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The researcher conducted a literature review on students' self efficacy to wards English language learning at undergraduate department. This review of literature included research based articles and books. Self is the key construct in the schools of psychology. Ideas are different for many theorists as well as in fields of study, but in general the self is regarded as the conscious reflective personality of a person. The beliefs and values between the real and ideal self would be expanded. If we develop a higher thinking for ourselves and it can lead to make more developed morals and reasons, when we know who we are (James, 1981).
2.2. Self the center of the psychological universe:
With the passage of time when some individual grows in age, his maturity level is also proportioned to enhance. This phenomenon is termed by some psychologist as "self structure" (Lindgren, 1976).
2.3. Self beliefs and Bandura's Social cognitive theory:
According to Bandura's social cognitive theory every person owns a self system which control their thinking, feelings, motivations and actions. This self system provides them a mechanism set of sub functions to perceive, evaluate and bring in routine behaviors.
Social cognitive theory emphasizes on learning through observation as well as the role of social experiences on personality. The main concept of Bandura's social cognitive theory is that the actions and reactions of a person influenced by the actions which he observed in others within an environment. These observations are remembered to shape social behaviors and cognitive processes (Bandura, 1988).
It shows that how a person learns his behavior in his early stage but has a large impact on cognition and the later stages of development
Self efficacy is developed by external experience and self perception as well as outcome of many events. This is the foundation of Bandura's (1986) conception of reciprocal determinism, the view that (a) personal factors in the form of cognition affect and biological events, (b) behavior and (c) environment create interactions that result triadic reciprocally. In general Bandura provided a view of human behavior in which the beliefs that people have about themselves are key elements in the exercise of control and personal agency and in which individuals are viewed both as products and as producers of their own environments and of their social system (Kalat, 2002).
Social cognitive theory states that social and cognitive factors, as well as behavior play important role in learning. Cognitive factors might involve the student's expectations for success, social factors might include students observing their parents achievement behavior (Santock, 2006).
2.2. What is self efficacy?
One of the most heuristically, theoretically, & practically useful concept which is formulated in modern psychology has been Albert Bandura's of self efficacy expectations. Self efficacy expectations or beliefs in our capabilities to perform successfully in a given behavior or class of behaviors, are influence behavioral choices, performance & understanding. Bandura suggested that one of the major roles of counselor was to convince the client in a targeted behavioral domain by increasing his/her expectations of self efficacy. The concept of self efficacy expectation is now studied & used widely(Stajkovic & Luthans, 1998).
It is a belief that one has the capabilities which are required to manage expected situations by performing various courses of actions: as the sense of belief that one's actions have a great effect on his/her environment (Steinberg, 1998).
Self efficacy has been defined in many different ways as the belief that one is capable to perform a specific task to attain the certain goals in a certain manner or situation (Ormrod, 2006).
In other ways self efficacy defined as a personal belief about their capabilities which are essential to produce designated level of performance that influence over events which affects their whole life (Bandura, 1977).
Self efficacy is also defined as judgment of a person's capabilities which are based on mastery criteria; a sense of a sense of a person's ability or competence in a specific tasks which leads them to goal and standards rather than with the comparison of others capabilities. Additionally, it exercise past mastery on the personal past experience (Smalley, N.A).
Self efficacy is ability of person's judgment or assessment to perform a particular activity.
It is a student's "I can" or "I cannot" belief. Self efficacy reflects that how students are confident about performing a specific task unlike self esteem, which reflects that how students feel about their own work or value. For instance, talented individuals are quite capable of performing the assigned task although they can suffer from extreme self-doubt. While on the other hand, a spite of their limited skills some individual are extremely confident about their assigned task and they can do better rather than the talented individuals.belifs and reality are different from each other. They are not perfect match, yet individual are mostly guarded by their beliefs rather than the reality. Remembering all of these, self efficacy is to predict person accomplishment rather than their previous attainment, performance, credentials, or knowledge (Pajars, 2002).
2.3. Low self efficacy:
People who have the tendency to tackle a task, they believe that they succeed, but generally people with low self efficacy avoid tasks because their self efficacy is low.
On the other hand low self efficacy people significantly lower than their ability are unlikely to grow and expand their skills, low efficacy will be a source of incentive, motivation or stimulation for them that they learn more about the subject.
When people have low self efficacy, they also tend to blame either the situation or another person when things go wrong. Low self efficacy can readily lead the people to a sense of helplessness and hopelessness about ones capability to learn how to cope more effectively with the challenges. This often results in poor task planning, depression, tension and increased stress in them. Observational evidence shows that people become erratic or there is a lack of consistency, regularity or uniformity in them as well as they become unpredictable when they engage in such a task in which they have low self efficacy. Thus they are the victim of stress and depression (Golightly, 2007).
People with the weak or low sense of efficacy:
They avoid challenging tasks.
They believe that their capabilities are beyond that difficult tasks and situations.
They quickly loose confidence in personal abilities.
They focus on personal failings (Bandura, 1994).
2.4. High self efficacy:
People with high self efficacy significantly beyond their actual or real ability and over estimate their ability to complete assigned task, means that they possesses a greater sense of personal accomplishment, which can lead them to irreversible damage or harm. High efficacy people are more likely to take personal responsibility for their choices and decisions. As a result, some one with a high self efficacy mat not prepare sufficiently result or accomplishment for their task, on the other, people with high self efficacy often take a wider picture of a task in order to chose the best track or route of the action, hey are also encouraged by hurdles or obstacles to greater effort.
Self efficacy is a little above ability; which encourage or boost up the people. So they can tackle and handle the challenging task which are coming towards them and became able to get the valuable experience.
People with a strong sense of self efficacy:
They consider the challenging problems as task to be mastered.
The activities in which they participate, they develop deeper inters in them.
In their interests and activities they form a stronger sense of commitment.
They recover quickly from their setbacks and disappointments (Eggence & Kauchak, 2004).
2.5. Development & practice of self efficacy over the life span:
Different periods of life present certain types if competency demands for successful functioning. These normative changes in required competencies with age do not represent lock-step stages through which everyone must inevitably pass. There are many pathways through life end, at any given period; people vary substantially in how efficaciously manage their life.
This section provides a pre analysis of the characteristic developmental changes in the nature and scope of perceived self efficacy over the course of the life span (Baron, 2004).
A. a sense of personal accomplishment:
When a new born comes in the world, has no sense of self. Infant's just shrieks, kicks and produce unrecognizable sounds. With the passage of time they repeat action by observing the environment and reactions of others, provide them a sense of initial efficacy thus the infant who experience success become more attentive to their behavior. Personal experience as well as social experience established a sense of distinct self (Anderson, 1995).
Self knowledge is the first of integral competency areas in the students study. The guide line addresses the progressive acquisition throughout life of (1) knowledge of the influence of a positive self concept. (2) Skills to interact positively with others, and (3) understanding of the impact of growth and development.
Studies conducted by Anderson (1995) among others demonstrate the influence that increased understanding of ones self-concept and its effect on roles and relationship has upon career maturity. According to Anderson (1995),"self-knowledge is a domain with many pathways". Historical self -knowledge understanding of past experiences and influences that led to ones current level of development-is a key to shaping the future.
Another process that can help students enhance their self-knowledge is that of brain-based learning. Through instructions that can incorporate the principles of brain-based learning, students are led to comprehend and draw up the "vastness complexity and potential of the human brain" (Anderson, 2008).
B. Initial sources of self-efficacy:
Attainment of a goal or successful experience plays an important role in the development of self-efficacy but the parents who are responsive to their children's behavior by providing them opportunities, praising their capabilities and giving them freedom to express their feelings are more important. Not only parents but siblings are also responsible for it. Family's responsiveness helps in the development of cognitive competence. This can expand their capabilities.
There is mostly unfavorable environment for the youngest in relation to others may be for their advancement in age (Mcphee, 1995).
C. Peer groups:
Social learning and peer group influences can effect student's motivation. Students can judge their academic and social performance on the basis of comparing themselves with peers although they deny this social comparison but they are more likely to compare themselves with others. The students who are more social and more welcome by their peers often get high grades. They are more motivated to show positive academic achievement. Students are more influenced by the peer tutoring in collaborative and cooperative learning, and it's also helpful to learn material through small groups (Santrock, 2006).
D. Broadening community involvement:
Like peer group's community has always been an important influence on children and youth. Community is also a main source to ensure students success in academic field as well as in life broadening community involvement is also important for the young people because they need five basics which are based on community: a personal one-on-one relationship as a caring adult; a proper and safe place to learn and grow; a healthy start and bright future; a marketable and solid skill to use after graduation; and a chance to give back to their peers, family, nation and community(Lewis and Morris 1998).
E. Institutions as an agency for cultivating self-efficacy:
Child learns through their self-knowledge at the beginning, from family and peers after that the primary setting means institutions plat their role in cultivating the social experiences and cognitive capabilities. Thus school plays an important role in the development of cognitive competencies in the children so that they acquire the knowledge and use their skills for solving the problems which are essential for their participating effectively in the large society.
In this way their knowledge, abilities & thinking skills are continually tested, judged, evaluated and socially compared with each other. A growing sense of intellectual efficacy is being developed as children master in cognitive skills. The intellectual efficacy of the children's judgment is also affected by many social factors. The role of the formal instruction such as the modeling of cognitive skills by peers, the social comparison of the students performance with each other, positive incentives & motivational enhancement through goals & teachers remarks & attitude that reflect favorably or unfavorable on children's ability and their interpretation of children's ability and their interpretation of children's failure and success (Bandura, 1994).
F. self efficacy through transitional experience of adolescence:
Each period of development comes with new challenges for tackle and coping efficacy. As adolescents approach which demands that the adults must learn and realize their full responsibility for themselves as for every dimension of their life? This demanded to cope with the new ways of adults in the society. Learning how to deal with sudden changes, emotionally invested partnership and many new challenges, this becomes considerably important matter.
During adolescence there are many experimentation with risky behavior is not uncommon with growing independence. When adolescence successfully deals with potentially troublesome matters which are unpracticed and new for them because of this they expand and strengthen their sense of efficacy (Bandura, 1994).
2.6. Importance of English language learning:
ENGLISH is a West Germanic language that arouse in England which is the kingdom of Anglo-Saxon and spread into south- east scout Land. It has been widely dispersed (English-speaking world). In the whole world by following the economics, military, political, cultural, scientific and colonial influence of great Britain and United Kingdom from the 18th century (Ammon, 2006).
Following the international discourse, it has become the leading language and has acquired use in many reigns as a language of LINGUA FRANCA (Wardhaugh, 2006).
It is learnt as a second language and used as an official language in the European Union as well as in many world organizations ad many commonwealth countries. Mandarian Chinese and Spanish it is the third most natively language which is spoken in the whole world. In English a significant English words are based on the roots of Latin. Modern English is often seen a heavy a large vocabulary by owing the significant assimilation of various European languages throughout the history. There are 250, 000 distinct words in the Oxford English dictionary, and doesn't include slang terms which belong to multiple words (David, 1997).
The importance of English language learning can never be ignored in a rapidly interconnection and globalization. A person who is good in English spiking can get better chances of employment and can work in international companies. We use sounds, gestures, signs, marks, or conventional symbols in a systematic way to communicate with others. We express ourselves and communicate to others by using the language as a code. The expression of ideas with the use of sound and voice articulated by the organs of the throat and mouth is a human speech. A particular group of people used combing words for written and spoken methods to create meanings.
For getting global leadership English language has become one of our principle assets, over the year. English is the language of the latest business management in the world and a means for international commerce as well as essential for national commerce and communication.
People mostly communicate in English, going from north to south for education, due to which English has become a link language. Today Standard English depends on educational experience rather than on accent. English language is the means of scientific discourse because the universities located in the United States of America. It made the latest and the most advanced discoveries and inventions by using the English language of science and technology. It is spoken between 400 and 800 million foreign users and more than 300 million native speakers (Manivannan, 2006).
English is very important in the modern era because it is a digital age and primary language of the World Wide Web is English, while progress has been made in allied teaching and in language translation software.
Thus we can say that English is one of the most important languages because it can be used as a language in every part of the world. The reason of the excursive use of this language is that because at least few people in each locality have knowledge of this language.
Thus the future of this language is very safe and secure. In this modern era of consolidation, we are trying to unify the various aspects of life. It can be possible because the time is not far when English can be made as a single and understandable language of the whole world like the single currency and the union of the various nations (David, 2009).
2.7. Relationship of students self efficacy and English language learning:
Interaction became necessary among the various nations because of globalization and for the interaction there Is a need of communication. The language is used ass a medium of communication. In the global village English has become the most important means of communication for international affairs. English language is used inn the different fields of life many non native students of English study different subjects like mathematics, science, geography etc in English.
It becomes very necessary for educators to introduce English language at all level in educational institution in order to meet with the wave of globalization. They need to produce people who can use English language proficiently and can tae part in international affairs actively (Anyadubalu, 2010).self efficacy also keep under consideration as every person needs to have a control over his thoughts, actions and feelings in different fields of life and acquisition of a foreign language English is also included in it. Self efficacy I defined as believes in one capabilities to perform a specific task. In other words how people behave, think and feel towards a specific situation (Bandura, 1994).
Due to this aspect of general self efficacy students can organize plan understand and participate actively during their learning processes of English language. In deciding the human activities,, self efficacy beliefs are very important specially in the area of having control over one's thoughts, feelings and actions. This is the reason that the students who have high level of self efficacy towards English language learning can efficiently plan their goal. They can organize their plans for English in a better way (Bandura, 1994).
Self efficacy also enhances motivation level of students. If a student believes in his capabilities and he thinks that he can do well in a particular task it could enhance his motivation. It has sound effects on students English language learning and improves the sense of self efficacy when a student achieves the goal which he expected from his actions (Amornthip, 2006).
Thus it is obvious that the people who have high level of self efficacy are more confident whenever they face any challenging situatio0n or any different task. He can handle the obstacles which he faces courageously. They don't take any difficult task as a threat and never give up their courage (Jane & Lane, 2001).
In other words they have the ability to manage a typical situation, build ideas and solve the problems which he faces.so, if there are a student of English language and have a high level of self efficacy experienced by the students diversely affect their performance in English language learning. They are capable of achieve their goal or experience success (Anyadubalu, 2010).
2.8. Low English self efficacy students:
English has become an international language. There is a sense of helplessness and hopelessness about their capabilities in those students who have low English self efficacy. It sounds plausible to believe that the learners not much motivated with the proper motivation, if the learner will be low in English self efficacy. Students with low English self efficacy are far behind in planning. Carry out and participate effectively in the given task or challenging situation rather than those students who have high English self efficacy (Bandura, 1994).
People with low English efficacy have no more confidence on their capabilities, shy away from difficult tasks which they have to face in English language and they view these tasks a personal threat. They have low aspiration and weak commitment to the goals which they have to fallow or pursue in English language. They are slower to recover their sense of efficacy following failure or setbacks in learning English language. They are not more proficient in English language as they are not master of pronunciation as well as they have no more information about the use of intonation, grammatical structure, sentences formation etc (Honenfeld, 1978).
2.9. High English self efficacy students:
High self efficacy enable the students that they use the English language proficiently as mastery of pronunciation, intonation, stress syllabus, grammatical structure, vocabulary, sentence formation and appropriate situation to apply them. Thus the student of high English efficacy performs well in their learning processes (Honenfeld, 1978).
In other words high English self efficacy students may be capable of managing situations, creating ideas and solving problems related to English language. Students who speak English as a second language and have high English self efficacy in themselves exhibited and increased sense of confidence, comfort and relaxation. When learning complex task, high self efficacy student strive to improve their assumptions and strategies, rather than look for excuses such as no being interested in the task or etc. high English self efficacy helps individuals that they react less defensively (Lam, 2006).
Students with high English self efficacy often display greater and better performance comparatively to those with low English self efficacy students. Thus, high English self efficacy is progressively more accurate in appraising or estimating their abilities.
Their efficacy beliefs concerning with their specific behaviors tend them and courage them to become shaped and molded according to the challenging situation or task. We can say that high English self efficacy can helpful for the students or lead them towards greater success and bright future (Bandura 1997).
2.10. Importance of self efficacy in English language learning:
The importance of self efficacy in English language learning is as follows
â™¦ Choices regarding behavior:
Self efficacy affects the choices. A student of English will chose a task which he thinks he can do it. E. g. a student consider that he can do well in easy writing or poetry in English then he will chose the task regarding easy writing or poetry. The reason is that in this respect his efficacy is high, the student's engage in a task where their self efficacy is high.
Self efficacy helps the student to select a goal for them. If a student has high level of self efficacy would set a high goal, for instance a student has high self efficacy in English language learning and thought that he can do it and set a goal that he can master it and can learn the native like pronunciation. As his efficacy is high he can attain it because self efficacy level reflects a person understanding of what skills he can offer to be master (Ormrod, 1999).
Thus we can say that high self efficacy leads to choose a high task and goal whereas low level of efficacy creates hurdles to do a task. High self efficacy encouraged the people to cope with challenging tasks and gain valuable experiences (Csikszentmihalyi, 1997).
â™¦ thought patterns:
people who have low have low efficacy, believe that the tasks are hard. They take it harder than they actually are. High self efficacy individuals, compared with their low efficacy peers tend to use higher level thought processes to solve complex problems. Thus in English classroom the students who have low level of efficacy, believe that they are not capable of more.
Self efficacy is also important in English language learning because it helps the students of English class to visualize them being successful at various challenging English tasks whereas low self efficacy students of English are more likely to imagine themselves disaster (Heider, 1958).if a person with a high self efficacy faces failure he consider it a external factor. As a person has high efficacy in regards to English, have poor result for him the reason would be lack of effort or insufficient preparation, but a student a student of the same class have a low level of efficacy faces failure, he would blame his ability that he is not able to do well in English or thought he don't have the ability to tackle with the problems regarding English (William, 2006).
â™¦At the affective level:
in the course of English language learning, it might be possible that the students experienced to reduce a great amount of stress those who have a strong perceived sense of competence whereas a low self-estimation English capacity might result of anxiety and agitation in high level that often leads to the student in "irrational" thinking which ultimately damage or weaken their cognitive and intellectual effectiveness (Haddoune, 1999).
Self efficacy motivates the students of English to perform an English task in an effective way. Those who rate their capabilities higher than average level can be expected to work harder and longer to achieve a goal than those who feel less capable. The students of English language learning in an English task are more likely to put more effort to do it and they remain strict to it for long, unless they achieve it (Elliot, 1999).
Thus it could be said that high level of efficacy would enhance the motivation level of the students of English class. Whereas the student with low efficacy arte not motivated to do any English task or learn English language. They are not capable to prepare themselves to interact with difficult task (Bandura, 1977).
research done by Snowman (2006) found that in English language classroom when a student faced with challenges tasks, high self efficacy students are more likely to experience excitement, curiosity and eagerness to get started rather than the sense of anxiety, depression and impending disaster that many low self efficacy students feel (Snowman, 2006).
According to Paul K. Maciejwskl high level of self efficacy plays an important role in the development of well interaction into adulthood. He studied the interactions of people in a stressful situation. He found that the people who have high level of self efficacy can cope with difficult or stressful situation.
They can easily handle the challenges which they found in their work environment. Same is the case of English language students. If they have high self efficacy they can cope with stressful situation in English classroom. On the other hand the students who reported low level of self efficacy found themselves highly stressed in a difficult English task. They are frustrated at their work which caused lack of productivity and increased the signs of instability (2000).
2.11. Sources of English self efficacy:
According to bandura there are four sources which affect the self efficacy towards English language learning. Self efficacy develops from early childhood as children encounter with various experiences, tasks and situations. However the development of self efficacy never ends. It continuous throughout the life (Bandura,1992).
1. Mastery experiences:
In English language the most influential source of these beliefs is the interpreted result of one person or mastery experience. Bandura explained in (1994) if a student performs any English task successfully. It would strengthen his sense of self efficacy.
Bandura(1986) emphasis that one's mastery experience is the most influential source of self efficacy. Those who really concerned to increase Students English achievement in institutions should emphasis on altering student's beliefs of their self worth or competence. Simply put, individuals gauge the effects of their actions and their interpretations of these effects help create their efficacy beliefs. Outcomes interpreted as successful raise self efficacy; those interpreted as failures lowers it (Bandura, 1986).
â™¦ Importance of our experience
Personal accomplishments indicate our degree of successful experiences in English language learning generally increase and failure usually decrease our sense of English self efficacy (Bandura, 1986).
It would not be harm to say that if a student is successful in his experience regarding English. It would affect his self efficacy towards English language learning in a positive way.
2. Vicarious experience:
The second source of English self efficacy is vicarious experience of the effects produced by the actions of others. This source of information is weaker than the interpreted results of mastery experiences in English language, but when people are uncertain about their own abilities or have limited prior experience, they become more sensitive to it. For example, a person's failure in English has a more negative effect on the English self efficacy (Baron & Byrne, 2003).
When a student see that some other student had accomplishment an English task, the vicarious experience of observing a model have a strong influence on the English efficacy of that student. By observing other during performing a task individual makes judgments about their own capabilities (James, 1981).
â™¦ Modeling "Vicarious Experience"
"If they can do it, I can do it as well" this is a process of comparison between a person and some one else. When a person sees someone succeeding at something, their self efficacy will increase and where they see people failing, their self efficacy will decrease.
This process is more effectual where the person sees themselves as similar to their model. If they see a peer whom they perceived that they have similar English abilities. This would likely increase their English efficacy (pajaras, 1996).
When an English student sees another English student to accomplish a task, the vicarious experience of observing a model can also have a strong influence of self efficacy. When he observes the other students by performing a task like him, individual make judgment about their own capabilities.
If a student sees the other student that he has published a poem in English. As the other student is his classmate then he thought that he has the same ability to publish some poem. A third grader observing other third grader to learn English language is likely to believe that he can also learn it. The more students related to the model being observed, the more likely the models performance would have an impact on them. Unlike the self efficacy beliefs derived from past experience. Self efficacy which is enhanced through observation is less stable than the personal experience (Watson et al., 1984).
For instance there is an English student when he saw other students succeeding in English tasks his efficacy would increase but when the same student experience success in English. It would be more effective than his observation.
3. Social persuasions:
Social persuasions relate to encouragements/discouragements. These can have a strong influence on self efficacy. Most of the people remember when something said to them which severely altered their confidence. Positive social persuasions increase self efficacy, negative persuasions decrease it. It is generally easier to decrease someone's self efficacy than to increase it (Eggen & Paul, 2004).
If an English teacher tells his students "you can do this" it can also enhance their confidence to do any English task. If a teacher tells the student that you are capable of doing something, it would contribute much in the development of self efficacy (Prieto & Meyers, 1999).
In society if some persons believe on someone it would develop self efficacy. If some people in relatives have confidence in a student that he can easily learn English language. It creates a positive effect on the efficacy of students.
â™¦ Verbal persuasions:
Individual also create and develop self efficacy beliefs as a result of the verbal persuasions they receive from others. These persuasions involve exposure to the verbal judgments that other provides. It is a weaker source of self efficacy as compared with mastery experience but plays an important part in the development of self efficacy.
Persuaders must cultivate people's beliefs in their capabilities. As if a student is capable of doing good in English writing or speaking then it should be courage and ensured the student that the success is attainable. Just as positive persuasions may work to encourage and empower, negative persuasions can work to defeat and weaken self beliefs. In fact, it is usually easier to weaken self efficacy beliefs through negative appraisals that to strengthen such beliefs through positive encouragement (Bandura, 1986).
4. Psychological factors:
Psychological stats such as anxiety, stress, arousal, fatigue and mood states also provide information about efficacy beliefs, because individual have the capability to alter their own thinking. Bandura (1997) has observed that people live with psychic environments that are primarily of their own making.
If a student has any stress or anxiety it creates a negative impression on his efficacy. E.g. there is a student English. While attempting his English paper he feels stress then his performance in English would be negatively affected. In the same way other psychological factors affect the English learning. If a student eel comfortable and relax while learning English, would increase the level of self efficacy. On the other hand if a student feels hesitation and stress while learning English, would decrease the level of self efficacy towards English language learning. As strong emotional reactions to a task, however provide cues about the anticipated success or failure of the outcome (Bandura, 1997).
â™¦ Psychological cues:
There are certain psychological cues that decrease or increase the level of self efficacy. Distress, shakes, pains, fatigue, fear etc lead to low self efficacy and vice versa. If a person feels "butterflies in the stomach" while speaking publicly, his self efficacy will be low. In the same way, if some English student suffers from some mental trauma while speaking or listening English, he will definitely fell distressed and would not be able to understand or speak anything no matter he has the native ability for that or not (Santrock, 2006).
There are other signs of psychological cues as well. If a person feels dried throat or wet hands before speaking English, he would feel that he is not capable of speaking English. But if a person knows how to be relaxed in some unexpected situation, his self efficacy would be high (Graham & Weiner, 1996).
These sources of efficacy information are not directly translated into judgment of competence. Individuals interpret the results of results of events and these interpretations provide the information about their efficacy towards speaking language on which judgment are based. The types of information about language people attend to and use to make efficacy judgments, and the rules they employ for weighting and integrating them, form the basis for such interpretations. Thus, the selection, integration, interpretations and recollection of information influence judgment of self efficacy (Giloghtly, 2007).
2.12. Teachers' role in the development of students self efficacy:
Self efficacy is not a thing that somebody have or not in a fixed quantity from his birth. It develops with the passage of time. It is a "generative" capability. It is a thing which develops with the passage of time. It shaped through experience and this is the reason that it is a thing which can be changed or enhanced. The teacher plays the crucial role to enhance positive feeling about efficacy in their students. They develop it by using different learning strategies, which can enhance students self efficacy towards English language learning. Some of the strategies are as under:
â™¦ Goal setting:
A teacher should awake the student about their goal which they need to attain. A teacher of English class should make the students aware about the status of English language and the level at which they have to reach. If they are aware of their goal it might be possible that it motivate the students to set a self goal and near in time it enhance the commitment and avoid the students from putting the things off (Haddoune, 1999).
â™¦ Teach specific strategies:
Teach students specific strategies such as, outline and summarizing that can improve their ability to focus on their task. In this way they use certain strategies to improve their performance. It might be telling the students the main elements of a task. As an English teacher at first should do brain storming to activate their encoding then he himself define the word and then give explanation by using different examples and at the end give concluding remarks. It helps the student to keep their attention off a specific strategy and think in a more systematic way (Schunk, 1995).
â™¦ Combine strategy training with goals:
If a teacher of English combines strategy training with goals it helps the students in the development of self efficacy as teacher is trained him according to his goal students don't feel any difficulty in achieving his goal and it leads him towards success. It had a very strong efrficient as the student experience success it helps to enhance self efficacy (Zimmerman, 1995)
â™¦ Make sure that students are not overly aroused and anxious:
It is also a strategy that teacher should make sure that students are not overly aroused or anxious. If a student feel anxiety or stress while performing his task in English It would decrease their level of self efficacy towards English language learning. As they don't feel easy it affects their motivation level. They would take is as threat and cannot be able to perform well in it (Kerlin, 1992).
There are also strategies which can control the emotions status such as "self-talk strategies". Basically it is used to reduce stress, fatigue or anxiety which an English learner faced during his learning processes and "self reinforcement". It helps to increase the positive potential and reduces negative outcomes of a student (Kerlin, 1992).
â™¦ Provide students with support:
An English teacher should teacher should also introduce his students about the teaching skills such as time management and taught the students how to make schedules whenever they engaged in problems or any activity which required time management. It helps them to complete their English activity easily.
Teacher should also support the students in decoding information or central their thoughts. He should develop a strong sense of personal competence in the students. It helps a lot in the development of students self efficacy towards English language learning (Wongsri, & Archer, 2002)
â™¦ involve students in "Metacognitive processes"
It is also an important strategy that a teacher of teacher of English of English should help his students to involve in "metacognition processes'. It is a process in which students thinks about their own thinking. For example, a teacher of English should encourage his students to pose their own questions whenever they read, listen or discover in the target language as: do I completely got whatever a listened, read or heard? If not, then what are the reasons behind it? Or for understand what should I ask from the teacher or speaker? That type of metacognitive processes helps the students to improve their self efficacy (Barell, 1995).
According to O'keefe (1996) a teacher should put his students to promote positive feelings about their academic results in English. The way in which student feel his performance it would affect the studentS' level of self efficacy and influence his academic achievement in future.
â™¦ Encourage cooperative learning:
Teacher should promote group activities which enhance cooperative learning and understanding between the group members. It would enhance their interest in English learning. It also helps the students to share their ideas it would create very healthy and stimulating environment in English language classroom. It has a tremendous influence on the enhancement of English language learning (Arnold & Brown, 1999).
â™¦ provide students with positive feed back:
Teacher should provide the students with specific feedback with regards to their achievement which shows that students are making progress in language learning. The feedback which is provided to the student should be constant. English teacher can use many types of feedback like "effort feedback" which includes "you have been working hard"; "performance feedback" if students are making progress in their language learning as "you are making progress". It would help the students to enhance their self efficacy towards English language learning (Schunk, 1995).
â™¦ Encourage self regulation:
Educator should keep in mind that teaching individual skills such as if some one is weak in English grammar then this aspect should keep in mind. Same is the case as someone is weak in English writing or weak to understand new vocabulary in English etc. It is only the one aspect of the educational process. A more important aspect is to help student integrate all of these skills in a matter that enable them to become self-regulated learn once they have school (Bruning, et al.2005).
â™¦ provide students with positive peer models:
Certain characteristics of this model can help students to develop their self efficacy. for example, students of English who observe teachers and peers copy effectively and master challenges. Often adopt the model behaviors. Modeling is effective in promoting self efficacy when student of English language observe by peer who are similar in ability to themselves. One positive way of teacher to use peer modeling to improve students self efficacy is to have each student to work on some aspect of a task and then have the students explain their part to other group members after they have mastered it (Santrock, 2006).
â™¦other ways of developing student self efficacy towards English language learning:
Once a safe and orderly environment is established, students success in English language learning is a important climate variable. Unfortunately, not all students are successful in English, but teacher can increae the likelihood of success for most students in various ways in addition to make students feel competent to increase their English efficacy, as discussed earlier, strategies include,
Beginning lesson of English with open ended questions that excess learners current understandings
Using a variety of high quality examples from English course and representations that provide background knowledge and promote understanding
Developing English lessons with questioning and prompting students when they have difficulty in answering
Providing scaffold practice before putting student on their own
Conducting ongoing English assessment providing detailed feedback about English language learning progress (Eggen & Kauchak, 2004).