Electronic databases

Published:

This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.

Results

The search strategy, using different electronic databases, identified a total of 330 articles. These articles were obtained after searching on the terms breast cancer, physical activity and quality of life. These terms were adapted in each database according to the mesh-terms. After selecting on title and content of abstract, the double articles were excluded. This selection leads to an exclusion of 312 articles. Articles were excluded because they had no quality of life as main outcome, the intervention was no physical activity and if it wasn't a RCT or a pilot RCT.

The included articles were not all full text available. After writing to the authors 13 articles were included and the other five articles excluded.

The included articles were scored with the Pedro score. All articles were included with a Pedro score ≤ 4. Final included articles were 13.

Data extraction

The main content and methodological details from the relevant literature were extracted into a table (Table 1), which organized the information under the headings of: author and year, study design, sample size an population, measurements, exercise intervention, control intervention, main outcome.

Data synthesis

Out of the 13 articles, six articles looked at quality of life after treatment, six articles investigated quality of life during treatment and one articles looked at both conditions.

Intervention during treatment

First an overview will be given about the articles where they investigated quality of life during treatment. In this condition the breast cancer patients are treated for breast cancer with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy and/or hormone therapy. In these RCTs they were randomized into a group with the usual care or in the group with exercise training. In two studies they had three groups. In the study Courneya et al (2007), they randomized the patients in a group with aerobic training, a group with exercise training and a group with usual care. In the study of Segal et al. (2001), they randomized their patients in a group with supervised training, a group with home based training and a group with usual care.

Exercise intervention

The exercise intervention was more or less the same in the articles, but there were some changes. All articles exercised in a range of 50%-80% of max HR or VO2max. The intervention had strength and/or aerobic exercises. The duration of the training differed from five weeks till six months. There was also a difference in intensity of the training per week, there was a range between one time a week till five times a week.

Quality of life

Of the studies that reported on PA during treatment included in this review three out of six articles reported a positive effect on QoL (Campbell 2004, Courneya 2007, Hwang 2007). In the article of Mutri et al (2007), they found some positive effects on QoL after six months, but also no effects on QoL. The two other studies (Segal et al. 2001, Cadmus 2009) remained consistent over time.

Intervention after treatment

In these studies the breast cancer patients were treated for breast cancer in the past. After they completed their treatment of chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy and/or hormone therapy they were included in these studies. In these RCTs they were randomized into a group with the usual care after treatment or in the group with an exercise intervention.

Exercise intervention

The exercise intervention differed in some stages. Three articles exercised in a range of 60%-85% of max HR or VO2max. The three other articles didn't focus on percentages of max. HR or VO2max. In all interventions strength and/or aerobic exercises were used. The duration of the training differed from eight weeks till six months. There was also a difference in intensity of the training per week, there was a range between two times a week till five times a week.

Quality of life

Of the studies that reported on PA after treatment included in this review three found a positive effect on QoL as a result of PA (Milne 2008, Daley 2007, Herrero 2005). Ohira et al (2006) found a small effect. Two out of three items of the SF questionnaire were significant. Rogers et al. (2009) found only a small effect of PA 6 months after the intervention.

Writing Services

Essay Writing
Service

Find out how the very best essay writing service can help you accomplish more and achieve higher marks today.

Assignment Writing Service

From complicated assignments to tricky tasks, our experts can tackle virtually any question thrown at them.

Dissertation Writing Service

A dissertation (also known as a thesis or research project) is probably the most important piece of work for any student! From full dissertations to individual chapters, we’re on hand to support you.

Coursework Writing Service

Our expert qualified writers can help you get your coursework right first time, every time.

Dissertation Proposal Service

The first step to completing a dissertation is to create a proposal that talks about what you wish to do. Our experts can design suitable methodologies - perfect to help you get started with a dissertation.

Report Writing
Service

Reports for any audience. Perfectly structured, professionally written, and tailored to suit your exact requirements.

Essay Skeleton Answer Service

If you’re just looking for some help to get started on an essay, our outline service provides you with a perfect essay plan.

Marking & Proofreading Service

Not sure if your work is hitting the mark? Struggling to get feedback from your lecturer? Our premium marking service was created just for you - get the feedback you deserve now.

Exam Revision
Service

Exams can be one of the most stressful experiences you’ll ever have! Revision is key, and we’re here to help. With custom created revision notes and exam answers, you’ll never feel underprepared again.