Skills for effective Management and Leadership

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Leadership is the behaviour of an individual directing the activities of a group toward a shared goal. (Hemphill & coons). Leadership is the process of making sense of what people are doing together so that people will understand and be committed. (Drath & Palus)

Leadership is the ability of an individual to influence, motivate and enable others to contribute toward the effectiveness and success of the organisation. (House et al)

The leader is inspiration and director of the action. In business Leadership is welded to performance. Effective leaders are those who increase their company's bottom line. Leader is a person in the group that possesses the combination of personality and skills that makes others want to follow his direction, you may be seen as a leader because you got this position but you can only become an effective leader if you have the right leadership skills.

Some people believe that leadership skills are God gifted and if you are born with those then you can become a leader otherwise not. According to my point of view, everyone has a brain and we can learn all these skills with some hard work.

Leadership Styles:

The three major styles of leadership are

1. Authoritarian or autocratic

This style is used when leaders tell their employees what they want done and how they want it accomplished, without getting the advice of their followers. This style as a vehicle for yelling, using demeaning language, and leading by threats and abusing their power. This is not the authoritarian style, rather it is an abusive, unprofessional style called bossing people around. It has no place in a leader's repertoire.

2. Participative or democratic

This style involves the leader including one or more employees in the decision making process. However, the leader maintains the final decision making authority. This is normally used when you have part of the information, and your employees have other parts. A leader is not expected to know everything; this is why you employ knowledgeable and skilful employees. It allows them to become part of the team and allows you to make better decisions.

3. Delegative or Free Reign

In this style, the leader allows the employees to make the decisions. However, the leader is still responsible for the decisions that are made. This is used when employees are able to analyze the situation and determine what needs to be done and how to do it. You must set priorities and delegate certain tasks. This is not a style to use so that you can blame others when things go wrong, rather this is a style to be used when you fully trust and confidence in the people below you.

Surprisingly, the research discovered that there is no one best style: leaders must adjust their leadership style to the situation as well as to the people being led.

1. Situational Leadership

2. Emergent leadership

3. Transactional Leadership

4. Transformational leadership

5. Charisma

6. Visionary Leadership

7. Team Leadership

8. Facilitative Leadership

9. Leadership Influence Styles

10. Cross-Cultural Leadership

11. Coaching

The objective of leadership is to achieve goals efficiently with by using limited resources. In an organization, leaders are responsible to manage people, divide tasks and analyze output & performance. Planning, decision making, motivations & communications are the basic skills required by all leaders.

Becoming a leader is not the big deal. Actual thing is how good your leadership skills are and how effectively you can manage your jobs and team.

Transformational Leadership

With transformational leadership, the followers feel trust, admiration, loyalty and respect towards the leader and they are motivated to do more than they originally expected to do. It increases follower motivation and performance. Transformational leadership is about implementing new ideas; these individuals continually change themselves; they stay flexible and adaptable; and continually improve those around them.

The primary focus of this leadership style is to make change happen in:

Our Self,


Groups, and


Transformational Leader Behaviours

There are three types of transformational behaviours.

Idealised Influence: it is the behaviour that arouses strong follower emotions and identification with the leader. Setting an example of courage and dedication and making self sacrifices to benefit followers.

Intellectual Stimulation: it is the behaviour that increase follower's awareness of problems and influence followers to view problems from new prospective.

Individual Consideration: it includes providing support, encouragement and coaching to followers.

A revision of this theory added another transformational behaviour called "inspirational motivation" which includes communisation an appealing vision and using symbols to focus subordinates effort.

Task 1 (Part B)

Professional & Personal Skills:

Your plan should identify your learning and development needs. You need to consider all the resources required to help you achieve your objectives and build in realistic timescales for both achievement and review.

We will discuss in this part, what are the necessary professional & personal skills to meet your personal and organisational goals.

Task: Evaluate the Professional and Personal Skills you possess.

Professional Skills

Current level

5 = Strong

1= Weak

Best current example

Ways to improve




Now a days presentation is going on in the class, exchanging different ideas with multicultural fellows. Studying in a group, discussing general back grounds of colleagues, their values etc

By discussing different topics with colleagues, learning vocabulary from articles, consulting dictionary, making practice of speaking in front of people. reading newspaper, listening news, watching general discussion on the T.V


Problem Solving


Usually I do solve my problem on my own, do not get confused, find clarification by giving proper time when facing difficulty in my assignments, by keeping strength of mind high, by taking shot break to lose by stress

Improvement can be made by learning different skills about managing problems, time limitation be kept in mind, be patience and not to lose confident, by observing senior management.




Mostly I prefer the task first which are easier because they give pleasure and encouragement, or those which are less time consuming but do not avoid that assignment which is vital to complete.

Better planning is when it can accomplish the task well on time, so keep in mind the time available. Before planning be aware of the whole situation.


Supervision and Management


I was involved in supervision of some social tasks in my country, I was praised for its success on time.

First of all be punctual yourself to make others punctual, before starting any task give instructions and guidance to subordinates to be prevented from error.


Innovation, Creativity and Development


I am lacking this skill, anyhow trying to achieve new path to success, want to turn old technique into unique one but honestly only routine life is going

By visioning, advancing skills in creating modern stuff which realise people to adopt or convert older things up to date.




Now a days we are organising combine studies in our college and outside the college. Before, I organised upper management meeting of NGO's in Pakistan, receiving, seating arrangements, their refreshment etc.

First, keep in mind the number of person attending; their adjusting arrangement must be completed before time. Timing must be kept in mind, refreshment should be according to situation and environment.





Leading & Chairing Meetings


Do not get enough opportunity to lead. Only little small festival I did lead in my previous college as well as community events which really improved my self-assurance and encouragement.

Leaders must be determined, have a strong point of views. While leading collect suggestions but implement which you feel accurate and productive.


Delivering effective presentation


Presentation are going on now a days, I have been facing some communication problem during presentation, on the other hand handle the situation, confident is satisfactory and voice is better as well.

Must having proper knowledge with facts and figures of topic which is going to be presented, deliver within time limit, tone must be appropriate, have a look on all audience. Do not repeat the sentence.


Professional Knowledge


Professional knowledge is not up to date, this is one of my weaknesses. Now trying to enhance skills and capabilities with my able teachers and hard working fellows.

Reading business articles from different newspaper can increase intellectual abilities. Attending professional seminar can improve as well.

(B) Personal Skills

Current level

5 = Strong 1= Weak

Best current example

Ways to improve


Time Management


Mostly, I have been well on time in my class, give proper time to my assignments, cope my time for studies, cooking, paying utility bills, other home affairs have to fulfil, managing financial matters of home, travelling etc even unemployed.

It can be improved by making time table of daily life, by directing routine yourself. Make list of work to done at week end




It's better to know about yourself, as I m regular to my classes, but researching for job. My behaviour to my class mates is better as we are working like a team. Friendly environment at my residence.

By making deep visualisation of self behaviour, judging yourself as in which direction you are going and which direction you have to follow.


Objective Setting


After completing DMS with work placement for 6 months which will lead me for my MBA then make me able for UK work visa and residency.

Keep your aim in mind, then observe different paths, after all choose the best way which helps you up to that objective.


Prioritizing Work Tasks.


I prefer that task which is small or the easier one because it gives encouragement and pleasure. But I do not avoid urgent task and do on priority bases.

Examine the task, first do the task which is necessary to perform after that you should choose easier or smaller one.




In past I used to decide to choose shot cut but they mostly appeared longest way to my destination. So now I use to decide better way avoiding shot way.

Take that decisions which would manufacture effective and productive and hold them on to achieve the particular purpose.


Dealing with interruptions


Mostly interruption detracts the intention from original task, but I do keep in mind and always try to concentrate towards my goal. Always avoid the interruption

This only way to improve is just give full attention towards your interest, neglecting irrelevant matters, try not to be confused.


Planning & Organising Skills


Currently working with DMS, I have been planning for long that how I will return to my country after completing my studies. Now a days serious to my studies and for coming MBA, looking for job as well along my studies.

Your goal must be with you, not only goal always remember your aim. Look what you are doing today that getting you closer where you want to be tomorrow.




Now a days facing individual assignments, so some times doing alone. But concentrating towards studies without irritation.

Not to be frustrated at sudden problem, keep your moral high, after observing the problem start it with full commitment.


Team Work


Working like a team in a rental house, we are connecting with different multicultural people, different values, liking and disliking. Even then we manage our activities, living like a family, distribute our work, financial affairs, billings, cooking, cleaning our home etc. we are working in team

Improvement can be made by tolerating each other, cooperating with fellows, compromising if uncertain circumstances, not to lose the temper, regarding each other, celebrating festivals associating any member to show unity.




I have been recently arrived in UK, we are creating new relations with the classmates, connecting with fresh friends and society, connecting with new people.

When attending all the classes regularly, meeting with classmates and discussing matters, inviting each others, helping and cooperating each others.




I am cool with the circumstances, though I am jobless but yet concentrating towards my studies because I know that taking tension will create trouble for me in new country.

When living in the society, no need to argue with any one, only ask thing which you really need it. Maintaining courage, patience and do concentrate.


Technology Skills


I am lacking technological skills, currently working up to ms office forms my assignment, and I should really need to improve this skill as it adds values and demand.

Technological skills can be improved by doing short courses of hardware software, programming languages etc to develop competitiveness.




Mostly, i do conservation politely and completely. Do not start debating with any one, mostly keep silent, talk when need to say or ask some thing.

Do try to involve in different discussion with your colleagues, friends, and mates. Exchanging different views can improve.


Listening Skills


I can understand lectures given, news, sometimes different concentrations can create problems.

Paying full attention, listening news and other T.V programs can increase listening skills. Even listening songs can helpful too

Task 2

Undertake a personal skills audit, identifying preferred learning style, which focuses on the skills required for effective management and leadership:


Undertake a personal skills audit (SWOT analysis), identifying preferred learning style and which focuses on the skills

Required for effective management and leadership.



I have strong ethics at working environment including discipline.

Communicate well in my group.

Having capability to deal with emotional situation.

Try and try again to complete my task.

I can create things in my mind.

I am concern with my fellows to help them.

I prefer to talk about problem with my group.

Enjoy by applying different methods to experiment.

Having energy to work for long hours and ability to work under pressure.

Interact with professional people and good networking.

I can spend time alone with my personal interest.

I can achieve the goals of my life on my own.

I am in need to gain work experience.

Sometimes make quick decision.

Less knowledge about specific job.

Do not prefer leading role.

Absence of technical skills like hardware, software, programming etc.

I cannot take in information properly during reading.

Get immediately bored with boring people.

Lacking communication during presentation.



PGDMS is in progress with work placement.

After, MBA can make my position better in UK.

Opportunity to enhance my education and knowledge.

Better policies for genuine students in UK.

Master degree can lead me toward work permit in UK.

Better time to gain experience along with improving techniques.

Time to improve technical skills.

Exchanging information with multicultural people in UK.

It's a good opportunity that I got good teachers and hard fellows in my class.

Increasing competitions in the market.

Less jobs due to recession.

Low marks in my MBA.

Tough policies for students to work along with studies.

Lacking job hunting skills.

Sometimes sudden task makes me frustrated.

According to the average survey of self confidence I am good in the planning, IT skills and knowledge skills and I use these skills to attaining the desired goals.

I am also satisfactory in the supervision, listening, and presentation, decision making, problem solving and organised skills. And I am trying my best to achieving the goals utilizing these skills.

Need improvement in various skills like diplomatic and tactful, goal setting, coaching, communicating, persuasive, and appreciable to gain the organizational goal and personal goals as well.

Task 3

Personal development plan:













Supervision and management skills



By taking charge and responsibility of particular state of affairs.

Able to acquire charge and lead from face in a group and take valuable decisions.

2 years

Taking of important and sharp decisions.


Functioning in group



Tolerating each other, cooperating, compromising, fixing temper, performing role in team.

Capable to perform in every environment, accomplish outcome and performing team roles.

Maximum 6 months

Getting along well in a group and carrying out the development.


communication skills



By having successful conversations.

Able to converse large crowd of people efficiently and competently on any topic.

About 15 months

Receiver s praises our presentations and liberation.


Organizing and planning skills


By making and organizing specific plans.

Able to plan and organize large group of people to achieve and carry out a large project in specific deadline.

About 3 months

Carrying out a plan to perfection.


Writing skills



By practicing and learning of technical aspects.

Able to communicate well in writing, including technical and creative and business writing

About 1year

Writing with no mistakes and be effective in terms of business.

"To develop, deliver and operate transportation facilities and service; valuing the cost effective, safe, and efficient movement of goods in a manner that protect and enhances all natural environments and quality of life, nothing is more than customer satisfaction"(5)


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Ellis, R. (2009), "Communication Skills: Stepladders to Success for the Professional", Intellect Books, P.9

Stewart, D. M (1998), "Gower handbook of management skills", 3rd Ed. Gower Publishing, Ltd., P.13

Crandall, D. (2006), "Leadership lessons from West Point", John Wiley and Sons, P.263

Priest, S. and Gass, M. A. (2005), "Effective leadership in adventure programming", 2nd Ed. Human Kinetics, p.280