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"Research, Ethical, Professional And Legal Issues"
Role Of Leadership And Motivation In Management
This paper tells about roles of leadership and motivation in the field of management, how it plays, what kind of role it plays, how it is useful in getting success of the team and theories of leadership and motivation.
Leadership and motivation, from the definitions leader means that who leads the team then he will be the leader for that team. But clearly, the leader does not always go first and he develops the effective ideas and implements those ideas by motivating the team members. So leader ship and motivation both are linked together. Now leader will be the person who motivates the team and that will be his leadership. The leader to accomplish their responsibility has to be familiar with how to inspire people and be obliged to search for ways to do this so as to preserve their position has leader. A good leader must possess a vision and having a vision provides a leader with purpose. This vision can help each employee to see what the future holds and what is the result of today's extra efforts and hard work. It also display what future offers as a rational extension of today's efforts. To a leader, vision is a reality that is in the reach in the near future. Vision is not a dream, it is reflect of breadth of understanding that enables an organization to advance and compete. A good leader designs and directs a precise plan for how to make a vision reality. The best vision is generated through discussion and debate with employees who carry and implement the vision. If employees are convinced about the purpose and reasons of implementing the plan, they will do extra ef fort in the reaching the shared vision. The vision should have a direct link with the objective of the organization. Finally, a shared and accepted vision is the critical link to high commitment and performance by every members of organization. A shared vision not only ties individual employees with together and leadership, but also generates a positive and constructive relationship between management and employees. The main steps in the creating of the shared vision are; employees and leaders must establish a working relation for the generation of shared vision; they proactively seek out for change rather than wait for a crises that demands action; they should define a shared vision for improvement of products and services; and they implement vision with the team work and group efforts.
Ethical issues in Leadership and Motivation
"Actual leaders contemplate resting on undertaking the accurate obsession, not resting on deed possessions correct." With the aim of recommendation as of managerial board of advisers comes seeing with the aim of refusal bolt from the blue in the direction of respective firm leaders, according to what actives are crammed by means of easier said than done principleddilemmas.
Principals knowledge suchlike uncertainties taking place an every day basis. Having ethical liabilities in the direction of the social order, on the road to the line of work, en route for the institute panel in addition to students, they come across with the intention of "this frequently is not comprehensible what is correct or incorrect, or what individual have to carry out, or else which point of view is spot onwithinethicalstipulations."
Unluckily, comparatively a small number of chairpersons have been skilled in the direction of agreement in the midst of these contrasts. In anticipation of awfully newly, principled issues were agreed modest concentration within grounding structures.
Here is an example describing about ethical issues of school leader
Greenfield comments so as to school leader countenance an only one of its kind set of moral difficulties. Academies are ethical associations, premeditated to endorse communal criterions, in addition to chiefs are ethical assistants those have to time and again create resolutions with the intention of good turn single honest worth in excess of a different. In addition, even though schools are devoted on the way to the welfare of kids, students contain practically refusal authority into what appears close at hand. Intended for all such kind of contemplates. The privileged behaviour "has got tobeintentionallyethical."
Influential's ethical sense of duty asserts develop not merely into the palpable everyday principled confusions, other than in the routine actions and structured networks with the aim of might encompass concealed moral casual remarks. A senior fellow in managing field comments that each communal preparation settlements several persons next to the outlay of the rest of persons; merely to suppose so as to schools exemplify pleasing values are "morally inexperienced, if not in the incorrect." consequently, the chief has got to not simply perform dependably at the same time as an human being, thanbeobligedtoproduceanmoralorsociety.
Since influential's, cardinals have a particular accountability on the way to put into consequence influence into a principled technique. A senior fellow in Leadership studies adverts out that much of a principal's authority is moral; that means, tutors have got to be persuaded so as to the principal's indicate of spectacle reflect principles they prop up. Compulsion from side to side self-important influence will hardly ever encompass an optimistic, permanent consequence or result.
EXAMPLES OF SOME MORAL DILEMMAS ARE FACING BY CHIEFS
Since distinct by a senior fellow, a "moral predicament" is not a selection between correct and incorrect, although an alternative flanked by two privileges. If suppose, allowing for an inducement would be an "ethical enticement"; conclusive if insufficient possessions have to set off on the way to an outstanding set of courses or a dissenter-avoidance structure would a quandary.
Confusions happen when exquisite standards divergence. A main who standards in cooperation educator self-sufficiency in addition to scholar attainment will countenance a tight spot while tutors wish for endorse a guiding principle so as to push down opportunities. This variety of disagreement is finely tuned for the reason that discipline best are unrestricted administrators by means of commitments to a lot of individuals those frequently encompass challenging principles or comforts. Must guardians be well-versed if an analyst apprentices with the intention of guardian's spawn is making an allowance for an aborting? Must a learner assemblage be talented to manuscript a congregation presenter and that presenter attitudes will hurt somebody's feelings several in the commune? Should the chief hold up an educator who has completed doubtful marking pronouncements?
Several educational programmes put forward those commitments towards managers or chiefs set particular weight resting on principled executive. Meant for case, a fellow asked chiefs to approximation how "a characteristic co-worker" would act in response to theoretical confusions. Compassionate frequently announced that equals or co-workers would obtain "the pathway of smallest amount confrontation" with adjourning to admirable or captivating place of safety in bureaucrat actions, that the theoretical social group in point of fact reproduce the standard.
Ethical confectioners in general are in agreement close at hand is no moral "recipe book" with the intention of provides trouble-free solutions to multifaceted dilemmas. Other than a numeral of academicians encompass recommended a number of guiding principles.
1. Influential persons must have and live enthusiastic in the direction of take action lying on an unambiguous intelligence of principled values.
Starratt asserts that a completely well-versed principled awareness will be full of arguments of compassionate like what perform our affairs stipulate of us? Means that a leader should know that what he is going to perform; impartiality and it ells that how can we administer ourselves fairly? Because as a leader we should administer ourselves in order to perform requirements; and assessment Where do we go down diminutive of our have possession of principles? Like these type of questions has to be developed by an ethical leader.
2. Guider should look at problems commencing dissimilar attitudes.
A senior fellow described that there can be three kinds of dilemmas in any organisation. One is to look forward to the momentousness of every preference and endeavour towards make out who is going to be pretentious, with in what kind of conducts. One more come up to have ethical regulations, presumptuous with the intention of the humankind would be a recovered position if populace for eternity helped definite extensively conventional principles (such as influential the genuineness). And final viewpoint accentuates thoughtful, which is comparable in the direction of the fair-haired imperative: How would we in the vein of to be appraised concealed by comparable state of affairs?
3. Superiors can frequently reassemble principled or moral issues or arguments.
A lot of noticeable confusion fluctuations are in point of fact "confusion fluctuations or dilemmas," contributing a third pathway so as to abstain the either-or thoughts. If we take an example like, double-dealing with a parent who substance in the direction of a meticulous coursework assignments on spiritual justification, a most important chief or principal might be capable to discuss an substitute project, by this means cherishing educational truthfulness devoid of circumventing on guardian privileges.
4. At long last, privileged individuals have to maintain the practice of mindful indications, anywhere it possibly will show the way them.
Ethical leadership can be given at any level within the organization . and anyone can show ethical leadership . but if those at the top of the organization are not giving ethical leadership, it is unlikely that there will be many ethical leaders in ranks below.
Let us consider for a moment the other side of the coin: ethical leadership failure.
This is where there is disconnectedness between what is said and what is done. One might call it the .values/action gap..
The ultimate price to pay for this is very high indeed. This failure, perhaps more than any other single factor, was central to the ethical disasters that occurred at Enron, Andersen, WorldCom, Tyco and the other corporations that hit the headlines. And we can only guess how many reputations, livelihoods and business relationships were wrecked as a consequence. What are the symptoms of ethical leadership failure and how do we avoid them? I see seven symptoms. We might call them .the Seven Ethical Sins. And also seven antidotes.
First, there is ethical blindness; a failure to see, or a reckless disregard for, the ethical implications of what we are involved in.
The second symptom is ethical muteness: the inability, or unwillingness, to communicate ethical messages to those who need to hear them. Such silence implies our consent to possible unethical actions.
Thirdly, there is ethical incoherence: the inability to think clearly within an ethical context, or to draw proper ethical conclusions from a set of alternatives.
The fourth symptom is ethical paralysis: the inability to put values into action, for whatever reason. Confucius said, .To know what is right and not do it is the worst cowardice..
Fifthly, one can encounter ethical hypocrisy: saying one thing and doing another; and what is equally bad, telling others to do things when we are unwilling to do them ourselves.
A similar vice, and number six on the list, is ethical schizophrenia: behaving inconsistently and unpredictably when dealing with ethical issues. for example, acting one way at the office and another way at home.
Finally, number seven and perhaps the biggest enemy of ethical leadership, is ethical complacency. This is always a dangerous state to be in but it's doubly true where business ethics is concerned. It's a state in which we think that because we.re so ethical,
we couldn't possibly do anything wrong. Of course, that is just the time when we will take an ethical misstep because we are unaware of the moral pitfall in front of us.
So how do we counter these symptoms of ethical leadership failure? How do we.....
close the values/action gap?
There are antidotes. For ethical blindness, we must apply ethical awareness. For muteness, there is ethical communication. For incoherence, there is ethical understanding. The cure for our ethical paralysis is ethical effectiveness. For hypocrisy, there is the antidote of integrity. Becoming a whole, unified ethical person. For our schizophrenia, we must find ethical consistency. And finally, our ethical complacency can be healed by constant doses of ethical humility. As the British author Henry Fairlie wrote,. The foundation of humility is truth. The humble man sees himself as he is.. I might add that ethical humility is ability to recognize in oneself the possibility of falling victim to unethical behaviour, and it is this recognition that keeps us sensitive and watchful.
Leadership Success Secrets
"The very essence of leadership is that you have to have a vision. It's got to be a vision you articulate clearly and forcefully on every occasion." --Theodore Hesburgh, President of the University of Notre Dame
"There's nothing more demoralizing than a leader who can't clearly articulate why we're doing what we're doing." --James Kouzes and Barry Posner
Leaders have vision. They share a dream and direction that other people want to share and follow. The leadership vision goes beyond your written organizational mission statement and your vision statement. The vision of leadership permeates the workplace and is manifested in the actions, beliefs, values and goals of your organization's leaders.
Leadership Vision Fundamentals
While your organization may not have such an intrinsically compelling vision as ReCellular, your leaders can inspire with their own vision. In fact, most businesses were started because the founder had a vision about what he or she could create. Sharing that vision with others in a way that compels them to act is the secret to a successful leadership vision.
These are the fundamentals necessary for a vision that excites and motivates people to follow the leader. The vision must:
- Clearly set organizational direction and purpose;
- Inspire loyalty and caring through the involvement of all employees;
- Display and reflect the unique strengths, culture, values, beliefs and direction of the organization.
- Inspire enthusiasm, belief, commitment and excitement in company members;
- Help employees believe that they are part of something bigger than themselves and their daily work;
- Be regularly communicated and shared;
- Challenge people to outdo themselves, to stretch and reach.
The Objective is to increase workplace efficiency by controlling elementary problems with workplace education tools. Workplace education finds efficient ways to get jobs done.
The Goal - The goal in any task is to get the job done. Leadership style controls efficiency, which controls competitive value of product or service, which determines the winner.
Leadership Innovation - Today, fast growing organizations are built on leadership innovation, that is, they are not built by product visionaries but by social visionaries - those who invent entirely new ways of organizing human effort. Southwest Airlines, Inc. is an example.
Definition of Terms
Visionary Leadership increases efficiency by moving decision-making responsibility to the frontline. Efficiency is achieved with limited supervision. To make frontline responsibility effective, leadership must give workers opportunity to develop quality decision-making skills and learn to trust them. Wal-Mart stores use visionary leadership.
Standard leadership assumes employees to be robots and do as they are told. This is based on man's natural instinct that only leadership is capable of making quality decisions. This is known as command-and-control leadership. Low efficiency is caused by the disconnect between management and the frontline. Management is busy dealing with problems that affect them while ignoring problems that affect the frontline. Front line problems are only dealt with when they explode into a major problem. K-Mart stores use standard leadership.
Workplace education creates a workforce of quality decision makers. Employees at all levels have the opportunity to discover and develop their unique skills, thereby, inspiring them to become quality decision-makers. The key word is "opportunity." Not everyone will embrace this opportunity, but the few that do will inspire others with positive attitudes. This can only be achieved with visionary leadership.
Organization structure controls decision-making responsibility. Visionary leadership allows decision-making responsibility all the way down to the frontline. Standard leadership limits decision making to management.
Priorities - Organization priorities control leadership style.
- When priority is responsibility at the frontline, leadership will seek talent, people he can depend on to complete tasks with limited supervision. The policy will be "do it." The frontline develops quality decision-making skills that are also found in layers of management.
- When the priority is control, leadership will be organized in a way that all decisions must have approval. The policy will be "do not do anything until being told." Layers of management slow the final decision, while lowering efficiency.
Policies - Leadership style is controlled by workplace policies. Leaders will adapt their style to the organization priorities and its goals.
- High efficiency workplaces are based on visionary leadership, where workplace policies authorize decision-making responsibility at the frontline. Limited supervision is needed with worker responsibility.
- Standard leadership is based on man's instinctive desire for control, which is leadership by default. A leader's changing mood controls policy of the moment and no one knows what the priorities are - mood-changing priorities reduce efficiency. Standard leadership requires a high level of supervision.
Elements to Consider
Ethical policies - Ethical policies at the organization's top filter down to the frontline. It is not possible to have unethical policies at the top and enforce ethical policies at the bottom. Leaders' ethical policies become the mindset of the organization. A person with high ethical standards will not stay long in an organization with low ethical standards, they will quit or be fired. A potential whistle blower becomes a threat, yet, this type of person makes an organization efficient. Success of workplace responsibility requires high ethical policies from top to bottom.
Exception to the rule - The military uses command-and-control leadership, yet the troops are highly skilled, motivated and morale is high. This is opposite the statements stated above. The difference - military organizations are team orientated with continuous training. Troops expanding their skills and experiencing capabilities they never dreamed possible, produces a highly motivated and efficient organization. Learning opportunity and responsibility is the key.
Hiring a visionary leader - Very often, an organization realizes it needs to upgrade its leadership. Management can recognize quality in an applicant, but they do not know how to manage them, should they be hired. The first thing current leadership does is tell new leadership how to manage, using their policies. They are in the habit of giving orders and expect them to do as they say while getting desired results. Current leadership does not want to change, they want the new leader to change subordinates attitudes. Attitudes are reflections of leadership. If leadership wants subordinates to change their attitudes, current leaders must first change their attitudes and develop quality leadership skills. Then they can adapt and benefit from the experiences of visionary leadership.
Self-education - Man has the ability to educate himself without instructors - commonly known as self-education. Employees, of organizations that stay on the leading edge of technology, know how to educate themselves. This is the only way to adapt new technology as it comes on the market. The education system waits for market demand before it is offered in classrooms. Organizations that wait for classroom instruction are on the trailing edge of technology.
Resources - Efficiency is as effective as available resources-tools, supplies, work environment-to complete tasks. Employees will work hard to get jobs done, but they need quality resources to be efficient. Resources influence pride, which affects efficiency.
Self-fulfilling prophecy - If leaders want to control workers, they will lead in such a way that self-fulfilling prophecy will condition workers to do nothing unless closely supervised. If leaders want workers to assume responsibility, they must lead in such a way that self-fulfilling prophecy will condition workers to assume responsibility. Employee turnover sorts personalities, attracting people who fit the leader's image and rejecting those who do not, thus fulfilling the self-fulfilling prophecy.
Social prejudice believes other people are less capable than we are. If we are managers and we think other people are less capable, then we will establish a management policy that reflects that belief. Through employee turnover and self-fulfilling prophecy, our opinion will be proven right.
Walt Disney, in the leadership said, " Of all the things I have done, the most vital was coordinating the talents of those who work for me and pointing them at certain goals." Of all the resources available to organization--money, materials, equipment, and people--the vital resource is people. Unlike other resources people have a remarkable potential for growth and development. This fact makes the employees' motivation a most important and challenging aspect of the leadership systems.
In the today's organizations the demands is to respond to changes in technology and marketplace by being a learning organizations. Leaders and employees reach out beyond of their boundaries in order to develop more effective relations, procedures, processes, and visions. Most of the problems of today's organizations are lack of leadership not talents. Fortunately, our companies are realizing that the performance of the leadership role is essential not just for success, but for survival. We are witnessing a new wave of operation models which believe in the participative leadership, team work, lifelong learning, communication, and vision. Finally, employees, customers, society, and future generation look to the leaders for the new direction which can provide success and happiness for today's generation and assurance of better life, work environment, and society for the next generation. The task is difficult, but we have the resources, educators, multi-dimensional employees, and technology to achieve it. We should remember that this generation has an ethical obligation to the future and prosperity of the next generation.
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