Results of the analysis of the data collected

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CHAPTER 4

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

4.1Introduction

This chapter looks into the results of the analysis of the data collected. The results in this study are presented in means and standard deviations in tables. The findings related to each question are presented in order.

4.2Demographic Information

A total of 79 respondents were involved in this study. They were 20 (25.3%) male and 59 (74.7%) female teachers. Among the respondents, 46.8% were from primary and 53.2% from secondary schools. The ESL teachers who had less than 10 years of working experience were 64.6% whereas 35.4% had more than 10 years of working experience. Among these respondents, 59 (74.7%) were married, 18 (22.8%) were single and 2 (2.5%) single parents. Majority of the respondents were Malay (73 out of 79; 92.4%). There were also 2 Chinese, 3 Indian and 1 from ethnicity of Kadazan.

4.3Reliability Results

A Cronbach's alpha of .60 or more indicates an acceptable level of reliability in the social sciences and humanities. According to DeVellis (2003), the range of coefficient alpha values generally are classified as minimally acceptable (.60-.64), acceptable (.65-.70), good (.70-.75), very good (.75-.80), and excellent (.80 and above). In the present study, the corresponding Cronbach's alpha scores were 0.71 for Emotional Exhaustion, 0.68 for Depersonalization and 0.67 for Personal Accomplishment (Table 1).

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Table 1: Reliability Results

Dimensions

Cronbach's Alpha

Emotional Exhaustion

.713

Depersonalization

.678

Personal Accomplishment

.666

As the table shows, the reliability of the scores achieved for DP and PA items was acceptable while the reliability of EE items was observed to be good.

4.4Quantitative Analysis and Discussion

In this part, the results of the data analyses related with each research question were given. The research questions of the study were sub-heading as follows:

4.4.1 Emotional Exhaustion Levels

The first research question sought to find out the level of emotional exhaustion among Putrajaya ESL teachers. As the descriptive statistics results of the teachers' scores showed, they suffered from moderate levels of emotional exhaustion. The mean score was 21.63 or (M = 21.63, SD = 8.15), which according to the criteria (17-26) is a moderate level (Table 2).

4.4.2 Depersonalization Levels

The second research question sought to find out the level of depersonalization among Putrajaya ESL teachers. As the descriptive statistics results of the teachers' scores showed, they suffered from moderate levels of depersonalization. The mean score was 11.15 or (M = 11.15, SD = 5.94), which according to the criteria (7-12) is a moderate level (Table 2).

4.4.3 Personal Accomplishment Levels

The third research question sought to find out the level of personal accomplishment among Putrajaya ESL teachers. As the descriptive statistics results of the teachers' scores showed, the teachers had moderate levels of personal accomplishment. The mean score was 34.19 or (M = 34.19, SD = 6.93), which according to the criteria (32-38 mean score) is a moderate level (Table 2).

Table 2: Response Categories for Emotional Exhaustion, Depersonalization and Personal Accomplishment on the Maslach Burnout Inventory - Educators Survey

Response Category

Emotional Exhaustion

Depersonalization

Personal Accomplishment

High

27 or over

13 or over

0-31

Moderate

17-26

7-12

32-38

Low

0-16

0-6

39 or over

The response categories and their corresponding values for emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal accomplishment on the Maslach Burnout Inventory - Educators Survey (Maslach, Jackson & Leiter, 1996) are presented in Table 2. The interpretation scores of burnout dimensions are based on the Table 3 mean scores where shown clearly in Table 2.

Table 3: Descriptive Statistics Results for Burnout Dimensions

Burnout

N

Mean

SD

Emotional Exhaustion

79

21.6329

8.14638

Depersonalization

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79

11.1519

5.94438

Personal Accomplishment

79

34.1899

6.93019

Interpretation scores:

{Emotional Exhaustion: <16 (low), 17-26 (moderate), 27> (high)}

{Depersonalization: <6 (low), 7-12 (moderate), 13> (high)}

{Personal Accomplishment: >39 (low), 32-38 (moderate), <31(high)}

The present study revealed that the teachers represent moderate levels of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal accomplishment. Therefore, it can be concluded that the level of burnout among Putrajaya ESL teachers is moderate. Literature reports that moderate burnout demonstrates moderate scores with all three subscales (Maslach, Jackson & Leiter, 1996).

These results were different from those of a study by Ali (2009) which showed that teachers' burnout level was low in emotional exhaustion and personal accomplishment and high in depersonalization. Nevertheless, a study among English teachers teaching in Malaysian primary and secondary schools in Malacca experiencing burnout at high levels in all three dimensions of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment (Mukundan & Khandehroo, 2009).

4.4.4 Burnout and Working Experience

The fourth research question was posed to find out whether there is a significant difference between high and low experienced teachers and their burnout scores. Table 4 shows the descriptive statistics results:

Burnout

Working Experience

N

Mean

SD

Emotional Exhaustion

<10

51

21.7647

7.50623

>10

28

21.3929

9.34261

Depersonalization

<10

51

10.8824

5.91489

>10

28

11.6429

6.07493

Personal Accomplishment

<10

51

33.9804

6.86292

>10

28

34.5714

7.16177

Table 4: Mean and Standard Deviation for Burnout Dimensions with Reference to Working Experience

The table shows the mean and standard deviation for burnout dimensions with reference to working experience (Table 4). It was found that teachers with the working experience less than 10 years have moderate level of emotional exhaustion (M = 21.76, SD = 7.51) and followed by teachers who have more than 10 years of working experience (M = 21.40, SD = 9.34). Regarding the level of depersonalization both groups of teachers indicated moderate level of depersonalization. Personal accomplishment of teachers with less and more than 10 years of working experience revealed to be moderate. The overall score was moderate for all the three items which represent emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal accomplishment for both less than 10 years and more than 10 years working experience.

However, the results of independent samples t-test (Table 5) revealed that there is no significant mean difference in the Emotional Exhaustion, t(77) = .193, p=.117; Depersonalization, t(77) = -.541, p=.708; and Personal Accomplishment, t(77) = -.361, p=.980; between high (>10 years) and low (<10 years) experienced teachers.

Table 5: Independent Samples t-test between Working Experience and Burnout

_____________________________________________________________

tdf p______________________________________________________________

EE .193 77 .117

DP -.541 77 .708

PA -.361 77 .980

______________________________________________________________

Note:

EE = Emotional Exhaustion; DP = Depersonalization; PA = Personal Accomplishment

* p < .05

Moreover, the independent samples t-test shows that there is no significant difference between high and low experienced teachers with regard to emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal accomplishment. So, it can be concluded that working experience does not affect all the three dimensions of burnout significantly. This result supports the finding of a study conducted in Hong Kong where no significant difference was found among teachers with different years of teaching experience in perceived stress level (Alan, Chan, Chen, Elaine & Chong, 2010).

4.4.5 Burnout and Teaching Level

The last question was whether there is a significant difference between burnout scores of the ESL primary and secondary school teachers.

According to the results there is no significant difference between burnout scores of the ESL primary and secondary school teachers. Both groups of school teachers represent a moderate level of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal accomplishment.

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Table 6 shows the mean and standard deviation for burnout dimensions with reference to teaching level. The teachers were divided into the two groups of primary and secondary school teachers. It was found that teachers in both types of schools represent a moderate level of emotional exhaustion (M = 20.78, SD = 7.09, M = 22.38, SD = 9.00). Regarding the level of depersonalization both groups of teachers indicated a moderate level of depersonalization. Personal accomplishment of teachers in primary and secondary schools appeared to be moderate as well. The overall score was moderate for all the three items which represent emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal accomplishment for both primary and secondary schools.

Table 6: Mean and Standard Deviation for Burnout Dimensions with Reference to Teaching Level

Burnout

Teaching Level

N

Mean

SD

Emotional Exhaustion

Primary

37

20.7838

7.08729

Secondary

42

22.3810

8.99580

Depersonalization

Primary

37

9.5135

5.08605

Secondary

42

12.5952

6.32093

Personal Accomplishment

Primary

37

36.0000

6.09645

Secondary

42

32.5952

7.29203

These findings were in contrast to a study on English teachers teaching in Malaysian primary and secondary schools in Malacca who reportedly experienced burnout at high levels in all three dimensions of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment (Mukundan & Khandehroo, 2009). Additionally, in another study by Alan, Chan, Chen, Elaine and Chong (2010) it was found that teachers of primary schools showed significantly a higher level of stress than those in secondary schools in Hong Kong.

Table 7: Independent Samples t-test between Teaching Level and Burnout

_____________________________________________________________

tdf p______________________________________________________________

EE -.868 77 .178

DP -2.366 77 .078

PA 2.234 77 .061

______________________________________________________________

Note:

EE = Emotional Exhaustion; DP = Depersonalization; PA = Personal Accomplishment

* p < .05

In supportive, the results of independent samples t-test (Table 7) also revealed that there is no significant mean difference in the Emotional Exhaustion, t(77) = -.868, p=.178; Depersonalization, t(77) = -2.366, p=.078; and Personal Accomplishment, t(77) = 2.234, p=.061; between primary and secondary school teachers.

These finding were in contrast to a study on the relationship between primary school teachers' burnout and some of their demographic variables in Turkish cities found that burnout levels of the teachers are low (Cikla & Duatepe, 2004). Brouwers and Tomic (2000) concluded that both to prevent and to treat burnout among school teachers, self-efficacy in classroom management must be taken into consideration when devising interventions.