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What Skills are required for effective management? Analysze with supporting evidence from own experience, two personal skill and two professional skills a manager need to be effective in their role, explain how these contribute to meeting both organisational and personal goals.
Skills for effective management:
The importance of managerial performance and effectiveness has long been recognised by major writers such as Drucker who originally in 1955, propounded that:
The manager is a dynamic, life giving element in every business. Without their leadership 'the resources of production remain resources and never become production. In a competitive company, overall the quality and performance of the managers is the only effective advantage and enterprise in a compitive company can have. (Drucker, 1955)
Managerial efficiency can be distinguished from managerial effectiveness .Efficiency is concerned with doing things right and relates to inputs and what the manager does. Effectiveness is concerned with doing the right things and relate to output of the job and what the manager actually achieves. To be efficient the manager must attend to therefore to the input requirement of the job-to clarification of the objectives, planning organization direction and control. But in order to be effective, the manager must give attention to output of the job-to performance in term of such factors as obtaining best possible results in the important areas of the organization, optimising use of resources, increasing profitability and attainment of the aims and objectives of the organisation. Effectiveness must be related to the achievement of some purpose, objective or task to the performance of the process of management and the execution of the work. Luthens attempt to distinguish between effective and successful managers.
They are defined in term of the quantity and quality of standards of performance and satisfaction and commitment of subordinates.
They are defined operationally in term of the speed of their promotion within an organization.(Mullings L,2007).Based on the research in the world and in Vietnam and from the success of previous workshops the Centre for Excellence in Management Development (CEMD) continuously offers the workshop on Effective Management Skills to help people and organization improving their own effectiveness and efficiency. Through this workshop participants are not only developed specific competencies in the schedule but also improved learning skills facilitating skills and teamwork skills.Â Skills which are required for effective management are described blew under main skills and sub skills.
Creative Problem Solving Skills:
Describing and analyzing a problem
Identifying causes of a problem
Developing creative options and choosing the best course of action
Implementing and evaluating effective and efficiency of the decision.
Report witting skills.
Conflict Management Skills:
Identifying sources of conflict functional and dysfunctional conflicts
Understanding personal style of conflict resolution
Choosing the best strategy for dealing with a conflict
Developing skills in promoting constructive conflicts in organization and teams.
Distinguishing distributive and integrative negotiations position
Identifying common mistakes in negotiation and ways to avoid them
Developing rational thinking in negotiation
Developing effective skills in negotiation that benefits all parties involved.
Two personal skills
Two professional skills
Report writing skill
Evaluation of my professional and personal skill
These skills will helpful for me in future to meet personal and professional goals. My time management is very good I am punctual and regular and always reached on time whenever I have to go. I never late from class or even where ever I go never late. This proves very helpful for me because I never missed the things like lectures etc. I also have ability of problem solving. I can solve problem easily and immediately and choose best outcome of problems. I always try my level best to solve the problems as soon as possible with best outcome so that I can escape from stress or tension. These both personal skills will helpful for me in future.
Through practise I also have command on report writing, initially I was not able how to write a report but attending lectures and practice now I am able to write good professional report. I also gave presentation. Now it is easy for me to give good present. Now I can write down different professional report and I am able to give good presentation. These also will helpful for me in future to achieve organisational and personal goals.
Mullings, L. (2007) Management and Organizational Behaviour, 8th Edition: Edexcel
http://www.cemd.ueh.edu.vn/Effective -managment-skill-e.htm (Access date 24/04/2010)
Conduct a personal and professional skills audit using SWOT analysis. Employ cause and effect diagram to further analysis one professional and one personal skill. Generate a detailed action plan which demonstrates how you intend to address areas for further management and leadership development. Explain the impact of learning styles on personal skills.
SWOT stands for S=Strengths=Weaknesses=Opportunities T=Threats
Personal SWOT analysis
Poor Stress Management
Difficulty in setting objectives
Poor background of business.
Feedback from tutor
Interaction different region's people
Home office, if I get failed
If not get job fee submission problem
May be not able to pass DMS
Table: 1.0: Personal SWOT analysis
Professional SWOT Analysis
Report Writing Skill
Poor Communication Skills
After complete DMS, I can do MBA.
Deliver good Presentation
Job in Banks
Because of poor communication I may not able to deliver presentation well and lose the job
Table 2.0: Professional SWOT Analysis
Cause and effect diagram is often known as Ishikawa or fishbone diagram.
Less chance to lead people
Poor communication skill
Poor coaching skill
Figure: 2.1: Fishbone diagram of Poor Leadership
Poor Stress Management
Figure: 2.2: Fishbone Diagram of Poor Stress Management
My professional weakness is poor leadership. Because i have less chances to lead a group or people. Another cause may be poor communication and some time I am not enough able to deliver my message to the people. But after knowing about my weakness now I am trying my level best to overcome this weakness. I am seeking the abilities of how become good leader.
On personal side my stress management is very poor so far. The causes of poor stress managements are I am short tempered and I get angry may be there is no valid reason to get angry. Another cause may be poor communication, when I get angry I never express my feelings and I feel there is shortage of words and I became silent.
But after assessing my weakness I am trying to seek the skills how to manage with stress. Now I am able to manage the stress to some extent but it needs more attention and more time.
Educationalist have long realised that we learn in different ways. One widely used categorisation of different learning styles that provided by Honey and Mumford.
They identified four different characters with quite different preferred learning styles-the activist, the pragmatist, the reflector, the theorist. diagnostic tests exist to established which learning style is more appropriate for you and help you develop an action plan to develop your learning skills You should give yourself a score between one and ten(1-10) for how well each of the description describe you. If you give it to 1 it is very poor description of you. if u give it 10 it is very good description of you.
My learning style is Pragmatists which I describe blow.
You are a practical person
You like to solve problems
You enjoy experimenting to improve techniques
You frequently come up with answer to the problems
You only interested theories is to see if they work in practice
You dislike situation where there is no clear,practicle outcome
You work well to deadlines.
You learn well when:
You are expected to make practical decisions
Using simulations and case studies
Learning from proven good practice, using the examples and the expertise of others.
Pragmatist Total =
Table 3.0: Pragmatist Learning Style
Interptation of Learning Style
A pragmatist is a practical person who likes to solve problems. They enjoy experimenting to improve techniques. They frequently come up with the answer to a problem. Their only interest in theories is to see if they work in practice. They dislike the situation where there is no clear practical outcome.
Pragmatist learns well when:
They are expected to make practical decisions
Timescales are tight
They must better find better ways to do things
Learning from proven good practice
Learning from examples and the expertise of others
They are expected to plan the next step
Pragmatists will particularly benefit from training which involves simulations and case studies
Pragmatists learn less well when:
They are expected to come up with new ideas themselves
The practical relevance of what they are doing is unclear
They are expected to work out why a technique work
As a pragmatist learner I like to solve problems. According to this timescale is tight. I always finish my work on time. I used to learn from practical examples and I always learn from good practice. When I start practice immediately I can understand. There are some problems of learning when any one expects to come up with my ideas because I am less creative. Sometime it is unclear for me what I am doing. This exercise is very helpful for me because after to knowing my learning style I am trying my level best to overcome my weaknesses and trying to learn more and enhance my strengths.
You need to determine your goals using SMART, and clearly identify target dates for monitoring and review. Produce an ongoing development plan and reflective record of management experience .On attaining one professional and personal goal-produce a reflective analysis for each goal.
Improve Communication skill
My personal goal is to improve my communication skills by learning more English. When I came in UK for study it was very difficult for me to communicate in English so I made this goal that I have to learn English for good communication and for personal development. Now I am trying hard to learn English to communicate people and seek job as well. Regardless of the size of business we are in whether a large corporation a small company or even a home based business effective communication skills are essential for success. Communication is very important tool for personal development. In fact communication is only successful when both the sender and the receiver understand the same information as a result of the communication. So I started working on it and by the end of this month I will be able to communicate well and for this I am also learning English. When my communication will be effective I became successful girl.
Improve Leadership Ability
Improve leadership abilities is my professional goal. It is the activity of leading a group or team. I find myself that there is lack in my leadership abilities. For this I need good communication, being articulated, flexible, creativity and empathic as well. So to seek the leadership abilities I have to learn these things as well. The factors that lead to this weakness are weak communication skill, not enough creative and less chances to lead people. So now I am trying my level best to learn leadership abilities for professional development. Whenever I go for job then this will be helpful for me in future.
Personal Development Plan (PDP)
Learning and development need
How does this support your professional and personal goals
Learning actions to be taken including resources needed to achieve them
Date of achievement
Attempt to write professional report
Improve communication skills
When I will do job in banks etc. This practice will helpful for me in future
It will help in my personal and professional development
Submit my report to Dr.Gary Bell in order to gain feedback
It will help in my professional and personal development.
14th May 2010
10th May 2010.
Table 4.0: Table of PDP (Personal and Professional)
Writing skill in being an effective manager. Include report writing as a professional weakness in the SWOT analysis, and should be included in the development plan. Undertake report writing exercise. On completion of the report undertake a reflective analysis of this professional skill.
Report on "Project Management: Is there A Crisis?"
This report discusses about the software project failure and aims to highlight the causes of software crises. Many researchers done different researches to check out the causes of software project failure. Furthermore, the article suggested that the money was wasted on ill planned, mismanagement and delayed Information Technology projects. The finding shows that the problems associated with software crises still persist and believed that there is need to re-examine the software development phenomenon.
Table of Content
Symptoms of Software Crisis ............................................................................................17
Primary Causes of Software Crisis.......................................................................... ........18
The software industry has grown and evoveled over decades. This is computing and Information Technology age and these became need of the hour because they made our life easier as before earlier. Computing and software technology has become more sophisticated and powerful every year which can trigger new software markets. Moreover clients are becoming more ambitious and are generating more demanding requirements. Sadly ,the software industry is still tarnished by problems, such as cost overruns,scheduladge slippage and poor product quality. These problems known as the 'software crisis
(Conte et al 1986).Anecdotal evidence that in the UK the crisis is not abating is provided. Thus, we argue that one primary cause is software project management and associative orthodox approaches. Charette (2005) has complied some astounding failure statistics. He mentioned that software project failure accurse in almost every country, like UK, USA, Australia, and Canada on large or small level. He discusses that software crises cost was $ 17.33 billion only in America. Later on a comprehensive survey was conducted by KPMG (1995), using sample of 250 UK organization. They find out about 62% organization had at least one major software failure.
Symptoms of Software Crisis:
The researcher finds out many symptoms of software crises. Some ( Conte et al,1986) have highlighted a crisis within the software industry. Glass (1998) points out that there is no comprehensive survey examining what percentage of software project fail. Cost, delivery time and quality are identified as the three symptoms to assess the success or failure of a project of a project. Anecdotal evidence is used to highlight the symptoms and primary causes of project failure which engenders serious concerns.
Researcher find out the symptoms which lead to software project failure are quite common like cost over from estimation, money wasted on ill-planned, mismanagement and delayed InformationTechonology projects which leads to project failure.
Primary Causes of Software Crisis:
Charette (2005) and Glass (1998), discovered many primary causes of software project failure. These are under below.
Unspecified objectives and bad planning:
Glass (1998) find out the main reason of software project failure are the objectives were not specified and they didn't made proper planning and estimation need resources before they start any project and which cause the software project failure.
They used inadequate methods for project management and did not know the proper methodology of different projects.
Insufficient senior staff and project complexity:
There were less experienced staff and mostly the projects were very complicated.Therefore,it was difficult for new and junior staff to handle the project complication.
Poor performance of the suppliers. Those who supply the hardware and software some time they create problem which leads to software crisis.
There are many more causes which create problem and cause the software project like stakeholder politics, commercial pressure and unmanaged risk etc.
It is concluded that the symptoms and causes of the software project failure, many factors involved in the crisis but the main thing it had to be done before start any of the project is that analysts should implement it or apply it in a limited area, after the trial if it is succeed then they should apply as a whole.
It is need to re examine the software development phenomenon so that it can produce better results in future.