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The teacher is a provider of knowledge plays many roles in the life of the students. The teachers are regarded as the second parents of the children or for the students. They are considered as the bridge for the future of the students and if one student is frightened to cross on her bridge, she will surely guide or escort the student for safety. The teachers are the personalities that are acquainted with the strengths and weakness of her students and encouraging them to enhance their knowledge and skills through behavioural changes.
2. Background and Problem Statement
The teachers have different roles in the eyes of the students. The teachers as the provider of knowledge are also the same people that will help the students in behavioural changes and developing their own skills or characteristics. Most of the students find the trouble in overcoming their social behavioural disorder and developing their own self-esteem and can affect their social relationship. In this issue of socialization, the teachers' endeavor should be to help the children build their self-esteem in avoiding the different consequences between the school and the students.
Depending on this a case of two socially withdrawn female children of Kids Garden Elementary School of grade 3 will be described. These children are students of two different sections of grade 3 classes. They are neither interacting with other children of their respective classes and school nor with one another. To investigate that whether teachers can increase the play behavior of these children with other children and further can develop their self-esteem, this two individual participants case study will be describing the efficacy of an experimental treatment condition. In order to describe the teachers' role as building block of rising the competency or self-esteem of the students, this research is needed to be conducted.
3. Significance of the study
A teacher has momentous and challenging role in the process of a child's growing from childhood stage to normalisation or socialisation. During a child's early years of development, the teacher role is vital for children's physical and mental growth at this transition time of one stage to another. The teacher observes and evaluates that how the prepared environment works for a child, how children are linked with such environment and surroundings and then the teacher adjusts the environment to their needs. This is very important in supporting a process of 'normalisation', through which the true nature of a child is revealed (Montessori, 1949, p.186).
Naturally, in given environment when students feel good about themselves, they are much more likely to become better achiever in the classroom. Let's think for a moment about ourselves, the more confident we feel, the better we feel about the task at hand and our ability to do it. Likewise when a child is feeling good about himself or herself, it's much easier to encourage them to become academically more capable.
Self-esteem is important in and out of the classroom. Teachers can support self-esteem having a specific goal orientation, (learning goal or performance goal) to base feedback on as opposed to person-orientated praise will be more effective. In other words, the teacher should prevent using statements like: 'I'm proud of you'; Wow, you worked hard. Instead, the teacher should concentrate the praise on the task or process consequent upon the performance of a student. For boosting morale the student's specific effort and strategy should be praised (Dweck, 1999).
4. Research Objectives
The first objective of the study is to recognize the role of the teacher in behavioural changes and in developing the self-esteem of the students. The second objective is to promote the various strategies that are commonly used by the teachers in building the self-esteem among their students.
4.1 Research Questions
The teachers are the key players in promoting the education and knowledge among the students. Therefore, the study prepared several questions that will help the researcher in satisfying the objectives of the study.
What are the promoted techniques of the teachers for behavioural changes of the students?
How the changed behaviour is transformed in building the competency or self-esteem of the students?
How the teachers perceive their own role that they carry?
To indicate or find out the possible solutions to overcome the students' social behavioural disorder.
What are the common effects created by the teachers in their approach to build their students' self esteem?Â
5. Literature Review
In educational settings mostly when a student comes across any problem, s/he first look at his/her teacher, therefore, teacher usually help the students to create their own thinking and to construct the kind of character in which the children can establish their own relationship with the other children and surroundings. The students' own thought of having lower abilities than the other students depict to have a low self esteem and have risks in showing or sharing the problems in school and accordingly lose their potential (Vigilante, 2005). Therefore, the aid of a teacher in building the self esteem of every student is also in the matter of building a strong student and teacher relationship. Communication is one of the most effective tools which can build a stable learning relationship between the teacher and students. However, the teachers are paying too much attention in fulfilling their manual duties -where sometimes they ignore the personality trait problems of the students. In the supervision of the teachers, the objective of learning can be satisfied but this ignorance may become a cause of social behavioral disorder for students.
Through the behavior of the teacher and the application of different teaching styles and approaches as well as the learning environment major positive changes can be brought in the students' behaviors. In addition, through the approach of the teachers in learning, the analysis and dialogue became an effective teaching technique, most especially in sustaining the teacher-student relationship (Mullinix, 1998). The school environment may not be so friendly with the student that is why there is a need for a strong teacher-student relationship. The relationship is not only important in learning but also in the understanding the situation of the students. In this relationship the role of a teacher is fundamental because they are the guardians of the students. They are the one who understands the different behaviors of the students and the need for a strong relationship is an example. The quality of teacher-student relationship is the keystone for all the aspects of classroom management (McNenly, 2004).Â
6. Methodology of the Study
The research strategy that the study will utilize is the descriptive method. A descriptive research meant for presenting facts regarding the environment and status of a situation, as it remains at the moment of the study (Creswell, 1994). Descriptive method is also relating to relationships and practices that exist, beliefs and processes that are ongoing, effects that are being felt, or trends that are developing (Best, 1970). Additionally, such method tries to explain present events, conditions or systems based on the impressions or reactions of the respondents of the research (Creswell, 1994).
6.1 Study area and period
This research will be conducted in Kids Garden Elementary School that was operationalised in the year 2005 and determined to focus on the social problems of students and teachers' role in diminishing such problems and learning processes.
6.2 Study population / participants
In the applied approach, purposive sampling method will be used. The researcher of this study has specified the characteristics of the population of interest and then tried to locate individuals who have those characteristics.
In case of students, 2 students will be taken out of a total of 60 students (from two sections) of grade 4 classes while in case of teachers, those who teach to them in the class. The profile of these teachers indicates that two of them are diploma holders and the rest 4 are first degree holders.
6.3 Variables included in the study
In the study three major independent variables will be selected to be in use.
a. Student- related variables which includes student's personal characteristics such as sex
b. Teachers- related variables such as teachers' sex and educational levels.
c. School- related variables such as principles qualification age, sex, etc.
Dependent variables: Time - related variables such as time-series design is dependent variable.
However, the multiple pretreatment and posttreatment responses allow us to rule out many extraneous variables, such as history and maturation that could confound the results.
6.4 Study /research design
A-B-A design of single-case experimental design will be used in this study. Such research designs are often used with an intact group of participants as well as with one or two participants (Johnson & Christensen, 2008).
The A-B-A is a design in which the participant is frequently pre-tested (the first A phase or baseline condition), then the experimental treatment condition is managed and the participant is repeatedly posttested (the B phase or treatment phase).Â
ï‚· The pattern of baseline behaviour is compared with the pattern of treatment behaviour to determine the treatment effect in this design.
ï‚· The discontinuity in the baseline and treatment patterns would be observed, such as differences in the slope and/or level of responses on the dependent variable.
ï‚· An impact would be shown by a low (A), high (B), low (A) set of responses if the treatment is supposed to cause an increase a certain behavior.
ï‚· An impact would be shown by a high (A), low (B), high (A) set of responses if the treatment is supposed to cause a decrease a certain behavior.
One constraint of the A-B-A design is that it finishes with baseline condition or the extraction of the treatment condition so the participant does not get the advantage of the treatment condition at the end of the experiment.
In this study baseline would consists of recording the percentage of time the children would spend interacting with other children as well as adults, such as the teachers, during a specific time period, such as recess. Treatment would be consisted of praising the target children whenever they interact with other children and not with adults to see whether the percentage of time they spend with other children but not with adults increased over baseline.
6.5 Data Collection / Sources
The applied method in the study is the use of the interview or questionnaires and observations. Questionnaires will be distributed to the respondents (students and teachers) of the sample and then collected. Through the use of the interviews or questionnaires, the participants can present their own freedom and thoughts regarding their role in building the self esteem of the students. Percentages are used to analyze the obtained data. The obtained data will be interpreted and the findings will be put in to summary, conclusions and recommendations.Â
6.6 Data Analysis and interpretation
The approaches to assess the effects of an experimental treatment will be;
Visual inspection - will be looking at the data generated in the various phases to identify a treatment effect if the baseline and intervention data don't overlap then will be using this approach. OR
Statistical analysis - if there is major variability in the data and the baseline data is not very stable then statistical analysis approach will be used.
The irrelevant factors to the interference that happened to occur during the intervention stage would be the reason for observed changes such as the subject might begin to suddenly recover during the intervention phase. To enhance the validity of the study this ABA design will be used because it contains a withdrawal phase (i.e. second A phase) in supplement to the original baseline and intervention phases. If the intervention presented was the reason of observed changes in a result, the prototype of the outcome variable would differ systematically with the introduction and removal of the intervention. A-B-A design is mainly appropriate for results that are reversible and, therefore, have restricted applicability for many PT interventions. The number of frequent measurements taken during each stage of this study may be varying as can the period of the phases. Therefore, at least three to four repeated measurements would be taken at usual intervals during each stage and the duration of the phases themselves would be equal.
Self-esteem is a vital component to approximately everything children do. Self-esteem not simply will assist with academic presentation, it holds up social abilities and create an easier way for children to have and keep friends. Affiliation with peers and teachers are generally more optimistic with a healthy amount of self-esteem. Children are also better prepared to manage with mistakes and troubled situations. Self-esteem supports children to tackle with demanding tasks and complete learning activities. Self-esteem has permanent effects therefore we require remembering the important role a teacher play to improve or damage a child's self-esteem.