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Training exceptional children for their social adjustment and for an independent employment is the ultimate goal as otherwise they would be a burden not only for their own family but for the society as a whole. Successful social adjustment depends on the adaptation of the person to the social environment. Adjustment may take place by adapting the self to the environment or by changing the environment. Because adjustment is a form of behavior, that comes through social dealings, therefore the adjustment, or maladjustment of any individual is directly affected by the social situation in which he/she is living. Thus for the better social adjustment of exceptional children, they must have a full training in adaptive skills e.g. communication skill, home living and self care skill. It is noted that with an increased emphasis on community placement and normalized living conditions, vocational therapy programs have shifted their focus to more adaptive skills for the social adjustment of special children in work place.
Vocational training is basically designed to enable the disabled individual to resume productive employment. Individuals who have experienced changes in their mental or physical function due to illness or injury may require vocational therapy to allow them to return to work. Vocational therapy works with individuals and their new physical or mental status to find an appropriate occupational match. (Beers and Robert, 2004)
Adaptation of the person to the social environment; adjustment may take place by adapting the self to the environment or by changing the environment (Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996).
People with exceptionalities face an extensive range of hurdle:
Adjustment problem in workplaces, schools and office environment are not sufficient for them and transportation is not designed according to their comfort.
They are mostly rejected by their peers and other society member.
Poor interpersonal skills
Educational facilities are limited
Policies and quota system which don't take exceptional citizens in account, there is only 2-3% quota for their employment which is consider to be dissatisfied.
Due to these problems mainstreaming in society and economy is narrow. But now-a-days additional importance is giving to children with special needs. As Government labour policy, 2010 declared special quota for disabled people both in private and government sector. Equal status and opportunity should be provided to disabled person. The policy also affirmed to provide all facilitates to people with exceptionalities in their jobs, education and other social safety which an ordinary citizens have.
Social and Job adjustments problems of special children:
Study found that people with learning disabilities are struggling with their academic capabilities but in return receive poor grades due to their lower intellectual abilities as compared to their peers with learning disabilities. All these eventually create barriers in their professional performance, employment, and career development. Study recommends that suitable policies and programs should be developed to encourage medicine as a likely career for people with disabilities. "Universal disability-awareness training" programs in medical schools should be arranged for teachers, so that they will learn how to teach in inclusive setting with LDs. Train student with LD and recruit them and create a LD friendly environment so that they gain their full self esteem and adjust in their occupational life (Majumder et al., 2010). A study by Khatoon, 2006 explored the strong points and weaknesses of the occupational training necessities, job searching & its adjustment troubles for special needs children in Pakistan. The study also exposed that previously in Pakistan most of the special school centers are not giving their students with proper vocational training. But now a day's some vocational training centers are established both in private sector and government sector to help children with exceptionalities. The finding of the study showed that many of the school didn't have vocationally trained staff for the proper guidance of special children. The option of employment is also restricted. Because of poor services at work place Job adjustment troubles arises there. There are no mobility devices for special children. The employers do not bother about provision of special needs like toileting or machine modifications to suit the special person. The study also found that staff is not so much cooperative to help their disable colleague in learning new skills. These problems influence the capability of a special person negatively. The study recommended that assistive technology should be provided along with vocational training so that the person can perform in an improved way.
Likewise preparing mentally retarded children for their social adjustment and for an independent occupation is the ultimate goal as otherwise they would be a burden not only for their own family but for the society as a whole. Successful social adjustment depends on the adaptation of the person to the social environment. Adjustment may take place by adapting the self to the environment or by changing the environment. Because adjustment is a form of behavior, that comes through social dealings, therefore the adjustment, or maladjustment of any individual is directly affected by the social situation in which he is living. The problems, of adjustment of mentally retarded children is not of a few individuals which can be put aside carefully, estimated there are about nine million handicapped in Pakistan. Malik, 2010 found that vocational therapy play important role in social adjustment of children with mental retardation in their employment. The study also concluded that vocational therapy plays vital role in developing the positive self-concept of mentally retarded children. The study also found that with the help of vocational therapy mentally retarded children will be able to communicate with their peers and society in a good manner; it will improve their communication skills.
Sajjad et al., (2010), in their study observed that in Pakistan most of the special children's center giving pre vocational training to their children for enhancing their students motor, coordination and communication skills and some are offering vocational courses along with other academic courses. The study concluded that most of the children got job independently in those areas where they were trained. With the help of their good communication skills they develop good relation with their colleague and employers. The study suggested that there is need for proper pre vocational and vocational training program for disable children in Karachi.
Enhancing social adjustment of children with exceptionalities:
A study by Hussain et al., 2002 revealed that in earlier year's large amount of disabled people believed that most of their family member considered them as a burden. Especially families of poorer quality expressed extra pessimistic feelings towards people with exceptionalities. But now-a-days parents are giving more attention to their children with disability. As Naz et al., (2010) exposed that parents have a long term duty and interest for their child's future. Parents have a right to pursue the least restrictive environment with supports and services for their handicapped children to attain their personal aims. The literature review also explored some of the rehabilitation programs of physically handicapped children. Many parent believed that it was hard to get knowledge about a range of services and settlements offered for handicapped children. So there is need to aware people about handicapped future settlements through electronic media. Assist people with disabilities to turn out to be dynamic members of society, so that they will contribute equal to their peers or society members without disability.
People with exceptionalities must be encourage and supported by family so that they will accomplish their maximum functional level and decrease the burden of their family by achieving high superiority of life. Some of the employment opportunities of disabled people are:
Open employment, employment in shops, factories, government servant etc
Self employment, homemade crafts, rug making etc.
Sheltered employment, employment in a protective atmosphere
Rural employment, harvesting etc
Akram and Naseem in 2010 also revealed that social adjustment of special children depends upon their self-concept, if the quota for disable enhanced, their self esteem also increased. Then they will be more able to support them and their family. This will not only enhance their social adjustment and self concept, but they also participate in increasing country economy.
In Malaysia there is an increasing awakening concern by the Malaysian government on the importance of giving career guidance and trainings for the young disabled groups. The Ministry of Higher Education has introduced continuing skill-based programs for the young hearing impaired students to provide them for production career including hospitality industry. This study founded that some of the hearing impaired graduates currently working directly in hospitality industry or its sub-sectors & some disable graduates are infrequently taking advantage of the given chances. However, considerable numbers of graduates are struggling of getting job in the industry owing to their physical condition. The study also exposed that many hospitality organizations are still hesitant to hire the hearing impaired graduates. In result, the graduates believe that their efforts and time spent together with their parents' investments education and career skill development during the 2 years of study have not been worthwhile. Hospitality organizations have offered suitable skills and knowledge for the disables to further grow them in the hospitality working world. Consequently, the beginning of this specialized educational program is valuable. However there are some issues associated to hospitality industry like, job hoping, poor transfer inadequate of manpower and slow destruction (Zahari et al., 2010). Pinto and Sahur, 2001 found that a large amount of stress is giving on vocational rehabilitation of disabled children in India. For example in Bangalore many of the disabled are packing boxes for tea for company in India. Instructions are also provided in silk knitting. In Delhi many of the disabled people are trained in watch repair.
Rashid in 2012 also emphasized that government should designed some policies for the children with mental retardation and for their parents like providing funds, trained them in employment skills also give confidence to private sector to provide work for those children with disabilities. So that parental stress will be reduced. Sajjad, 2004 in her thesis title "the status of vocational training programs for the disabled person in Pakistan" states that very few schools in Pakistan offer vocational therapy. Five national training centers are assigned in Islamabad, Karachi, Lahore, Peshawar and Quetta. The centers provide vocational therapy to the moderate to severely retarded persons. Vocational therapy was introduced in mid 1950s with setting up of two institutes in Karachi and Rawalpindi. Half a century later, there has been a multiple increase in the number of institutions, enrolments and teachers imparting vocational education. During the period 1950-2002, hundreds of middle, secondary and higher level vocational therapy and training schools, colleges and universities in government and private sector have been set up. The Government of Pakistan now launched many programs for the vocational therapy, education, training and rehabilitation of its disabled population. A few modern institutions have been established by some leading organization of Pakistan. The society for the rehabilitation of the disabled, Lahore ,The al-shifa , Karachi ; Amin Maktaab Lahore, Frontier Association for the Mentally Handicapped and the Sahadab Society for the rehabilitation of disabled (Shafqat Munir, 2002).
Nature of jobs for children with exceptionalities:
Sajjad (2006), in her study investigate the nature of jobs in Pakistan for people with exceptionalities. The study revealed that special services were offered to children with special needs. For training special children in their job many of the employers provide their disable employees with vocational training so that they will improve their communication and social skills. The finding of the result also revealed that majority of the children with special needs were hired as low grade employees like peon, telephone operator etc. but to some extent no special provision were provided to children with physical impairment at their job places for a barrier free environment. Most of the employees who are hearing impaired and visually impaired were appointed as low grade employees such as, messengers, peons, clerk etc. The finding of the study also revealed that employees with disability get promotions and salaries equal to their colleagues without disability. Other than the employees were dissatisfied with fixed 2% quota system, they were of the opinion that quota is important for them so it will be increased in jobs. Rehman in 2010 also found that hearing impaired students were satisfied with vocational training program as they were able to get job easily in areas where they were trained. According to them after vocational training and education many of them were employed in private and government sector. The employers of Lahore Rawalpindi and Islamabad were also satisfied with the work of their hearing impaired employees
It is concluded that adjustment is a life-long process which helps individuals manage or cope with the various demands of the environment. Consequently we must develop the limited abilities of the subnormal children to such a degree that their deficiencies will be supplanted by capabilities. Parents can reduce their children poor social adjustment by giving proper training to their children in educational, vocational field because vocational training help them in improving their inter and intra personal skills, communication skill. They can help their children by giving proper training in self-help skills, after getting the vocational therapy, the mentally retarded children will be able to behave in a good way with other people. And the children will not be any more dependent on others and socially adjust in the society. Vocational therapy enhances the career preparation and employability of children with exceptionalities. Study by Schloss et al., also verified that social skills training which is prepared by vocational therapy has the ability to overcome and equalize problems that generate obstacles in work and social adjustment.
It's a responsibility of government and family to fully train the disable person for an independent employment. Training will help children with exceptionalities to regain their psychological security, help them in their social skills, basic self help skills and communication skills. All these would lead in the direction of social adjustment in professional and independent employment.
It is recommended to provide assistive technology to exceptional children in work place so that they will able to work in an adjustable manner.
A database of exceptional population who are vocationally trained should be established on national level so as to keep track of their lives and use their skill in industrial sector of the country, so that people have developed a positive attitude toward children with exceptionalities.
A request to government to provide good facilities for the education and training of exceptional children. There should be more rehabilitation centers/institutes so that they can enhance their capabilities in terms of social adjustment