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The most distinctive feature of modern society is science based technology. The changes that occur as a result of the impact of its are called as modernization. This modernization has affected teaching .learning in many ways. Modern teaching learning is giving importance to students activity. It is called student centered approach. In a traditional society the aim of teaching learning acquisition of knowledge. But in modern society the main aim of teaching learning is not only acquisition of knowledge but also the awakening of curiosity, the stimulation of creativity the development of proper interest, attitude and values and the building of essential skills such as independent study teaching learning in the modern society is to keep pace with the achievement of knowledge and skills.
According to Dictionary of Education (2005, p.521) "learning is the process of
acquiring knowledge, skills and belief through experience". Learning takes place when
students interact with others and with environment by observing, talking, listening
discussing, writing and relating their own ideas and experiences with others.(Reddy,
Piaget's (1964, p.17) describes "learning is subordinated to development and
not vice versa". He explained development as the active construction of knowledge and
learning as the passive formation of association. He was interested in knowledge
construction and believes that cognitive development came before learning. According to
his view child cannot learn a concept before they are cognitively ready. Here by the term
cognitively ready he means development of child.
Cognitive development takes place first then they become able to learn where as Vygotsky believed that learning is an active process and it did not wait for readiness. Vygotsky, (1978, p.90) said "properly organized learning results in mental development and sets in motion a variety of developmental process that would be impossible apart from learning". He saw learning as a tool in development. Learning pulls development up to higher level and social interaction is a key in learning. So in this way learning can be defined as an individual as well as socialactivity.
Learning takes place as a result of experience. For example a first grade student
sings, "twinkle twinkle little star" and second grade student leaves hot spoon
immediately. First case is the example of learning while second case is not the example
of learning, what's the difference between the examples of learning and not learning? The
difference is the experience. In other words the first grade student's behavior is the result
of his experience. He was not biologically programmed to sing "twinkle twinkle little
star" and leaving hot spoon is reflexive activity.
The learning is what students do, teaching is what the teacher can teach. The improvement in teaching can be demonstrated if there is improvement in learning. As observed by prof.R.S. Adams and others " students may learn what the teacher intended them to; they may not. Teachers like others are fallible,then may not always teach correctly. It Follows them that in any learning situation students may learn correctly what the teacher taught incorrectly or may learn incorrectly what the teacher taught correctly or fortunately the opposites.
1.2 TEACHING AND LEARNING
Teaching and Learning are interlinked. The teacher teaches and students learn. Teaching learning has four aspects they are teacher, student, learning process
figure1.1 explained The process in the interaction between student and the teacher
and learning situation. The teacher creates the learning situation for the student. The process in the interaction between student and the teacher. This interaction is explained in the figure1.1
Teaching learning is influenced by the totality of the learning environmental situation. This interaction is possible through three way communication. This results is behavior changes in the learner. This is diagrammatically explained in the figure1.2
The teacher guiding their students in eight step.
*Step 1&2 communication from the teacher to the learner.
*Step 3 to 5 from learner to teacher.
*Step 6 to 8 again from teacher to learner.
Through this 3 way communication teacher could teach is a linear manner. On the other hand learner can know how well his learning is progressing and how he can success in his way of learning.
The teaching components and learning components are interlinked. Teaching objectives are successful only when the learning outcomes coincide within it. The components of teaching learning are given below.
1.2.1.COMPONENTS OF LEARNING PROCESS
*Task to be learned.
*Characteristics of the task to be learned.
* Characteristics of the learner.
*Conditions under which effective learning takes place.
1.2.2.COMPONENTS OF TEACHING PROCESS:
1.3.ROLE OF BRAIN IN LEARNING:
Brain study research identifies the left brain is the academic brain. It is because educators generally emphasize its process in a traditional class room. It has some limitations in learning on the other hand the right brain is the artistic brain because it is the center for creative talents. Though science and medicines now give more attention to these brain process, education has traditionally neglected the right side, learning half of a students brain potential under educated. Nowadays more school systems are using whole brain learning technique. The brain study shows that learning can be flourished only when teachers make their students to integrate & use both sides of their brain is a lesson. For Example in Kg classes, Teachers who use music, Dance, Story telling, Drama or other right brain activities in their class which trigger the left brain students. Their learning capabilities can be increased but in the primary section the teacher can use traditional teaching which reduce the right brain activities.
When right brain teacher teaches left brain students it affects the achievement of the learner. So the teacher should be whole brained their only he can produce right brain and whole brain dominated students.
The present study has two phases.
*First phase the matching between teaching and learning.
*Second phase Brain dominance of the students and teacher.
1.4 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM:
The problem for the present study is titled as" compatibility between teaching style and learning style with reference to hemisphericity".
1.5 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF KEY TERMS
Teaching Style defined by Fisher and Fisher(1979) as "a pervasive way of approaching the learners that might be consistent with several methods of teaching"
Gregorc(1979) Teaching Style consists of an instructors personal behavior and the media used to transmit or receive data to or from the learner.
Cornett defined learning style as a "a consistent pattern of behavior but with a certain range of individual variability.
Geogorc and Ward (1977) stated that learning style "consists of distinctive and observable behavior that provides clues about the mediation abilities of individuals. In operational terms ,people through their characteristic sets of behavior "tell" us how their mind related to the world and therefore how they learn.
Matching is defined in terms of compatibility the interactive effects of person and environment (Hunt 1979)
Hemisphericity is the cerebral dominance of an individual is retaining the processing mode of information in his own style of learning and thinking.(Venkatraman 1989)
Researcher conducted during the last two decades have shown that the human left cerebral hemisphere is to be specialized for primarily verbal, analytic, abstract, temporal and digital operations (Bogey 1969,Gazzaninga 1970, Ornstein 1972).The same investigation revealed that the right cerebral hemisphere is to be specializes for primarily non verbal holistic, concrete, creative, analogical and aesthetic function. For identifying the hemisphere dominance the ways in which and levels at which the information is being proceed by the individual are to be studied.
1.6 OBJECTIVES OF THES STUDY:
*The primary objective of the study is to explore the compatibility between teaching style and learning style and its influence on academic achievement with regards to hemisphericity.
* The Secondary objectives are the following.
A) To find out the difference in the learning style of the students with respect to demographic variables.
B) To find out the differences in the teaching style of the teacher with regards demographic variables.
C) To find out the relationship between learning style and information processing style if the students.
D) To find out the relationship between the teaching style and brain dominance of the teacher.
E) To find out the relationship between learning style and achievement score of the students.
F) To find out the relationship between learning style and teaching style and achievement score.
1.7 VARIABLES OF THE STUDY:
A) Independent Variables
(i) Teaching Style
(ii) Learning Style
(iii) Information Processing Style
B) Dependent Variable:
1.8. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY:
Learning style is a consistent way of functioning which reflects cultural behavior patterns. These may be revised as a result of training or changes in learning experiences According to Reid(1987:100) learning styles are thus "moderately strong habits rather than intractable biological attributes".In all academic classrooms there will be students with multiple learning styles, and students with major, minor and negative learning styles. Teachers are accommodating these learning styles and to bring changes in their own teaching style and provide a variety of activities for them only teachers can meet out needs of different learning styles of students.
In a class where mismatch occur the students tend to bores and inactive, inattentive, do poorly on tests get discouraged about the course. They may conclude that they are not good at the subjects of the course and give up. To reduce teacher student style conflicts some researchers in the area of learning styles be matched. KUMARA VADIVELU (1991:98) states that " the narrower the gap between teacher intervention and learner interpretation , the greater are the chances of achieving desires learning outcomes".
Effective matching between teaching style and learning style can be achieved only when teachers are aware of their learners needs, capacities, potentialities and learning style preferences in meeting these needs.It has been the researchers experience as a teacher may learners fail to achieve an acceptable level of success in achievements tests. Is it possible that some students are failing to be successful at school because teaching methods do not cater for their learning style?Investigator much of reading on this topic suggest that the boredom, lack of success and frustration of students experiences t school could be due to incongruence between teaching strategy of teacher and their preferred learning styles.This inherent problem gave rise to the idea for this researcher topic. It was thus born out of a desire to provide teachers with an alternative approach to improve the learning productivity of their students.
1.9 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY:
The present study has demarcated with the following limitations
*The time frame the data collection phase of the research was conducted over a periods of 12 weeks.
*Level of intelligence and relevant previous knowledge of the learner could also have had as effect on the result of the study.
*Size of the sample. The limited number of the population and hence the small sample size could have influenced the degree to which the findings of the research can be generalized to other population.
*This is only a precise product study in the area of learning and teaching style.
*Due to laborious calculations, only certain variables are studied in this investigation.
* The study is limited to the pupils of class ix only.
*The study is limited to kancheepuram and Chennai district only.
The study is organized into six chapters for easy understanding flexible discussion in statistical results.
The first chapter details about the problem of the study, objectives, significance and scope of the study
It deals with backdrop of the study.It explores about teaching style,learning style,brain study,compatibility between teaching style and learning style,information processing , and solat
It deals with the review of related literature in the present investigation.It explore Indian reviews and international reviews
The fourth chapter explores the methodology of the study, the statement of the problem, need, hypothesis, variables, studies, method of research, construction of tools , collection of data and statistical techniques used in analysis of data are presented.
This chapter incorporate with descriptive statistics,differential analysis association analysis,correlation analysis and conclusion.
It is connected with summary, major findings , conclusions, recommendations and suggestions for further study.
Bibliography and Appendices are enclosed at the end of the thesis.
Thus the finding is detailed in six chapters
Back drop of the study
2.2 Teaching Style
2.3 Learning Style
2.4 Brain Study
2.5 hemisphericity and learning style
2.6hemisphericity and teaching style
2.7 Compatibility between Teaching style and Learning style
2.9 Dimensions of the tools of the present study
(i) Teaching style
(ii) Learning style
(iii) Information Processing Style
Back drop of the study
A teacher should be a good model or a leader so as to be initiated by her students both with in and outside the classroom situations. The inter relationship between the teacher and the taught is well expressed. This was a degree of difference among the teachers thorough a good saying that:
"The mediocre teacher tells,
The good teacher explains
The superior teacher demonstrate&
The great teacher inspires
In the words of gates and others " learning may be thought of as the progressive change in behavior which is associated on the one hand with successive presentation of a situation and on the other with repeated effects of the individual to react to it effectively
In the class room ,when the teacher adopt their style of teaching according to the learning style of the students promotes healthy learning climate. Failiure of which creates the declining in students achievement level.This chapter explains dimensions taken in learning style and teaching style for the present study
2.2 TEACHING STYLE:
Teaching is more than studying before a class and applying a few techniques .It is not merely presenting text book information and then testing the students ability to repeat the information. Teaching is not a mechanical process. It is an exacting and challenging job. Some teachers adopt a traditional way of teaching and some are innovators. The traditional teachers tend to be highly structures. They are serious when it comes to educating their students on the subject matter. The innovative teachers tend to focus or class discussion, hands on activities and collaborative learning.
Among the teachers the last category would highly be limited and perhaps majority of then would come in the first category and rest of the teachers may come under the remaining categories. The nation wants last category of teachers for its growth and development.The meaning of "Style" varies among researchers according to wilkim et al:(1977): Keefe(1979).The style refers to pervasive psychological characteristic (coginitive style) that cuts across intellectual perceptual and interpersonal functioning. Hunt (1979) explains "Style" as the "best" or "preferred" manner in which a person learns.
A teaching style is a combination of teaching methods and techniques that a teacher prefers in her teaching. Van Hamburg(2006) mentions principle so good teaching, including encouraging student teacher contact and cooperative and active learning & the need to respect diverse learning style.
Teaching styles represents a pattern of needs, beliefs and behaviors displayed by teachers in their classrooms explained by Grasha (1994) An individual teaching style create over all atmosphere of a classroom by creating good climate.
2.3 LEARNING STYLE:
Learning in the school is a tripolar process in which the learner, the subject matter and the teachers are involved. Learner may be multipolar process in which the learner , the learner"s colleagues , the learner's teacher and the learner's parents and in fact the entire environment involved.
A learning style refers to a persons preferred approach to learning. Allinson & Hayes(1988) explore the approach they prefer may be an important determinant in their academic performance.
Definition of learning styles
Different psychologists and educationists look upon the idea of learning style
differently. They define this concept according to their own perspective.
Sigel & Coop (1974, p.23) have viewed learning style as an integral concept that
bridges the personality cognitive dimension of the individuals.
Gibson (1976, p.89) argues that learning style and cognitive style are synonymous.
Lay Cock (1978, p.45) describes learning style as an individual characteristic way
of responding to certain variables in the instructional environment.
Kalsbeek (1989, p.2) said that learning style can be understood as a person's
preferred approach to information processing, idea formation and decision making. The
attitude and interest decide how to respond in which learning situation all depends on the
compatibility with the personal profiles. So it can be concluded by analyzing all these
definitions that the learning style is the preferred way of perceiving and responding to the
information in a specific learning situation.
According to Kirby(1979) the term " learning style" came into use when researchers began looking for ways to combine course presentation and materials to match the needs of each learner. In 1978 claxton & Ralston defined learning style as a students consistent way of responding to and using stimuli in the context of learning. Rerchmann(1978) formulated definition that the learning style as a particular set of behaviors and attitudes related to learning context.
The concept of learning style is the combine of characteristic cognitive, affective and psychological elements. These elements determine the way of perceiving, interacting, with and responding to the learning environment. Learning styles are taken as stable individual preferences for receiving and processing information by many of the theorists. According to kolb (1984) the person who is concrete learner will group and process information by using concrete abilities like concrete experience and active experimentation most of the time where as abstract learner will rely an abstract abilities of reflective observation and abstract conceptualization in order to perceive and process information and this habit will be uniform in many or most of situation over time.
2.4 BRAIN STUDY:
Our brain looks like an English walnut with the shell removed .It has a deeply wrinkled surface with a clearly marked fold hat divides it into a left and right half .For hundreds of years scientists believed that the two sides were mirror images of each other. Only within the last forty years has science shower that the left and right brain .hemisphere have unique and specific functions .left brain/right brain refers to specialized functions of the two hemispheres. Scientific research with healthy human subjects used a new brain scan technique called position emission Tomography(PET) scan to conform these findings. Individuals connected to a machine that mapped brain activity by lighting up to show which part of the brain was active. Results indicated that activities involving numbers, loges, word puzzles, sequential tasks and analysis were more active on the left side of the brain where as activities involving music, imagination colors or creative expression were more active in right hemisphere. Evidences suggests that the right brain has a global bias while left brain has a local bias .In other words the right hemisphere sees the picture and the left hemisphere sees the components of the picture.
The left hemisphere dissects information by analyzing and distinguishing the single parts of the whole there by it processes the information sequentially is a linear and ordered manner. Thus it is asserted that the hemisphere has a bias for detailed information, is very capable of analyzing and structuring information, and is best suited for tasks that comprise language, reading and writing, algebra mathematical problems, logical operations and the processing of serial sequences of information. Based on these thinking and problem solving attributes left hemisphere the people who predominantly use the left part of their brain rational, intellectual detail oriented, logical and analytical. That means that these people do well in mathematics, engineering and natural science.
The right brain has attributed to it an intuitive, emotional, holistic, synthesizing ,non-verbal Visio - spatial mode of processing ,resulting in a creative or inductive way of thinking. Thus the right hemisphere lumps together information and processes it a whole and in parallel i.e. it sees the forest rather than the trees. It is supported to deal in three-dimensional forms and images with a focus on similarities rather than differences and so is seen as being strong in tasks that require the understanding of complex configurations and patterns. The simultaneous processing of diverse information like pattern recognition , face recognition, or spatial relationships. Due to these characteristics people who predominantly use their right brain are considered as being artistic, intuitive, emotional, imaginative and visually oriented .These people are strong in tasks that require synthesizing and conceptualizing abilities and hence are said to be good at gathering ,assembling, comparing and reshuffling ideas in order to come up with new concepts.
2.4.2 HEMISPHERE FUNCTION:
The hemisphere both right and left perform different functions through different modes.
a) RIGHT HEMISPHERE FUNCTIONS:
The language of the right brain is capable of processing language if the discriminations are uncomplicated. (eg: a positive from a negative statement)
Their right brain deals with tonal memory, tonal qualities and the tonal patterns. For singing songs with pitch, rhythm, intonation and lyrics the right hemisphere should functions effectively.The right brain capable of dealing with the most difficult, logical and systematic problems and finding solutions. Its functions have generally been described as creative, divergently , productive, deductive, intuitive ,holistic, gestation concrete and analogical.It deals with the functioning of iconic presentation of information such as graphic displays, diagrams, flow charts and greatly facilitates both the comprehension and the retention of information. It deals with body image and it consists emotional aspects such as laughing, crying, and tonal expressions.
b) LEFT HEMISPHERE FUNCTION:
Expression of language through speech, verbal memory, words parts, syllable recoginition, analyses, of speech sounds, use of verbs and verbal aspect of writing are functions predominantly done by left brain.Mathematical reasoning, particularly calculations and algebraic, abstract math" s, digital operations and computations are activated by left brain..Education relation, , ability to analyze the common aspects of task and relationship among task, linguistic task, retention of language and comprehension, learning the 3R"s and acquisition of new habit patterns are the functions of the brain.Left hemisphere functions in daydreams, "drugging", mediation, fantasy, hypnosis, diversion and play. The left brain functions for activating aggressive behavior of a man and maintaining is masculine nature.
2.5 HEMISPHERICITY AND LEARNING STYLE:
Neurological studies indicate that the education , as it is structures in most our schools to day develops. Only left brain and leaves the other part untouched. Researches based on neuron-Psychology reveal that there is a significant relationship between the right brain functioning and creativity.In school curriculum , reading, writing, and arithmetic are mostly emphasized in logical-linear process and are fed into the brain. The other processes of thinking and learning are neglected. Curriculum planners have neglected students thinking and learning process that would assist them greatly to develop visualization and imagination.It is important to identify the students learning strategy, with that of their brain preferences. For optimum learning reference it is important that students learning functions coincide with their brain dominance . It the mismatch exists between these two preferences learning wont be fruitful.
Herrmann(2000) classified learning style styles based on the functions controlled by each chamber of the brain. He identified four divisions within the brain each of which was associated with a certain learning style. This is shown in figure(2.)
2.6 HEMISPHERICITY AND TEACHING STYLE:
According to the concept of hemisphericity ,information is proceed in different ways in the two brain hemisphere. The dominant side of the brain determines the way of processing .on the basis of this the idea developed that the learning and thinking process could be enhanced when both sides of the brain participated in a balanced manner. The teaching and education programs were developed in order to strengthen the less dominant side of the brain. our schools generally favor left brained ways of thinking and learning such as analysis, logic and accuracy, many teaching instruction techniques seek to include more right brained activities one (eg) of such a whole brained instruction method is "show and tell" instead of only reading a "left brained" text, the teacher also shows pictures and graphics in order to activate right brain. other methods include the use of music, metaphors, role plays, meditation, drawing etc. in order to achieve the synchronization of the two the outline of teaching and problem solving styles of the two hemisphere is given table2.1 .These method shows in table could be valuable in the educational setting, they are based on a shaky foundation.
The curriculum and teaching methods adopted in schools in the part and the present are instigative to develop only one part of the brain (i.e) left hemisphere and other part of the brain (i.e) the right hemisphere is left untouched.
2.7 COMPATIBILITY BETWEEN TEACHING AND LEARNING STYLE:
While it may seen at first glance that matching of students learning style with teachers instructional style is highly desirable, the issue is not as simple as it appears. one might expect that by matching styles students learning would increase. Walter Hunter(1980) reports that while certain teaching styles have a relationship to student grade, the matching of these styles do not appear to have a significant effect. Cotterells(1982_ review of twenty three studies on matching and achievement found that seven failed to show any relationship and sixteen showed only moderate support for matching the other major argument against matching styles is that students need to be exposed and adapt to different learning situations in order to enhance their own ability to learn. If we were to match students with teachers based in style we would be creating an artificial learning environment unlike what the student may encounter in a less controllable world outside the classroom.
If we were to match students and teachers styles we would have to decide on what basis the match would be made. The area of education in which matching styles may prove to be most beneficial is in remedial and developmental work. It matching styles leads to greater satisfaction to increased persistence than the style match should be seriously considered. In order for students to move to higher levels of learning their must involved in learning. If matching styles will keep them involves than a matching system should at least initially be used.
The matching hypothesis considers the congruence between the learner and the teacher and the subject matter(Hayes and Allinson 1996) A number of studies have hypothesized that a lack of matching between preferred learning style and the nature of the subject matter and teaching methods would result in lower motivation. poorer performance and perhaps in attribution(Felder and Silverman 1988) several studies suggest that matching may be significantly more effective in creating a learning environment that is inductive to learning than mismatching.On the other hand , some researchers , for example, Rush and Moore(1991) argue that mismatching can help learners to overcome weaknesses in the cognitive styles to develop a more integrated approach to their learning.
Why incorporate learning style in our teaching:We believe there are many reasons to incorporate n understanding of learning style in our teaching.
(A)Making Teaching and Learning a Dialogue:
Whether we are aware of it or not , an assumption underlying many of our current teaching practice is that students are 'empty vessels' and our role to fill them with knowledge. But increasingly , research on student learning suggests that the metaphor f 'dialogue' is more appropriate in that it emphasizes."The interactive cooperative relational aspects of teaching and learning (Tiberies 1986 p.148) once faculty shift from the 'empty vessel' model to a dialogue and communal no longer entails simply a scripts delivery of information but it may also include a variety of " active learning" technique that truly engage students in the collective dialogue.
(B) Responding to more Diverse Student Body
By row it is axiomatic to point out that student bodies are increasing diverse, not only in terms of ethnicity and gender, but also in terms of age, nationality, cultural background etc. This diversity can affect classroom settings in many ways, including the diversity of learning styles. For example, older students who can draw from the life experience are more likely to be independent ."Self directed learners (Knowles 1980)
(C) Communicating our Message:
A teacher tend to be passionately committed to our discipline/profession and are anxious to convey its significance and knowledge base to our students. Despite our good intentions we may be so concerned with covering the subject matter that we lose track of how much of that material really gets conveyed through our taken for granted teaching modes.
(D) Making teaching more Rewarding:
If we are not inclined to much self reflection about our teaching practice we are likely to continue to teach others the way we learn best, assuming that his way will work for all students. The teachers take great pride from launching substantive innovations in their fields. It is our contentions that by making an effort to consider student learning style. Teacher may be able to reap equal satisfaction from reinvigorating their teaching practices.
(E) Ensuring the Future of our Disciplines:
An undisputed assumption in career counseling is that any individual will be better suited to some tasks subject areas and careers than others as a function of personality, talents, cognitive, styles.
It is the achievement of pupils in the so - called 'academic ' subjects .From the encyclopedia dictionary of psychology and education academic achievement in a measure of knowledge gained in formal education usually indicated by test score, grade point, average and degrees.In the words of Baron and Bernard "The concept of achievement involves the interaction of three factors namely, aptitude of learning, readiness of learning and opportunity of learning. Besides these factors the concept involved health and physical fitness, motivation and special aptitudes, emotional balance imbalance and psychological factor like interest towards the academics".
2.9 EXPLANATION OF DIMENSIONS OF THE TOOLS OF PRESENT STUDY:
Every student has a unique learning style, every teacher has unique teaching style .when it comes to student discipline and performance it all a matter of matches and mismatches between students and teachers. while some principal use the teachers teaching style to decide which teacher should teach which group of students most schools do not have that luxury.For present study some of the ideas taken from pyramid model of learning style by Barbara pashing and pyramid model of teaching style by Barbara pashing it is modified according to Indian class room settings.
LAYERS FROM TOP TO BOTTOM IN PYRAMID MODEL OF LEARNING:
*brain processing * sensory modalities* physical needs* environmental needs
* social aspects *attitudes
This model identifies the top four layers as being genetic and biological characteristics that individuals are born with. The bottom two layers are conditioned and may be changed. It is argues that everyone has an individual learning style based on the composition of these layers.These dimensions were modified and created new dimensions for present study. In the present study learning style model contains four dimensions and teaching style model has 4 dimensions.Here each "style" resembles a "recipe" in which the ingredient are learning approaches and teaching approaches combined in ways. Designed to produce an optimal outcome. so learning have the some dimensions relevant.
2.9.1 LEARNING STYLE:
Learning style model has four dimensions they are:
*Learning attitude*Learning climate*Learning technique* Cognitive behavior
When students have positive learning attitude them the classroom climate is good. learning climate depends upon other dimensions. Positive cognitive behavior creates promoted learning attitude. These two are intermingled with each other. This promotes healthy learning climate implementing new technique and technologies make healthy learning climate in the class room. Learning attitude and cognitive behavior are genetic and biological characteristic. By using new technology and techniques teaches can bring out the hidden talents and provide creativity to the students . The explanation of each dimension as follows.
22.214.171.124. LEARNING ATTITUDE:
Some students are positive to words learning some are not . Teacher has to provide and promote their students is positive learning attitudes.
(i) MOTIVATION:This needs to be internally and externally.
(ii) PERISTANCE:Learning style looks at persistence level based on these high, fluctuating or low.
(iii) CONFIRMITY:Low this affect learning.
(iv)RESPONSIBILITY:Low this promote learning
(V)CREATIVITY AND PROJECT:At this level hidden talents come out.
(vi)VARIETY:Variety looks at needing routine or consistency or being oriented needing variety.
126.96.36.199 LEARNING CLIMATE:
Learning climate is the prevailing attitudes, standards or environmental conditions of the educational setting .Learning climate is a significant predictor of learner achievement. Worsening perception of learning climate is associated with increased risk of burn pout.
This dimension has the following categories.
(i)Sound: It music or sound are needed or if quiet environment is needed for learning.
(ii) Light and Temperature: warm or cold are needed, bright light or dim light are wanted for learning.
(iii) Working Area: The working area is crucial for (eg) if an informal or formal area is needed with comfortable seating and furniture.
This is also identified needs for mobility, Preferences for moving or being stationary.
(iv)Intake: To identify if eating , nibbling, drinking, or chewing are preferred while learning.
(V)Biorhythm:(Time and day) Encouraged learning at the best time of the day dependent upon personal biorhythm.
188.8.131.52 LEARNING TECHNIQUE:
Some students are very good in learning when they are in groups. Some students prefer to study alone. Students use different learning technique. It is based on their individual difference. Some students have negative learning style. Teachers must identify these style and correct them by using these technique & technology .This dimensions has following categories.
(i)Problem solving method:
It is an instructional method or technique whereby the teacher and the pupils attempt is a conscious, planned and purposeful effort to arrive at some explanation or solution to some educationally significant difficulty.
(ii) Individualized Instruction:
This method of learning is a systematic step by step, self instructional programmed aimed to ensure the learning of stated behavior.
A devises implies the external mode or form which learning may take from time to time.
(i)Debate, discussions and symposium:
These are used to develop team spirit is learner. It is also used to stimulating mental activity, promote reflective thinking, developing fluency and case in expression.
(ii) Field trip:
Field trip used to connect internet students into extranet and it also makes the students to develop social skills.
Whether learning style of the students is promoted when they work alone or willing to work with peers or in groups.
Drill is helpful is reading, spelling, and pronunciation in languages, learning tables in arithmetic, developing skill is handwriting and remembering dates and facts is social studies and principal and rules in natural sciences. Effective drill is not only helpful is developing knowledge and skills, but also it is a means of developing and maintaining good habits when they are once established.
Learning with technological media is clearing the channel between the learners and the things that are worth learning. The basic assumptions underlying audio-visual aids is that learning - clear understanding-stems from sense experience.
This highlights the dimensions and aspects of each modality and identifies that there are external and internal features of each that must be promoted. Learning style analysis strongly advocates 4 modalities .They are,
External- talking, discussing
Internal-self talk inner dialogue , thoughts.
External- Seeing, watching
Internal- Visualizing, imagination.
External- MANIPULATING HANDLING
184.108.40.206 COGNITIVE BEHAVIOUR:
It is the teaching behavior tonforma acquire the concept of information. It is an academic approach to gain the maximum level of information through learning process of study,learning style, learning modes
This includes listening alternatively, looking fatigue, looking distracted and involved in disruptive behavior.
Under this category the students give full attention to the lectures of the teaches in the classroom. The students look to the teacher showing listening gestures.
The student shows signs of weariness resulting is hauling or doing. The student frequently changes his sitting postures.
(iv)Involves in disruptive behavior:
This category indicates disruption in the classroom like disturbing other students speaking irrelevant that takes away other students attention from learning tools.
When a question is put in the classroom there are number of possible student response situation response behavior covers four categories volunteers response, no response & volunteer ideas, non volunteer response.
(C)SEAT WORK BEHAVIOUR:
This behavior is divides into 3 categories via posing to read the book, taking notes from black-bound evades seatwork.
Posing to read the book:
Under this category , the student poses to read the book showing signs of restlessness, through keeping the book in front in ready position, looking away and often any solicitation.
(ii)Taking notes from black-board:
Under this category the student writes and notes down the solutions of problems or points written on the black board.
Under this category, that behavior of student is noted when the student poses as if doing seatwork but involved in destructive behavior.
(D)SOLICTING TEACHER HELPING BEHAVIOUR:
This behavior include two categories via, for removing difficulties, for management of disruptive behavior.
(i)For removing difficulties:
Under this category , the student teaches the teacher for help in the case of difficulties in the assigned learning task or self study.
(ii)For management of disruptive behavior:
Under this category, that type of behavior is observed when a student is being disturbed by other students and he reaches the teacher for help I the management of disruptive behavior of other students.
This behavior includes via teacher directed activities and self directed activities.
(i)Teacher directed activities:
Under this category , that type of behavior is noted when a student is involved in managerial activities like organization of groups for different tables, re-arranging of seats etc as directed by the teacher.
(ii)Self - directed activities:
Under this category that type of behavior is noted when a student is involved in managerial activities done on his own will without teacher direction.
2.9.2 TEACHING STYLE:
Teaching style has 4 dimensions they are
220.127.116.11 Teaching attitude:
Every day , teacher set the tone in the classroom by her attitude. If the teacher has the positive attitude towards her students , subjects, profession, and herself she will find that this optimism rewards the class the effect positive attitude brings improved job satisfaction, better self esteem, improved personal interaction better health, creates achievement levels , improved over all happiness .Always teacher attitude play a vital role in shaping students attitude.
The recipes of this dimension:
Whether teachers are willing to motivate the students or not.
Teaching style has high, low persistent level.
Low this affect teaching.
Low this promote teaching.
(v)Creativity & project:
Whether the teaches are willing to give project or not.
Whether of the teacher show variety in her teaching style.
Researchers studied the use of humor by teachers in class. They found that humor facilitates the retentions of information, increases learning speeds, improves problem solving, relieves stress, reduces test anxiety, boosts morale and increase attentiveness the teachers may want to modify their teaching styles to allow foe more progressive types of instruction including active learning and collaborative learning technique. If the teachers use these techniques then the classroom climate is very good. A teacher must not assume that is the students responsibility to adapt to the classroom. The teacher exchange should be a reciprocal process where the instructor adapts to the needs, abilities and interest of the students.
The sub categories are as follows:
While teaching music or sound is needed or not.
(ii)Light and temperature:
Warm or cold are needed, bright light or dim light needed for teaching.
18.104.22.168 TEACHING TECHNIQUE:
Whether the teacher is aware of using technology and willingness of using technique some teachers are bounded to traditional teaching style. They are phobic with using new technology in the class. Those teachers when over get the students with interested in using new technology. This will spoil the classroom atmosphere
This dimensions has the following categories:
PROBLEM SOLVING METHOD:
It is an instructional method or technique where by the teacher and students attempt in a conscious, planned and purposeful effort to arrive at some explanation or solution to some educationally significant difficultly. The teacher in capable of giving projects and activation the team work.
This method of teaching is the teacher has to construct instructional material and it make it suited for students. whether teaches using heuristic method of instruction and teacher has the duty to supervise their students their students whether they are using properly or not.
Whether the teacher is willing to conduct symposium, seminar or not. Whenever conducting seminar or group discussion the teacher should motivate the students in a group work. She can mice the introvert and extravert students together in a group and also the duty of the teacher to bring out the hidden talents from the students.
It is used to check skills of the teaches when teacher.
Teacher must be aware of using drills. It is used in reaching, spelling and pronunciation in language, tables in arithmetic, handwriting. Effective drill is not only helpful in developing knowledge but is a means of developing and maintaining good habits when they are once established. After using drill practice teacher has to find out the students retention power.
Teaching with technological media in clearing the channel between the learner & the things.
Teacher can give oral drill and also make the students to read aloud. By using audio recording through song poetry.
Allow the students read from the text, whiteboard, books, a computer and ask them to watch a video or DVD.
Allow students to get practical experiences provide hands or activities, sharing experiences with pupils.
22.214.171.124 TEACHING BEHAVIOUR:
Teaching behavior is an act of the teacher which occurs in the context of classroom interaction. Teachers behave in different ways and therefore here are different types of classroom interaction. Some teachers are very strict and some are very kind and lineout. Some are wilt and humorous and some are dull. There are some who very stereo and serious all the time certainty the teachers behavior pattern sets the pattern of pupil behavior in the classroom .The teachers behavior tends to create an atmosphere which we describe as "classroom climate" .The words classroom climate refers to generalized attitude towards the teacher and the class. That pupils share in common in spite of individual differences .The development of these attitudes is an outgrowth of classroom social interaction.
The sub categories of this dimension:
This behavior includes three categories via, teacher explains according to plan, teacher explains student need and teacher writes an black-bound.
(i)Explains According to plan:
This category refers to explanation according to the previous plans of the teacher explanation involves a general student need but not an immediate student need. The teacher gives detailed description of subject matter in a sequence of long range affect.
(ii)Explains student need:
This category refers to the instructional explanation provided to the students to satisfy a clear and immediate student need for help.
(iii)Writes on black board:
This category refers to the use of black board by the teacher for the purpose of academic instruction and explanation of the content.
This behavior includes two types of categories via teacher ask questions and teacher listens to student response.
This category refers to stimulus or are enquiry made by the teacher in order to attain requires response from students in the classroom on the content being taught or to be taught.
(ii)Listens to students response:
After posing a question or stimulus to a student , the teacher gives a watchful need to students response.
(3)RESPONSE MANAGEMENT BEHAVIOUR:
The teacher is requires to manage student response in a way that the objective for which a particular question is asked is realized. This behavior includes form types of behavior via prompting, seeking further information, redirection and structuring.
This behavior includes two types of categories via teacher providing help to the students and teacher encouraging the students.
This behavior includes two types of categories via supervising seatwork and corrective feedback.
This behavior includes three types of categories via management of disruptive behavior, teacher gives direction to the students and interruption by outsides
This chapter traces the theoretical concepts of the study in detail The hemisphericity,learning style,teaching style etc., have been discussed in this chapter.