with these two concepts is that being skilled in one task does not signify being skilled in the other (Sternberg, 1997). This subtheory is seen to be correlated with synthetic giftedness which is exhibited in the study of art forms, intuition, and creativity. Persons having synthetic giftedness generate new concepts and ideas in solving problems. The third subtheory is referred to as practical/contextual which "deals with the mental activity involved in attaining fit to context" (Sternberg, 1985, p. 45). Individuals are able to create a perfect fit between the environment and themselves by undergoing the processes of adaptation, shaping, and selection. Adaptation happens when the individual is changing aspects of him or herself so that he or she becomes adjusted to the surroundings. Shaping on the other hand is the process of changing an individual's environment to suit his or her needs and selection involves replacement of an unsatisfactory environment with a wholly new environment that is able to sustain the goals of the individual (Sternberg, 1985).
Emotional Intelligence Theory
Mayer and Salovey (1997) defined emotional intelligence as "the set of abilities that account for how people's emotional perception and understanding vary in their accuracy. More formally, we define emotional intelligence as the ability to perceive and express emotion, assimilate emotion in thought, understand and reason with emotion, and regulate emotion in the self and others". He emphasized that those with high emotional intelligence "generate a larger number of future plans and better take advantage of future opportunities" (p. 199) and show "persistence at challenging tasks" (p. 200). They also have a positive outlook in life leading to better results and rewards for others and themselves.
The model of Bar-On in 1997 answered the reasons why some individuals have the capacity to better succeed in life compared to others. He reviewed characteristics based on psychological literature and found five areas of functioning which is pertinent to success. These are the following: intrapersonal skills, interpersonal skills, adaptability, stress management, and general mood. Under each area, there are several subdivisions. For instance in the area of interpersonal skills, it is divided into independence, self-actualization, self-regard, assertiveness, and emotional self-awareness. He described intelligence as "aggregate of abilities, competencies, and skills that represent a collection of knowledge used to cope with life effectively" (Bar-On, 1997, p. 15). The use of the adjective emotional lays emphasis on its distinction from cognitive intelligence. The theory of Bar-On combined mental abilities with characteristics not traditionally cognitive in nature like self-regard, personal independence. In spite of the model's breadth, it appears that Bar-On claims the details of his theory with caution. Though the model predicts success, the success is 'the end product of that which one strives to achieve and accomplish". His emotional quotient is related to "the potential to succeed rather than success itself". Looking at it from a broader perspective, he maintains that emotional quotient and intelligence quotient provide an objective representation on the general intelligence of an individual.
Perkins' Theory on Intelligence
In 1995, Perkins did an examination of voluminous studies on how IQ is measured and the various programs that enhance IQ. He explained that IQ is composed of three major dimensions: neural intelligence (precision and efficiency of the individual's neurological functions), experiential intelligence (the person's experience and knowledge that has accumulated over time in various areas; it could also refer to the sum of the person's expertise), reflective intelligence (ability to come up with strategies that are useful in solving problems, learning, and approaching tasks that are intellectually challenging; includes attitudes that promote imagination, systematization, persistence, self-management and self-monitoring).
Mounting evidence suggests that intake of cocaine and alcohol during pregnancy is detrimental to the child's neural intelligence. Exposure to lead can severely damage neural functions. Vitamins or the lack of it can influence neural intelligence. In addition, scientists generally agree that inherent in neural intelligence is its "use it or lose it" characteristic which means that when neural intelligence is used more frequently, it is increased and sustained. The second component or experiential intelligence is based on the duration or period of time devoted in the accumulation of experience and knowledge in both informal and formal settings. This knowledge and experience result in becoming more adept in at least one field of expertise. Individuals living in "rich" learning settings are significantly at an advantage intelligence-wise over those in environments characterized to be less intellectually stimulating. Experiential intelligence thrives and increases in the former. Reflexive intelligence which is the third component can be perceived as the control system where both neural and experiential intelligence are put to effective use. Strategies that encourage effective use of both components of intelligence can be learned by an individual.
Creative Persons Traits Theory
Harper (2000) in his snowflake model enumerated six characteristics which may vary in degrees in creative individuals. Differences among creative persons but may not be successful, moderately or highly successful as artists, contrast with respect to how they developed each of these traits. For instance, a man may be found to excel at personal aesthetics and able to connect new ideas, and being impartial or unbiased, but unless his motivation is sufficient to act upon a tangible medium what he visualizes inside his imagination, his vision will not be shared with the rest of the world. He may be in himself creative but may fail as an artist. In contrast, a visionary and at the same time a motivated man can potentially find success in the field of science or artistry. These qualities are as follows: high commitment to personal aesthetic, excellent in finding problems, mentally mobile, willing to take risks, objective, and motivated inside.
According to Omni magazine published in 1989, a strong commitment to personal aesthetic refers to "the drive to wrest order, simplicity, meaning, richness or powerful expression from what is seemingly chaos". Creative individuals always feel the need for self-expression by recreating the world around them. They invest a significant amount of time in recreating the vision as perfectly as possible, wrestle and manipulate ambiguities until appropriately expressed in their vision. The second quality denotes the ability in asking the right questions and finding the right problems. When they are able to do these, creators have a definite view of which fields can be broken or extended. Finding the solution is not the initial step; it is preceded by asking the question focusing on the vision and the potential created by the vision. Mental mobility allows creative individuals to seek new avenues or perspectives on how to approach problems. It is asserted that creative persons think of contraries and opposites and synthesize both to form new ideas. In the June 1993 issue of the Newsweek magazine, an article stated, "In genius there is a tolerance for ambiguity, a patience with unpredictable avenues of thought". If a person is willing to risk, he or she has what psychologists termed as the Type-T personality. According to this model, "By working at the edge of their competence, where the possibility of failure lurks, mental risk-takers are more likely to produce creative results". This trait is said to require three aspects, as follows: constant mental stimulation, acceptance of failures and shortcomings, and ability to learn from mistakes. The fifth quality is being objective. If objectivity is not present in a creative person, his or her private world is devoid of reality; if present, he or she can judge and evaluate own projects and ideas and allow criticism. The keys to achieve objectivity among individuals lie in their ability to set aside ego so that ideas and projects are honestly evaluated by themselves, ask the advice of colleagues and peers, and test the ideas. The last quality is inner motivation which is the driving force that create not for want of reward but challenge, satisfaction, or enjoyment. Research has demonstrated that supervision, evaluation, limited choices, and prizes restrict or undermine inner motivation and creativity among workers.
Sternberg's Theory of Mental Self-Government
The theory of cognitive styles by Sternberg (1997) explained mental self-government comes in four forms, namely: hierarchical, monarchic, oligarchic, and anarchic. When the style is hierarchic, multiple goals are held simultaneously then set priorities. For the oligarchic style, there are similarities shared with the first type but it varies in its difficulty in making priorities. In the monarchic style, the individual focuses on one task until it is completed. Lastly, the anarchic style does not conform with "systems, rules, or particular approaches to problems". In addition, his theory also cited that mental self-government has two levels, either global or local. The former focuses on problems which are more global and abstract while the latter, more concrete and specific problems. Mental self-government has two scopes- internal and external. If the individual prefers to independently work on a task, then the internal style is applied while working in collaboration is referred as external style. He also explained the four leanings of mental self-government which are the following: liberal, legislative, executive and conservative. If the style is liberal, the individual attempts to modify "existing rules and procedures"; legislative, a requirement is added to the modifications conforming with the ideas of the individual; executive, when tradition is followed; and conservative, when a requirement is incorporated or added making the ideas uniquely the individual's.
Sternberg (1988, 1997) described thinking styles and their significance in education. He mentioned that these styles are different from abilities as these are the ways individuals prefer in using their abilities. Moreover, Sternberg and Grigorenko (1993) asserted the link between thinking styles and giftedness. First, individual variations among exceptional students could not be accounted solely by the diversity of talents; it is also because of their varying thinking styles. Second, the most gifted are those demonstrating a strong match between abilities and thinking styles.
Basing on these observations, they together proposed that in educating gifted individuals, thinking styles must be considered. What is the relevance of thinking styles for gifted educators? These theorists argued that varying the type of instructional methods and assessments could either be a benefit or hindrance to a gifted individual depending on his or her thinking style. Thus, they suggested that educators need to employ a wide variety of methods and assessments in identifying, instructing, and evaluating gifted students. In using various strategies, students exemplifying unique thinking styles are provided opportunities to express themselves in the classroom. In addition, thinking styles may vary depending on situations and tasks. Therefore, students will be a step ahead if they show flexibility, capitalize on their strengths, and compensating their weaknesses. It is therefore of significant value to understand the styles of students in order for educators to come up with instructional methods that promote and develop the styles preferred by students. It was postulated by Sternberg and Grigorenko (1993) that gifted educators should not only take into account the students' abilities but also thinking styles.
While the theory offered an explanation regarding the association between thinking styles and giftedness, both has suggested ways to improve schemes in improving instruction and identification. However, empirical studies on this regard are limited, particularly those that concern with context and age. First, research that examine the ability-creativity and ability-thinking styles relationship were limited to male students in the secondary level and adults (Lubart & Sternberg, 1995; Yang & Lin, 2004). Second, research has focused on high school participants (Dai & Feldhusen, 1998; Park, Park, & Choe, 2005). From the research efforts, further studies should be conducted that aim to explore the effect of considering thinking styles in educating gifted students.
Gruber's Evolving Systems Approach to Creativity Theory
Gruber and Wallace (1999) said that evolving systems approach or ESA is a representation of both theory and method in understanding how a creative person works on an assigned task. It has no involvement on the discovery of generalizations regarding creative individuals. The theory primarily aims to analytically and developmentally account a creative person that is considered and formulate the "theory of the individual". The term "developmental" does not mean that the description should commence from birth, but wherever practicable. The evolving systems in describing a creative person, analysis refer to three major subsystems: knowledge, purpose, and affect. Creative acts result from the functioning of the system, and each episode and facet of creative work necessitates all the three subsystems. The evolving system approach employs the conduct of case studies guided by these ideas: "The creative person is unique, developmental change is multidirectional, and the creative person is an evolving system".
Gagne's Conditions of Learning Theory
Stipulated in this theory are the different levels and types of learning. The implication of classifying each different type is the necessity for a different instructional type. Gagne identified five major learning categories, namely: attitudes, motor skills, cognitive strategies, intellectual skills, and verbal information. Different sets of conditions either internal or external are required in each learning type. For instance, in learning cognitive strategies, the learner must be given a chance to apply relatively new solutions to concerns or problems; gain knowledge of attitudes; and immerse in persuasive argumentation and credible role models.
It is suggested in the theory intellectual skills can be learned hierarchically starting with the simplest to the most complex task: stimulus recognition, response generation, procedure following, use of terminology, discriminations, concept formation, rule application, and problem solving. The principal connotation of this hierarchy is to recognize that learning is a step-wise process; meaning the lower level should be accomplished first before proceeding to the next. In performing task analysis of a task related to training or learning, these prerequisites should be identified. Learning hierarchies form the basis on how instruction should be sequenced. Moreover, the theory provides an outline of nine instructional events and cognitive processes corresponding each: gaining attention (reception); informing learners of the objective (expectancy); stimulating recall of prior learning (retrieval); presenting the stimulus (selective perception); providing learning guidance (semantic encoding); eliciting performance (responding); providing feedback (reinforcement); assessing performance (retrieval); and enhancing retention and transfer (generalization). These elements should be present to facilitate learning and guide the design of instruction and selection of suitable media (Gagne, Briggs & Wager, 1992).
Theory on Racial Conflict
Critical Race Theory
The critical race theory focused on social inequalities brought about by racism. It was developed first by African American legal scholars as a result of dissatisfaction with racial reforms that occur very slow since the civil rights movement grew (Ladson-Billings, 1998). The theory is governed by four tenets. First, critical race theory names and discusses the day to day experiences of racism and uncover the extent that racism has benefitted the majority or the White Americans and disadvantaged the African Americans. Second, it encourages African Americans to tell their stories so that this knowledge of the experiences are integrated in criticizing dominant social orders. Third, critical race theory pursues to critique liberalism, specifically the notion that social change can meaningfully occur without radical changes in the existing power structures in society. In relation to the critique of liberalism, the theory challenges how effective majority of enacted legislation on civil rights legislation in the US, saying that, instead of lessening the impact of racism of African Americans, White Americans became principally beneficiaries (Ladson-Billings, 1998; Nebeker, 1998).
The article of Ladson-Billings & Tate's (1995) entitled Towards a critical race theory of education first brought the theory to the scrutiny of the academe. Then a special issue on the theory was featured in International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education and Qualitative Inquiry in 1998 and 2002, respectively with chapters authored by Ladson-Billings (2000) and Dunbar, Rodriguez, and Parker (2002) which exposed qualitative education researchers to the theory. The publications examined the critical race theory for its possibility to be a lens wherein practices and policies in education will be carefully investigated (Ladson-Billings, 1999) and as an research approach that uncover "greater ontological and epistemological understanding of how race and racism affect the education and lives of the racially disenfranchised" (Parker & Lynn, 2002, pp. 7-8).
So that researchers in critical education continue in their scientific endeavors, theorists of critical race in education are centrally focused on social justice, in particular, recognize the reality of race and racism in both classroom situations and the practices and institutions in institutions of education. As Ladson-Billings (1998, p. 8) noted, "despite the scientific refutation of race as a legitimate biological concept and attempts to marginalize race in much of the public, political discourse, race continues to be a powerful social construct and signifier". Therefore the key to the research of workers in critical race theory is the discussion and definition of race and racism in specific social and historical contexts, acknowledging that race is viewed as a sociohistorical notion (Omi & Winant, 1986) and that there is more to racism than individual prejudicial acts. It is rather a part of life that is endemic and deeply rooted in the educational system through ideological choices and historical conscious on race (Parker & Lynn, 2002).
Though race may well be considered a social construct but its effects on real life individuals are visible. Here, the beginnings of critical race theory in legal research focused its attention to the role law played in the racialization of individuals and the legal constructs surrounding citizenship which results in educational entitlements. Solorzano and Yosso (2002) explained that in education, critical race methodology zeroes in on how African American students respond and experience the educational system in the US. From the development of research questions to collection, analysis, and presentation of data, the critical race methodology highlights African American students. By positioning the marginalized group in the center of the analysis, critical research methodology has successfully captures the stories and narratives of African American students (Fernandez, 2002).
This type of leadership is observed when the leaders "broaden and elevate the interests of their employees, when they generate awareness and acceptance of the purposes and the mission of the group and when they stir their employees to look beyond their own self-interest for the good of the group" (Bass, 1990 as cited in Epitropaki, 2001).
Leaders adopting this leadership style clearly have a shared vision and most significantly manage in communicating effectively with the employee or work force. Because a transformational leader is considered a role model, his or her primary task is encourage their employees in prioritizing the organization' welfare over self interest. This leader also motivate employees to adopt innovative ideas and he or she makes personal risks and unafraid to employ unconventional and humane approaches in achieving the vision shared by the organization as a whole. This leadership style is transcends customary forms of leadership which emphasizes on rewards when tasks satisfied performance assessments, mutual exchanges, and corrective action. A transactional leader mainly relies on centralized power and control. Managers control most of the organization's activities, instructing each member the task he or she will perform. However, transformational leaders depend on their members and provide them space to grown and breathe. Thus, transformational leadership is both constructive and developmental in nature for every employee and entire organization. Numerous studies have demonstrated that transformational leadership enhances performance of the organization, customer satisfaction, long-term market share, employees' organizational commitment, trust of the employees towards the management, organizational citizenship behaviors, employee satisfaction with the job itself and the manager. It likewise reduces stress experienced by the employees thus increasing their well-being.
Choice theory is the culmination of theory and practice in psychology and counseling spanning 50 years by William Glasser,Â MD. This theory posits that at the center of a person's existence is behavior which is driven by the need for survival, belongingness/connectedness/love, power/significance/competence, freedom/responsibility, and fun/learning. He also explained that a "quality world" exists where individuals place importance