Social Policy Of Education Reform In Hong Kong Education Essay

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In the beginning of the establishment of Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR), the government has set forth a series of public sector reform programs. Apparently, it appears that most of the reforms are similar to those adopted measurements of Western societies. The significance of the reforms was understood to be part of the continuities and changes in the Hong Kong society. However, those reforms are also plagued with the crises and the issues of political, economic, and social institutions (Lee, 2000). And as part of the continuous reform, the Hong Kong government had implemented a New Senior Secondary (NSS) education system from the school year of 2009-2010 (Chan, 2010). The impact of globalization can be behind the reason in the implementation of the NSS education system because of the fundamental elements of Managerialism and McDonaldization that are applied in the educational reform.

The main aim of the study is to investigate the social policy of education reform in Hong Kong. The issue of applying the Managerialism and McDonalization received various critical analyses and concluded to create a significant impact of change. Therefore, the study is guided with the three interrelated objectives. First is to trace the historical development of education reform and the reform for Senior Secondary Education. Second is to assess the implication of Managerialism and idea of McDonaldization in the New Senior Secondary (NSS) education. And third is assess the cost and effectiveness of the applied Managerialism in NSS.

Historical Development of Education Reform and Reform for Senior Secondary Education (700 words)

Education plays an important role in building the competency of an individual and creating bridges for the future of every individual. This opinion about the essence of education seems to be the same inspiration of Hong Kong government in creating policies that will contribute towards the total development of education in the country. Therefore, through addressing the various reforms, the government's initiatives will be duly realized. The Hong Kong government implemented the various reforms to achieve the progress in education. Based on the Progress Report on the Education Reform issued, there is a reported progress in the reform in the first four years. Accordingly, the relevant measure at each stage of education is applied which is summarized in the following table.

Development of Education Reform

Stage of Education

Reform Measures

Progress within the past 2 Years

Early Childhood

To harmonize the monitoring

Various measures on the

Education

structure and subsidy mode

harmonization of pre-primary

 

of kindergartens and child

services have taken effect from the

 

care centers

2005/06 school year.

 

 

Quality assurance in

Seminars and workshops have

 

kindergartens

been organized to enhance the

 

self-evaluation skills of preprimary practitioners.

 

Focus inspections have prompted

 

kindergartens to further develop

 

their self-evaluation mechanism.

 

 

A pilot exercise on quality

 

review of self-evaluation results

 

of institutions was launched in

 

March 2004, with the participation

 

of kindergartens and child care

 

centers. The pilot exercise was

 

completed in July 2005. The

 

results will be used as reference

 

in formulating new measures in

 

future.

 

School

Through-train mode.

To date, 25 groups of public

Education

sector schools have adopted the

 

through-train mode.

 

 

To administer the Territory wide

The TSA has been introduced to the

 

System Assessment

Primary (P) 3, P6 and Secondary (S)

 

( T S A ) u n d e r t h e B a s i c

3 levels for the first time in 2004,

 

Competency Assessments.

2005 and 2006 respectively.

 

 

To review the Secondary

The EC has completed the review

 

School Places Allocation

and their recommendations were

 

(SSPA) mechanism and

accepted by the Education and

 

the medium of instruction

Ma n p o w e r B u r e a u ( EMB ) i n

 

(MOI) arrangements for

December 2005. The revised SSPA

 

secondary schools.

mechanism is implemented with

 

effect from the 2005/07 allocation

 

cycle (i.e. applicable to students

 

proceeding to S1 in September

 

2007 and thereafter) and the revised

 

MOI arrangements for secondary

 

schools will be implemented with

 

effect from September 2010.

 

 

To reform the academic

The EMB has announced in its

 

Structure for Senior

report entitled The New Academic

 

secondary education.

Structure for Senior Secondary

 

Education and Higher Education

 

- Action Plan for Investing in the

 

Future of Hong Kong, published

 

i n M a y 2 0 0 5 , t h a t t h e n e w

 

academic structure for senior

 

secondary education will be

 

implemented in 2009. The four-year

 

undergraduate programme

 

will also be implemented in 2012.

 

 

To extend School-based

SBA has been implemented in

 

Assessment (SBA)to

HKCEE Chinese History and

 

subjects of the Hong Kong

History in 2006.

 

Certificate of Education

 

Examination (HKCEE) and

 

Hong Kong Advanced Level Examination (HKALE)

SBA will be implemented in HKCEE Chinese Language and English Language and HKALE

 

Computer Studies in 2007.

 

 

Higher

To broaden the admission

The eight tertiary institutions

Education

criteria.

funded by the University Grants

 

Committee (UGC) are continuing

 

their efforts in broadening their

 

admission criteria gradually.

 

 

The eight UGC-funded institutions

 

announced on 5 July 2006 the

 

general entrance requirements and

 

programme specific requirements

 

for admission to undergraduate

 

programmes starting from the

 

2012/13 school year under the new

 

senior secondary (NSS) and higher

 

Education academic structure.

 

 

To increase the opportunity for post secondary education.

Assistance has been provided to

 

students and education institutions

 

to promote the development of self financed

 

post-secondary sector.

 

 

P o s t - s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n

 

opportunities are available to

 

66% of the relevant age cohort in

 

the 2005/06 school year.

 

Continuing

T o i m p l e m e n t t h e

I n d u s t r y T r a i n i n g A d v i s o r y

Education

Qualifications Framework

Committees (ITACs) have been

 

(QF) and its associated

established for 12 industries.

 

q u a l i t y a s s u r a n c e

Their responsibilities include

 

mechanism1 progressively

formulating the Specifications of

 

t o p r o m o t e t h e

Competency Standards which

 

development of continuing

can be used as a basis for the

 

education.

development of relevant training

 

programmes.

 

 

The Accreditation of Academic

 

and Vocational Qualifications

 

B i l l , w h i c h p r o v i d e s f o r t h e

 

e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a c r e d i b l e

 

quality assurance mechanism

 

under the QF, was introduced

 

into Legislative Council (LegCo)

 

in July 2005. The Bill is being

 

scrutinized by a Bills Committee

 

formed by LegCo.

Source: http://www.e-c.edu.hk/eng/reform/Eng%20PR%284%29%20Chapter2.pdf

Managerialism and New Senior Secondary (NSS) Education of Hong Kong (1100words)

Apparently, there are 53% of Hong Kong's senior secondary school leavers now have the opportunity to receive tertiary education. And the government is striving to achieve the target that 60% of Hong Kong's senior secondary school leavers will have access to tertiary education by 2010/11. Through the reforms in the academic structure of the Senior Secondary Education and Higher Education is expected to be a great way to enhance the level of education in Hong Kong (Leung, 2005).

The senior secondary educational development program of Hong Kong, in general, suggests that there should be policies aligned for the long-term objectives of the country and can be effective for the next decade. Along with the reforms are the proposals to acquire the needed resources like the manpower and finance that will implement according to the goals. However, because of the rising expectations of the general population in Hong Kong, there is a need for a better education and socially conscious younger generation. In the collaboration of teachers, nurses and social workers in the society, the Government employs its plans and targets that will be subject to more critical examination that can be also used for the next coming years (Hodge, 1980).

Since there is an emerging challenge in the globalization, the change in education appears to be natural. This is important in order to response fully towards the trend of globalization and to achieve the competitiveness. In Hong Kong, the impact of globalization is positively taken because of the various opportunities that it might create. The influence of the globalization is very evident in the Senior Secondary Education because of the idea of consolidating the basic knowledge, abilities, and attitudes that can be found among the students, the students also experience different kind of challenges that can explore their own aptitudes and strengths. In that way, the student will face the more challenging world of employment. On the other hand, the students are struggling in finding the appropriate education for them. Meaning to say, that the best combination of the subjects and curricula to explore their potentials and discover the weaknesses. The inclusion of the different emphases like the vocational education is a good foundation and investment to build the students' competency and further consolidate the students' foundation and pursuance in the lifelong learning. Developing their potentials is important in understanding their interests and be on their best position in their career life. In addition, because of the impact of globalization, the students are forced or think of the ways in order to support their education and gain experience. This means that there is a significant ratio of students that leave the secondary schools in order to continue their work or chose working that studying. Because of the evidences about the effects of globalization in the student's life, the senior secondary education is prepared to help the students in different aspects like in terms of language, communication, numeracy and information technology skills as well as ability towards leadership and teamwork. These are the areas that are needed or the basic requirements that will make the student competent in the employment.

The Hong Kong government recognized that there should be transition in education within the concept of "knowledge-based economy". Accordingly, the proposals in training the people have been part of the examination that should be part of the educational system. The examination of the differences of the students, particularly in the senior secondary education is a great justification that the concept of managerialism be applied in the education. Within the organization, the "managerialism" is about the belief that it is compose with more similarities and differences and through the application of the managerial skills and theory; an organization can be led well towards the objectives (Lee, 2000). In other countries, certainly in Western communities like UK, the educational sector is changes based on the concept of managerialism and thus becoming an increasing important factor in promoting the educational reform. Most of the influence of the managerialism is applied in the management of schools and colleges.

Within this concept, the human service organizations are important in generating the kinds of principles, success measures, structural arrangements and work modes. The policy implemented by the government will therefore rise in a condition that there should be professional support among their clients. Maintaining the integrity even in the midst of tension and changes in the society is what the policies and reforms are trying to achieve. Therefore, in managing the schools sector should demonstrate the hands-off control systems such as the appropriate resource allocation, developmental strategies towards the performance, and other forms of performance management (Simkins, 2000).

The Hong Kong government already taken the chance in reviewing the education system and therefore started the reforms to have a more creative and innovative citizens. The role of the government in terms of the social and strategic investment is to actively involve the development of the education in achieving a stable economy. Therefore, to aid this aim of the government, the adoption of a 'market-oriented approach' and 'corporate/new managerialism' in education is sought after by decentralizing the power but eventually re-regulating educational practices and track the phases towards the quality of education. Managerialism' may facilitate the efficiency and effectiveness of educational service delivery in Hong Kong, certainly by adopting a managerial approach in education. The main reason behind this movement and reform is that education is being viewed as a commodity, the schools and universities as 'value-adding' production units, the school principals and university presidents as the chief executive officers (CEOs) and managing directors, the parents and employees as consumers and customers (Mok & Chan, 2002; Fan, 2006).

The implementation of the new managerialism was a project that can be applied in order to meet the challenges arising from the social, economic, and political challenges within the time. The managerialism should be applied in many of the institutions. With the development in changing patterns of organization and management in all the institutions will be under with the new forms of organizational control to emphasize the managerialism approach in the education. The commitment of the organizations within the context of managerialism is patterned on the concepts of efficiency, organizational performance and customer-orientation in which the objectives of the educational institutions are interpreted. Along with the implementation of managerialism, the openness, collaboration, and the associated managerial styles are applied. All of these are important in terms of administering and implementing the managerial cultures. However, there should be a further investigation in terms of the effectiveness of all this applications to hold a management and leadership positions.

McDonaldization of New Senior Secondary (NSS) Education (1100words)

The rationale of the reform in the New Senior Secondary (NSS) is defined to be ambitious yet necessary. Many proposals have been measured towards the educational setting to make the future manpower competent enough. In fact, the additional year in the senior secondary education, as well as in university education is proposed to realize the benefits in the overall quality of the young people in Hong Kong (Leung, 2005). Like the globalization, the McDonaldization is a new perspective that can be applied in the educational reform. Since the globalization is a real phenomenon, the McDonalidization is a real application of the strategies in order to accommodate the changes in the society.

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