According to Bandura how people behave can often be better predicted by the beliefs they hold about their own capabilities than by what they are actually capable of accomplishing. He named these self-perceptions "self-efficacy beliefs". These beliefs determine what individuals do with the knowledge and skills they have. This notion of efficacy has received considerable attention by education researchers. Woolfolk, Pajares and others have indulged in detailed indepth research of efficacy beliefs in teaching and learning. According to Woolfolk and Moran (2001), "teacher efficacy has proved to be powerfully related to many meaningful educational outcomes such as teachers' persistence, enthusiasm, commitment and instructional behavior, as well as student outcomes such as achievement, motivation, and self-efficacy beliefs".
After hearing the proclaimation that "the role of higher education in research, evaluation, teaching, information transfer and technological development is critical to nationwide social progress and economic growth" (Anyamele, 2002), both Consequently, developing countries are trying their best to invest in higher education developed and developing countries are increasingly investing in higher education. Thus, higher education is drawing greater attention of researchers than ever before and is perceived as one of the most important academic levels of a student's life.
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Pakistan ,as well, being a developing country, is striving hard to achieve better standards of education. Special emphasis is given to the higher education sector. Both teachers and students are motivated to acquire international standards of academic excellence in higher education. Government has set up higher education commission (HEC) that monitors the progress of all higher education institutions of the country. In spite of all these efforts, our educational growth is rather slow. We need to speed up to catch with rapidly growing countries like Malaysia, India, Brazil and Srilanka. For this purpose, we will have to make the process of higher education more productive.
Modern organizational theory tells that, in order to be productive and to get best results, an organization requires efficient and effective managers. Such a key role is played by its faculty, i.e. the teachers in a higher education institution. If competency of teachers is enhanced, the level of education will automatically develop. Carnell, in his study, reflects that " even though teachers were asked to give an example of effective teaching all chose to focus on students' learning . Each participant linked effective teaching and student learning" (2007: 29). It concludes that teaching cannot be effective unless it results in producing the desired learning outcome. That's the reason why a teacher-centred focus is "regarded as less likely to produce high-quality learning outcomes amongst students" (Åkerlind, 2007: 22). In this study, the learning outcome is similar to the final grades of the students.
The need of the hour is highly skilled and motivated teachers. I assume that our higher education system can only improve if the teaching efficacy improves. This study aims at investigating whether the efficacy beliefs of teachers/students affect the learning outcome. The purpose of this research is to find out a relationship between efficacy beliefs and teaching-learning experience in Pakistani higher education context.
Significance of the study
This study aims to suggest strategies to improve efficacy of teachers/learners in every subject that will lead to an overall achievement of the desired learning outcome. Further, a pioneer in its kind in Pakistan, this study will lead to further efficacy research in other education institutions. The fact that there is a little research on efficacy in higher education (see for example Gaddis, M. D., & Elliott, T. 1997) makes this study even more meaningful in the given context. Woolfolk, A. is one of the pioneers in the field of educational efficacy of teachers and students but none of her work encapsulates teacher/learner efficacy in higher educations. Moreover, a qualitative study of efficacy is very rare as many scales have been developed to measure efficacy levels of the research participants. This study will directly observe the sources and effects of efficacy rather than relying on the self reports of the informants. Another very important aspect of this study is its context; a private sector university. Education through private sector is thriving in Pakistan and it is about time that modern concepts of teaching/learning phenomena are researched in this sector with the intension of betterment of the education system.
Statement of the problem
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This study aims to understand the influence of efficacy beliefs of teachers and their students in achieving the desired learning outcome in higher education institution.
Purposes of the study
The purposes of the study are to:
Explain the concept of efficacy in teaching/learning environment;
Describe the influence of teachers' efficacy beliefs on their teaching performance;
Explain the impact of teachers' efficacy on learners' efficacy;
Examine the effect of learners' efficacy on their learning outcome;
Efficacy beliefs of teachers affect their teaching performance
Learners' efficacy is influenced by teachers' efficacy.
Learners' efficacy directly influences the learning outcome.