Role Of Motivational Techniques In Academic Institutions Education Essay

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Motivation is an important tool that is often under-utilized by heads of institutions in today's workplace. Heads use motivation techniques in the workplace to inspire teachers to work, both individually and in groups, to produce the best results for education in the most efficient and effective manner. It was assumed that motivation had to be generated from the outside, but it is now understood that each individual has his or her own set of motivating forces. It is the duty of the heads of institutions to carefully identify and address these motivating forces.

There are many factors that determine people's behaviours and motivate them. These are psychological needs, physiological drives, survival, urges, emotions, hurts, impulses, fears, threats, rewards (money, friendship, status), possessions, wishes, intentions, values, mastery, freedom, intrinsic satisfaction, self-satisfaction, interests, pleasure, dislikes, established habits, goals, ambitions and so on (Lewis, 1998).

Motivation, in the most general sense of the term, is an attempt to explain why behavior occurs (e.g., why people do what they do). Many educators believe motivation is a pre-requisite for learning. Behaviorists, though, view it as a collateral product of learning because it is, itself, taught (Richard, 1972). Motivation.It comes from within, so it is up to each individual to motivate him/herself (Korman, 1974).

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Motivation refers to a state that directs the behaviour of the individual towards certain goals. Motivation has been defined as: the psychological process that gives behavior purpose and direction (Kreitner, 1995). Teachers motivate learners through a variety of strategies based on understanding of the learners' growth and development patterns, individual ability differences, and through internal and external factors that may arouse and sustain the desire to learn more (Luthans, .1998).

Heads need to provide the right organizational climate to ensure that their teachers can see that by working towards the organizational / institutional goals they are also achieving some of their own goals. These goals could be such things as financial rewards or personal rewards such as the respect of their colleagues or job satisfaction or a combination of any number of things that the teachers consider to be important. It is no good giving someone a pay rise if they are dissatisfied with the job and they do not see money as a very important factor in their working life (Peters, 1992).

According to Mifflin (1995) state that teacher motivation naturally has to do with teachers' attitude toward work. It has to do with teachers' desire to participate in the pedagogical processes within the college environment. It has to do with teachers' interest in student discipline and control particularly in the classroom. Therefore, it could underlie their involvement or non-involvement in academic and non-academic activities, which operate in college. The teacher is the one that translates educational philosophy and objectives into knowledge and skills and transfers these to students in the classroom. Classroom climate is important in teacher motivation. If teachers experience the classroom as a safe, healthy, happy place with supportive resources and facilities for teaching for optimal learning, they tend to participate more than expected in the process of management, administration and the overall improvement of the college. The teacher commands and transmits the image of one who improves knowledge and the physical conditions of the classroom through orderliness, discipline and control. He or she makes diagnosis of students' feelings and attitudes inferred by their behaviour and response in the classroom environment (Griffin, 1994).

METHODS AND MATERIALS

The population of the study comprised the categories of respondents of all the heads of higher Institutes in NWFP and all the teachers working in higher Institutes of NWFP Random sampling was used from this population. The sample constituted of 12 male and 12 female higher Institutes, their heads, and five teachers selected from each higher Institute in NWFP.

This study involved collection of supportive data from primary sources available at higher Institutes in NWFP. Questionnaires were used as research instruments for collection of data. The researcher prepared two questionnaires using a five-point Likert scale. The two questionnaires were developed, one for Heads and the other questionnaire for teachers of higher institutes in NWFP.

STATISTICAL DATA ANALYSIS

The Interpretation of responses of principal and teacher in percentages, the data from each of the two questionnaires has been illustrated as follow. The researcher used two tables with 10 questions in each category and each table has a set of comments on the patterns of results.

Table 1: Principal Responses in Percentage

Principals (N = 24)

%

SA

A

UD

D

SD

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1

The principal is always constructive and optimistic.

40

20

5

25

10

2

The principal motivates teachers to be more innovative.

38

28

11

10

13

3

The principal appreciates his teachers' work openly.

2

10

6

44

38

4

The principal is stiff in his dealings.

20

32

3

28

17

5

The principal provides personal loyalty to the teachers.

10

19

5

36

30

6

The principal expects better performance from his teachers.

30

45

2

13

10

7

The principal guides and appreciates the teachers to develop sense of humour.

45

25

5

15

10

8

The principal awards teachers with impressive titles.

30

48

6

6

10

9

The principal chides the teachers on their mistakes.

19

47

5

15

14

10

The principal is punctual.

30

35

6

15

14

The principals here are describing themselves. Inevitably, they may be unrealistic at times, seeing themselves in a very positive way or, indeed, they may be over-critical of themselves. Much of the data shows considerable polarisation of views, with some being very positive and some very negative. They may simply reflect some being over-optimistic with others being over critical. The response to question 3 suggests that the principals are not being openly appreciative but have a tendency to be over-critical in question 9.

Table 2: Teacher Responses in Percentage

Teachers (N = 120)

%

SA

A

UD

D

SD

1

Constructive and optimistic attitude of the principal enhances the performance of the teachers.

26

53

6

11

4

2

Encouragement for creativity and innovation by the principal leads the teacher to better performance.

30

49

5

9

7

3

Appreciations of genuine efforts motivates teacher to do even better.

18

50

6

16

10

4

Strict dealing of principal enhances the performance of teacher.

9

10

3

24

54

5

Personal loyalty of principal enhances the performance of teacher.

46

37

4

7

6

6

Expressions of expectations of the principal enhance the performance of the teacher.

31

48

3

12

6

7

Guidance and appreciation to develop sense of humour enhance the performance of teacher.

22

51

4

13

10

8

Awards with impressive titles ensure the better performance of the teacher.

46

28

2

14

10

9

Chiding on mistake affects the performance of the teacher.

43

30

3

16

8

10

Punctuality of the principal makes the teacher punctual.

45

39

2

8

6

In looking at the responses of the teachers, it has to be noted that their views have to be interpreted noting that a large number of them consider constructive and optimistic attitude, encouragement, appreciation, personal loyalty, and chiding on mistakes by the principals enhance the performance while strict dealing does not enhance the performance of teachers.

CONCLUSION

The study found that motivational techniques could increase the performance of the person. Performance can be very good when a person performed their responsibilities. When the college head motivated the teachers, teachers fulfill the responsibilities adequately. In this way educational institutions achieve good standards. It means that responsibilities of the teachers are essential factors in the instructional programme for the teacher's performance.

The majority of the teachers view that the techniques like constructive and optimistic attitude of the principals, appreciation on genuine efforts and positive behaviour of the principals more fairly enhance the performance of teachers.

The study results show that the majority of the teachers view that techniques like encouragement of creativity, innovation, expression of expectation of the principals, guidance, appreciation to develop sense of humour, awards with impressive titles, verbal or nonverbal recognition, good relationships with the principal, feedback on academic performance, regular evaluation of teachers and financial incentive on better performance better enhance the performance teachers.

Heads of the institutes believe in reality that they trust in their teachers, delegate responsibility and authority to their teachers and allow them freedom of action. Talk more about differences in perceptions of heads and teachers. That was what a lot of this study was about.

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The following recommendations are suggested for the improvement of the teaching-learning situation in the higher education institutions. Heads should show punctuality, personal loyalty and ample chances for profession growth. Heads should assign the examination duties among his teachers justly and fairly and head should ensure evaluation of teachers' performance regularly. The heads may be empowered to utilize sufficient funds for motivating teachers and students.

The study results reveal that majority of the principals do not provide job security and that teachers worry about being transferred. It is therefore, recommended that principals avoid creating unfavourable situations and they should not stress their teachers about transfers. The government may provide greater job security through changing rules and regulation about transfer of teachers.

It was found that motivated teachers perceive that they will fulfill their responsibilities by exerting maximally. Therefore, it is recommended that motivation techniques may be included in detail in training courses of teachers and a special training course may be arranged for educational managers, administrators and supervisors to use motivation techniques appropriately to achieve competency.

AUTHORS INFORMATION

Dr. Muhammad Naseer-Ud-Din is working as an Assistant Professor in Institute of Education and Research, Kohat University of Science and Technology, Kohat, Pakistan. He did his Ph.D. in Education from University Institute of Education and Research, UAAR, Pakistan.

E-mail: naseer_khanpk2000@yahoo.com

Dr. Ali Murtaza is working as an Assistant Professor Preston University Islamabad, Pakistan. He did his Ph.D. in Education from University Institute of Education and Research, UAAR, Pakistan.

E-mail: naseer_khanpk2000@yahoo.com

DrHafiz HameedUllah is working as an Assistant Professor, Riphah International University, Islamabad, Pakistan.. He did his Ph.D. in Education from University Institute of Education and Research, UAAR, Pakistan.

E-mail: naseer_khanpk2000@yahoo.com

Dr. Sajjad Hayat Akhtar is working as an teachers Department of Education, Govt. of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. He did his Ph.D. in Education from University of Sindh, Hyderabad, Pakistan.

E-mail: naseer_khanpk2000@yahoo.com