Saudi Secondary School Teachers Education Essay

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Research design

This study employed a survey research design which aimed to investigate Saudi secondary school teachers' stages of concern about the integration of computer technology in teaching and learning. ???????

The descriptive element of the study involves examination of the respondents' stages of concern as well as identifying the differences in their concern based on two demographic variables, teaching experience and teaching area.

Population and Sample

The population of this study consists of all boys' secondary school teachers in Al-Hassa region in the east side of Saudi Arabia. The number of the secondary schools in this study is 23 schools which are equipped with different ICT tools such as computer laps, Learning Resource Centres and computerized science labs.

Table3.3.1 Population and sample







3.3.1 Sample

Out of the 23 equipped boys' secondary schools 15 schools were selected in Al-Hass region that represents 65.2% of population as shown in table 3.3.1. These schools are mainly in Al-Mubaraz and Al-Hufuf the two main cities in Al-Hass region. The total number of returned questionnaires were 345 questionnaires. The incomplete questionnaires were eliminated, leaving a total response of 302 participants. The sample consisted of teachers in different teaching areas. Table 3.3.2 below shows the number of returned questionnaires from each school.

Table3.3.2 the number of return questionnaires from each school


Number of returned questionnaires


Number of returned questionnaires


































The study used the Stages of Concern Questionnaire SoCQ to collect data about teachers' stages of concern about computer integration in teaching and learning.

The SoCQ developed by Hall et al. (1977) is widely used to assess concerns about technology. The advantage of the instrument is that it can measure, over time, a continuum of the individual concerns that may relate to the development of the technology integration in teaching and learning. Before and during any implementation process, teachers go through a series of psychological stages of concern toward an innovation Hall and Loucks (1978). This instrument assesses 7 stages of concern: (1) Stage 0 is called awareness, (2) Stage 1 is called informational, (3) Stage 2 is called personal, (4) Stage 3 is called management, (5) Stage 4 is called consequence, (6) Stage 5 is called collaboration and (7) Stage 6 is called refocusing. The SoCQ has been used in various studies on change and innovation adoption for the past 30 years and revised several times by its developers. In this study, the SoCQ was used to measure secondary school teachers' stages of concern about an innovation. The innovation refers to the integration of computer technology in teaching and learning.

This instrument consists of 35 items that participants rate using eight points (Likert scale) that range from "not true of me now" (0) to "very true of me" (7). Participants choose the appropriate degree to which their concerns are true of them. High numbers indicate high concern, low numbers low concern, and 0 indicates very low concern or completely irrelevant. Five statements represent each of the seven stages. All 35 items appear in the instrument in a mixed order. In addition, the 35 items above a section on demographic information are also included for sample description purposes. The information obtained as follow:

Teaching experience.

Teaching area.

Because the participants of this study are Saudi teachers speaking Arabic language, the SoCQ was translated into Arabic version by a professional translator. The instrument was revised twice to ensure that the Arabic and English versions are similar.

Validity and reliability

The validity of the SoCQ and reliability have subsequently been examined in other studies since 1974 using "inter correlational matrices, judgment of concern based on interview data and confirmation of expected group differences and changes over time" (Georg, hall & Stiegelbauer, 2006, p.12) and the original ideas have been supported. According to Hall and Hord (2001, p.68) " It has strong reliability estimates (test/retest reliabilities range from .65 to .86) and internal consistency (alpha-coefficients range from .64 to .83)".

The validity of Arabic SoCQ version is based on Al Shammari (2000) and Saif Al-Aghbari (2007) validation. In terms of the reliability of the Arabic version, the questionnaire was piloted to 35 secondary school teachers in Al-Hass region. Based on teachers understanding of the items, over all Cronbach's alpha coefficients value =.91. The internal reliability using Cronbach's alpha coefficients value for each stage ranged from .64 to .93 on the seven scales as shown in table 3.4.1.

Data collection

The data were collected in Al-Hassa region during March 2010.The questionnaires were sent by e-mail to my brother who is a secondary school teacher then he printed out the questionnaires and a letter to the General Administration of Education in Al-Hassa region requesting permission to do the research. In the first week of March, a letter granting approval of the request was received from The Planning and Educational Development Department-Educational Research Unit in Al-Hassa General Administration of Education. Another letter attached with the questionnaire to secondary schools in the region to help the researcher in distributing the questionnaires. The questionnaires were distributed by the schools administrators to the teachers in selected schools. After completion, the questionnaires were collected and coded by my brother then secured in sealed envelopes and posted to researcher.

Table:3.4.1 Cronbach's alpha coefficients value for each stage.

Stage of concern

Alpha value of the (SoCQ) (N=35)















Data analysis

Analysis of data in this study is carrying out using the (SoCQ) Quick Scoring Device and the Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS) v.16 for windows software. Construction of respondents' individual (SoCQ) profile was by conversion of the item raw score totals for each scale into percentile scores based on the stage of concern percentile conversion chart (see Appendix??).This accompanied with the instrument in the CBAM's (SoCQ) manual by George, Hall and Stiegelbauer (2006).

In this study, both descriptive and inferential statistics were used. The SoCQ manual for data analysis and interpretation (see Appendix ??) serve the primary need of describing teachers' concerns about the innovation. One way of analyzing group concerns is to aggregate individual data by developing a profile that provides the average scores for each stage of the individuals in a group. Group averages reflect the dominant high and low Stages of Concern of the entire group. Mean scores were converted to percentiles and plotted following the procedures outlined by George, Hall, and Stiegelbauer (2006). Each of the seven stages of concern was represented by five statements. The raw score for each scale was the sum of the five statements for that scale. These were then converted to percentile scores provided in (Appendix ????).

The data will be analyzed with regard to the three research questions. For the purpose of answering the first question: 1- What is secondary school teachers' stage of concern about the integration of computer technology in teaching and learning? The procedure of SoCQ data analysis will be used to create teachers' profiles, including the total sample profile to identify teachers' stages of concerns (self concerns, task concern, and impact concerns).

To answer the second and third questions which are:

2- Is there a significant difference between secondary school teachers' stages of concern about the integration of computer technology in teaching and learning in terms of teaching experience?

One way between subjects ANOVA will be used. ANOVA serves the need of testing the differences between independent variable teaching experience and seven dependent variables (awareness, informational, personal, management, consequence, collaboration, and refocusing).

3-Is there a significant difference between secondary school teachers' stages of concern about the integration of computer technology in teaching and learning in terms of teaching area?

In summary, this study uses a quantitative instrument in data collection. The (SoCQ) is used to examine teachers' stages of concern. The demographic survey gathers information about two factors related to teachers reported stages of concern. In data analysis, the (SoCQ) manual and one way ANOVA will be applied to answer the research questions.