School Systems in Japan England and India

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Thesis Statement: Although the United States is one of the most technically advanced countries in the world, its education system could be improved by looking at examples from Japan, England and India.

Barrow, M. (2009). Education in england. Retrieved from www.woodlands-

junior.kent.sch.uk/customs/questions/education/index.html

This site is an excellent one to use in that it defines what a typical school year looks like in England. This site also describes what the standardized testing that is required for each student, what holidays are observed during the school year, and when students are able to leave school. This website was written by a former teacher at the school. Being a teacher, Ms. Barrow was able to easily describe how the educational system works in England. (Barrow, 2009)

Combs, K. & Angela Bartlett. (2007, October). Education in Japan. Retrieved from

www.education-in-japan.info

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This website gives an excellent overview of the school system in Japan and what the national curriculum is in Japan. This site also explains how the Japanese came up with the current system of primary, middle and high schools. This site also explains the teaching philosophy in Japan and the four key roles students have in modern Japanese schooling. This site was started by two women who wanted to explain how the education system worked in Japan. They lived in Japan for a time and wanted to help people who were either moving to Japan or non-Japanese people living in Japan understand the school system. (Combs & Bartlett, 2007)

Education system in india. (1998). Retrieved from www.indiaedu.com/education-india/education-system-india.html

This website gives an overview of the education system in India. This site also talks about the universalization of an elementary education in India and why it has not fully occurred. It tells at what age a student is required to attend school and at what age they are allowed to leave school. This site also gives stats showing the literacy rate between males/females and rural/urban areas. This site was started by a company that is based in India and was started in order to provide resources for the people of India to be able to obtain higher education degrees. ("Education system in," 1998)

Miller, D.C., Sen, A., Malley, L.B., Burns, S.D., & Owen, E. US Department of Education, (2009). Comparative indicators of education in the us and other g-8 countries: 2009. Washington, DC: US Department of Education.

This article compares the G-8 countries and gives statistics showing where the United States falls in various categories such as discipline problems, and total population, percentage of students enrolled in formal education. There are also statistics comparing teacher experience in the United States and the United Kingdom. This article also goes on to give very detailed information on the school systems of each of the G-8 countries, which include Japan, the United Kingdom and the United States. Because this article was written by people in the US Department of Education, it should be accurate and timely. (Miller, Sen, Malley, Burns, & Owen, 2009)

Osgood, R. L. (n.d.). Laggards, morons, human clinkers and other peculiar kids: progressivism and student differences in shaping public education in the united states. Unpublished manuscript, Muskingum University.

This was a speech given by Mr. Osgood which explaining how labels (both good and bad) were applied to students in the United States and how these labels affected their performance in school. Mr. Osgood went back to a book published in the early 1900's to obtain some of the background for his speech. He talks about how labeling students either helped them excel or held them back from achieving goals in school. He also spoke on how labels changed since the early 1900's. For example, a student, in the early 1900's, who was falling behind in school was called a laggard. Today, he would require special education classes which would cement the label of being slow. Mr. Osgood was President of Muskingum University in New Concord, Ohio and an educator so he is a credible source. (Osgood)

Ruddock, G. & Sainsbury, M. (2008). Comparison of the Core Primary Curriculum in England to those of Other High Performing Countries. Department for Children, Schools, & Families.

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This article was written by two scholars in England who were comparing the education given to English children from ages 7 - 11 to children from around the world. This article focuses on three main areas, Mathematics, Science and Literacy. The scholars found that in Mathematics, the material was similar to the eight other countries included in this study. In Science, the scholars discovered many varieties of curriculum. No one was perceived to be better than any other. In literacy, the scholars discovered that the other countries were more likely to include the philosophy and rationale behind the language where in England, this was rather brief. This paper was written by two scholars by request of one of the British Government Departments.

School years in england. (n.d.). Retrieved from www.learnenglish.de/culture/educationculture.htm

This website gives a detailed listing of what ages are in what grades. It also explains the difference of a Public school and a Government run school. This site also explains what national testing is done at what age level and at what age a student is allowed to leave school. This site was written to allow non-English speaking people to learn English. All of the information obtained on this site was able to confirm information received on other websites pertaining to the English Education system. ("School years in," )

Schutz, G., West, M.R., and Wobmann, L. (2007), "School Accountability, Autonomy, Choice, and the Equity of Student Achievement: International Evidence from PIDA 2003", OECD Education Working Papers, No. 14, OECD Publishing. doi: 10.1787/246374511832

This article explains the philosophy that if a child succeeds in schools then they will succeed later in life. This article also explains whether monitoring teacher lessons has any impact on student performance. This article talks about having exit exams before a child is allowed to leave school and if that is a productive idea or not. This article also touches on the idea that children with low socio-economic changes achieve as much as those with high socio-economic changes. OECD, or Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, is a government organization in France and should be a very reliable source for this paper. (Schutz, G., 2007)

Schmidt, W. H., Houang, R., & Shakrani, S. (2009). International lessons about national standards. Thomas B Fordham Institute.

This article, written by three authors at the Thomas B Fordham Institute, gives information pertaining to the Indian School System. It provides more information concerning how the Indian Government perceives education and how the schools are funded. It also explains the National Curriculum that India has and who is responsible for enforcing that the curriculum is followed. It explains who comes up with the syllabi for each subject, what subjects are taught in what schools and when national exams are given. The Thomas B Fordham Institute is an organization that wants to advance educational excellence for every child.(Schmidt, Houang, & Shakrani, 2009)

Wieczorek, C. C. (2009). Comparative analysis of education systems of american &Japanese schools: views and visions. Unpublished manuscript, Department of Foreign Languages, University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio.

This article explains how the Japanese and the United States school systems are similar, but it also explains how they are different. The author never comes out and says which is better, but he does point out that the United States seems to have more difficulties to overcome. This author wrote this paper as a result of an assignment for a class he was taking at the University. Some of the information that was given in this paper could be verified by other sources.(Wieczorek, 2009)

World Bank, (2000). Investing in education: analysis of the 1999 world education indicators, education and skills Washington, DC: Retrieved from www.electrade.gfi.fr/cgi-bin/OECDBookshop.storefront

This article explains in detail how the education system in India works. It explains what ages are in what school each age is assigned. This article also explains how the federal government and the provincial and regional governments are involved in the education system. The World Bank is an organization overseen by the United Nations. The information presented by them should be as accurate as possible. (World Bank, 2000)