Scholars Views on Teaching Styles and Education

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Porter and Brophy (1988) published by the Institute for Research on Teaching analyzes the changes in teaching style over the recent years and compared them with what happens now a day. In recent years we have witnessed that there has been a great increase in the admiration of good teaching to not just the effectiveness of schooling but also on the role of research on teaching which would help in the development of a knowledge base to inform the teaching profession about the changing trends. In the past years the policy makers and scholars only concentrated on the educational equity rather than on the upgrading of the quality of teaching profession. Today it is being seen that educational reform leaders states that we have to assume new powers and responsibilities in order to redesign schools for the future and prepare well-educated teachers. Different orientations to teaching are also being discussed in this article that reflect the different goals that teachers hold about their instruction just needed to explain the difference among the teaching effectiveness. There is no one to one relationship between teacher's goals and outcomes, effectiveness can only be measured through the subject knowledge, pedagogy and student evaluations. Some of the major characteristics of a teacher are being discussed. They promote learning through communicating with their students; they provide their students with those strategies that are beneficial for them in monitoring and improving their own learning efforts with the help of different learning activities. They not only know their subject in depth but also try to overcome the mis leadings that student bring to class in relation to their subject.

Felder and Brent (1999) conducted a research paper that majorly focused on the key terms like the Total Quality Management, effective Institutional Teaching Improvement Program, and Assessment and Evaluation of Teaching Quality. It mainly discusses the application of the Total Quality Management in the higher education that tends to improve the teaching quality. Firstly, the research examines the quality of instruction at individual basis. A more complex approach of analyzing the quality of the instructional program in an academic organization is discussed. In the light of both the individual as well as the organizational level taking into account the cultural differences it is also mentioned that how the quality management contributes in the improvement of teaching.

Gallagher (2000), in the article "Embracing Student Evaluations of Teaching" elaborates the student evaluation as important criteria in measuring teaching effectiveness. This affects the quality of teaching as a whole. A valid and reliable student evaluation is proven to be an accurate indicator of measuring teaching effectiveness. It can be either measured globally, that is the overall teaching style. Evaluation can also be based on specific terms like clarity, context, explanation etc. The theory that is discussed in this article tells us that the teacher evaluation should be useful in nature. For this to be implemented it must be conducted in a culture that supports the teaching improvement.

Marlow (2000), in his article about spending, school structure and public education quality highlights the importance of these factors towards the quality of teaching. In this paper it is being clearly told that the spending done on higher education doesn't appear to increase the student achievements. In terms of income the spending on education shows a negative effect on the achievements of the students. A s measured by the Herfindahl index it is seen that the countries that tends to spend more on education are those that exhibit highest monopoly power. Majority of the evidence shows that either there is no link between the educational spending and performance. It is difficult to speculate that how performance might change with the change in the spending. It must be noticed that the factor like the per capita income can go beyond the scope of the short-term policy reforms and at their best represent the long-term reforms that effect achievements

Chambers, Catherine, Paul (2004), in the article named "Teaching Quality, research and tenure" focuses on the quality of teaching. Teaching quality is affected by scholarship and pedagogical training. In the context of the total quality management framework the interaction of teaching and scholarship is being investigated. A strong incentive is being portrayed towards the demonstration of teaching proficiencies and the research being published. Two of the major components of a good teacher are being discussed in this article. They are the classroom presentation and content of the course that is delivered. Research is considered as an important activity to improve the human capital that is also an important component. It helps in the improvement of faculty's quality of teaching.

Heyneman (2004), in his article on the International education policy states that education has a linkage with the economic productivity and growth in the personal income. There are many indicators that describe the quality of education but do not operate in the same way. The impact of education can be judged through its quality. Furthermore, the article talks about the fact that full enrollment and educational expenditure also causes the investments towards the educational sector to vary across countries. He also discusses the dilemmas that are caused if increased allocations in terms of finance are made related t education. The expenditure on education has been increasing since 1980 in the world. Even in the high performing universities achievements are not uniform. Curriculum is highly emphasized in terms of skills. He talks that higher education has become the focus of today's economy which means that new subject matter, new technology, new electronic information sources are required for higher education institutes. The debate that he talks about is that the degree to which the nations have access to education varies . High income countries can invest about 300 times more as compared to the low income countries.

Berk (2005), in the article that was published in the International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education discusses the 12 strategies that are used to measure teaching effectiveness. Teaching effectiveness is being measured through different perspectives like student ratings, self-evaluation, videos, student interviews, alumni ratings, and employee ratings, administrator ratings, teaching scholarships, teaching awards, learning outcome measure and teaching portfolios. It also highlights the importance of teaching effectiveness as it is used for making major decisions that are formative and summative in nature. They basically focus on improving and shaping the quality of teaching as well as the overall performance/status of teachers.

The article published in the International Journal of Educational Development by Barrs (2005), emphasizes on two important points that are the implications of the quality of teaching and the factors that contribute to the motivation of teachers in rural Punjab. These are also considered as the important terms being used to analyze the impact on teacher's performance. The research that is carried throughout this article concludes that the impact of local governance has shown a positive effect on not only teacher's level of motivation but also their status. Teacher's attendance and their following of contractual obligations have improved through the implementation of better accountability and monitoring techniques.

Hanushek and Rivkin (2007) researched that how the variables like pay and working conditions have impacted the quality of teaching. The authors have come up with the conclusions that how salary and work environment affect the quality of classroom instruction. It is also being discussed that how quality of teaching if affected when teachers move from one school to another. This factor also has a very deep impact on the achievement of students. Salaries and student characteristics are also examined because it affects teaching quality as well as the student achievement. It also explains that how the variations in the salaries and working conditions are affecting the different communities that are the urban, rural, and suburban. It also gives us the idea that how the trends are changing in context with the salaries. Working conditions does not change as frequently as the salaries do. While considering policies related to teaching salaries should be taken as a benchmark as it provides a good measure of changes that take place in the teacher's quality. A broader conclusion is that salary increases are considered as both expensive and ineffective factors while dealing with the quality of teaching.

Yeigh (2008), in his paper that was published in the Australian Journal of Teacher Education talks about the importance of teaching skills that are required for efficient teaching. He also discusses that these skills need to be upgraded and require development and polishing. It is also highlighted that how these skills impact the learning. The model that is mentioned in this paper is not only beneficial for the students but also for the teachers. It helps in improving the students learning outcomes and also the professional learning of the teachers. It broadly talks about the three dimensions of quality teaching. The quality of teaching is explained through the dimensions of intellectual quality, quality learning environment and lastly the significance. The paper also throws some light on some of the important characteristics of a good teacher. It also focuses on the professional learning processes, along with the fact that how these processes further on help us in achieving the teaching quality that we are trying to extract.

Wen (2008), in the research paper focuses on the Evaluation Indicator for teaching Quality of college teachers. It also discusses the talents that are there at the high level, high making and innovation ability that are considered to be the task of the higher education. The level of quality of teaching determines the level of the talents that are being cultivated and influences the existence and development of colleges. If the evaluation is carried out effectively it may generate correct guidance and incentive function, trigger the enthusiasm rate of teachers towards their profession, and improve the teaching methods and contents that eventually raise the quality of teaching. It also reflects the major functions of the indicator system, and how it with its step by step approach helps in the evaluation of teaching quality.

Vogt and Rogalla (2009), in their research project say that a higher outcome can be achieved if teachers receive the adaptive teaching competency through proper coaching. The challenge that is given to the teachers is that they have to meet the diverse learning needs. They also have to adapt that kind of teaching that could move their academic ability to multiple interests as well motivations. Furthermore, the research project elaborates about the interaction that takes place between teaching and learning is more complicated as it seems. The same teaching methods can yield different results based on the characteristics of the learners. There are many factors that are found to have a link with the student outcomes mentioned as teacher's teaching style, class management, content knowledge and teacher's motivation. Professional experience is also expected to have an influence on the quality of teacher's professional competencies. The concept of Adaptive Teaching Competency is defined in the following way that it meets the demand of subject knowledge, takes into account the pre-conditions and learning processes of students, benefits that are related to teaching methods are being made fruitful in terms of learning and not only the activities are managed but also the student as well as the class get supported in the regulation of the learning process. The research proves that the Adaptive Teaching Competency of the teacher is linked with the higher learning outcome of the students.