Research On Education In Nursing Care Management Education Essay

Published:

This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.

Education, in its strict and formal sense, is considered both a science and an art. It is a science, such when a teacher discusses the origin and evolution of man, the four basic mathematical operations, and even the elements of a theatrical play. The fact that education is a means by which teachers pass on knowledge and skills to their students proves that there is something scientific to it. Teachers do not instruct students without empirical basis, every lecture is rooted on established principles. Think of it as something made to be consistent, that what was taught and learned years ago is still the same as what is being taught and learned today. Revisions and modifications might have been made, but the fundamentals will remain most likely the same as before.

Education is also an art. There is art in the way teachers give their lectures. The manner by which a teacher speaks in front of his class, the manner by which his stance appeals to his students, or the manner by which he delivers humor to a sleepy and disinterested class.

Practically, education involves an understanding of human relationships. It is, in itself, a complex mixture of relationships - those that exist between you and your colleagues, you and your students, and you and the institution to where you belong. It is only but necessary that an appropriate personality be considered a standard qualification when hiring educators.

It is often heard that teachers inspire and touch lives. Imagine a teacher lacking good interpersonal skills, how can he at least, inspire and touch lives? Obviously, without such skills, he would not know how to relate with his students, leading to an eventuality wherein his students will learn to dislike him.

Speaking per se, personality is a prerequisite in any teaching profession. Every day is devoted to coming to class and interacting with students. Personality influences the way by which a teacher communicates, moves about, and deals with his students.

Personality is the totality of characteristics a person possesses which compels him to act or behave in varied circumstances. A teacher's personality is often credited for his good working relationship with his students. Teachers who are considerate, flexible, and pleasing frequently make it to the hearts of their students. Teachers who drop words with finality, those controlling and serious in nature are always merited for being the "Most Hated Teacher of the School Year".

A teacher can deliberately browse through class cards and call on someone to recite every day of his class. In a way, this kind of teacher introduces fear to his students, thus sending a message to the students that this teacher is to be respected or else, one would have to face up to some sort of punishment or consequence. A teacher can be lenient enough to his students, generously give additional points and extend deadlines to a time convenient to his students, and yet earn the same respect as that of the former. Given the situation, compare the former with the latter and ask, "Where do we draw the line between authority and respect?"

Gaining insight to what is authority, it can be concluded that on a continuum, the total authority of a person is equal to the combination of how much he is respected and at the same time, feared. Generally speaking, to be in authority means to be respected and feared all at the same time. How does personality relate to fear, respect and authority?

A teacher with a good personality would apparently know how to balance off fear and respect. He would know that a little of fear is needed to discipline his students, and a little of generosity is needed to effectively relate to and understand his students.

Background of the Study

The researchers are enrolled in a four-year Bachelor of Science in Nursing Program, inclusive of both general and professional subjects. Nursing Care Management, in particular happens to be a continuous struggle because it is the subject mainly requisite in order to pass the entire BSN course. For the past three years that the researchers have undertaken the subject, it came about their interest to identify and define the interplaying factors that determine the degree of academic performance of nursing students.

The setting for this study will be Centro Escolar University Makati. Centro Escolar University, formerly, Centro Escolar de Señorita was founded June 1907 by a group of civic-spirited women headed by Doña Librada Avelino. The purpose for which the corporation was constituted was the opening of primary, intermediate, and secondary classes, and later on, the collegiate departments.

Since its establishment in 1975, the CEU College of Nursing has prepared students to become outstanding registered nurses, providing them a strong foundation in natural and social science, and a deep understanding of patient care in various settings and conditions.

In the year 2005, two years before its centennial celebration, the Centro Escolar University community witnessed the birth of a campus within the National Capital Region located in the central business district of the NCR at 259-263 Sen. Gil Puyat Avenue, Makati City. Dr. Ma. Cristina D. Padolina is the seventh CEU President. She believes that CEU, with its dedicated and highly qualified faculty, staff, and administrators and its strong adherence to quality education, is primed to achieve excellence.

Fielding its students in tertiary hospitals and communities, the College has enabled them to refine the knowledge and skills imparted in the University, preparing them to take on the challenges of the profession with a caring attitude and with social responsibility. "Recent Trends in the Nursing Profession: Our Areas for Professional Growth.'' It will provide the participating professionals and aspiring nursing students a broad view of what lies ahead for our nursing professionals who remain in high demand in our country and the world.

The researchers have agreed to conduct the study at Centro Escolar University Makati Campus, ideally because of its accessibility. The researchers believe that as students enrolled in the same university, they might as well contribute something to improve and better the institution to where they belong.

Conceptual Framework

NCM Lecturer

Teaching Strategies

NCM Lecturer's Personality

Learner / Student

Learning Styles

Types of Learners

Academic Performance

Good Academic Performance

Poor Academic Performance

Figure 1. The research paradigm showing the relationship of level IV NCM Lecturer's Personality and the Perceived Academic Performance of the BSN Level IV Students of CEU Makati

Conceptual Framework

The paradigm on the previous page shows the factors that affect the academic performance of a learner. These include the lecturers' utilization of teaching strategies such as Lecturing, which provides a way to communicate a large amount of information to many listeners, the Case Method, wherein learners get the opportunity to apply what they learn inside the classroom to real-life experiences, Discussion, which involves planning on the part of the instructor and preparation on the part of the students, Active Learning, which requires students to simultaneously apply what they are learning. These, along with the variation of the lecturer's personality characteristics and the types of learner play an important role in the learning process.

Learners, on the other hand, are of three types. These are the Visual Learners who tend to learn through written words, the Auditory Learners who learn through listening and like to talk rather than write and relish the opportunity to discuss what were heard, and the Kinesthetic Learners who learn better when they practice what they are learning.

The personality of the lecturer is also a pervasive element in the classroom, there is evidence that personality characteristics have an effect on the learning of the students. In a recent study by Yeh in the year 2006, it was found out that personality types such as intrapersonal intelligence, critical thinking disposition and a judicial thinking style result in a more reliable outcome in reflective teaching and mastery performance.

Statement of the Problem

The study aims to determine the relationship between the NCM Lecturers' personality to the perceived academic performance of the Level IV Nursing Students in CEU Makati.

Specifically, it seeks answers to the following questions:

What is the demographic profile of the respondents in terms of the following variables:

Age

Gender

Familial Structure

IQ Measure

EQ Measure

What are the respondents' personality traits in terms of:

Neuroticism

Extraversion

Openness

Agreeableness

Conscientiousness

What are the characteristics of the NCM Lecturers that greatly influence the academic performance of the Level IV Nursing Students in terms of:

Knowledge

Competence

Reason

Accommodation

Attitude towards the NCM subject

How does the NCM Lecturers' personality affect the student attitudes towards learning and consequently influence student performance in terms of?

Learning styles

Study habits

Understanding of the NCM subject

Interest in the NCM subject

Motivation

How are the perceived academic performance of students measured in terms of:

Class Participation

Punctuality

Recent Grading in NCM subject

Attitudes

Submission of Requirements

Is there a significant relationship between the NCM Lecturers' personality to the perceived academic performance of the students?

Hypothesis

There is no significant relationship between the lecturer's personality and the perceived academic performance of students.

Significance of the Study

The purpose of this study is to determine the perceived academic performance of the Level IV BSN students of CEU Makati in relation with the NCM lecturer's personality. This study will provide suppositions as to how the students' performance would be as the lecturer's personality varies.

This study will be of help to the school, Centro Escolar University Makati, as it may serve as an assessment wherein the institution will be able to determine how its students perceive their academic performance in correspondence to the personality of the lecturer.

This study will help improve teacher-student relationships, as it will aid in identifying approaches more suitable for the students and certain behaviors that influence student performance and capabilities, therefore will be beneficial to better utilization and application of the nursing curriculum in the institution.

This study will be beneficial to the nursing profession for if the students have a good foundation in fundamentals of nursing and are competent in nursing knowledge and skills by utilizing appropriate attitude towards their instructors and to the course itself as they learn, competency of the students, as well as nursing practitioners, future or present, in their chosen profession can be attained and therefore these future nurses from Centro Escolar University Makati will contribute to the improvement of the quality of the nursing service in the Philippines.

This study will also benefit the students as to how their behaviors and attitudes influence their relationship toward their lecturer and the subject, as well as their academic performance. It will also be beneficial for students to give importance to a healthy personality as a good foundation for human relationships.

Present and future researchers will also be benefited by this study as it may be a reference material for further studies and can be a means of continuous monitoring of the improvement or development of the nursing education as applied in this institution or other locals.

Scope and Limitations of the Study

The study will determine the relationship of NCM Lecturer's personality to the perceived academic performance of the students. It will include only the Level IV BSN clinical instructors and students in Centro Escolar University Makati Campus. As to the Sloven's Formula utilized, there will be 136 student respondents and 15 clinical instructor respondents. The researchers will not use grades as a tool to evaluate the performance of the student in their professional subjects, but rather factors that can measure up the student's perceived academic performance. This study will briefly discuss how fear and respect for an instructor impact a student's motivation and academic performance. It will try to identify certain personality traits that may be considered nurturing in the classroom setting and compare these with traits that of the opposite. However, this study will not force upon changes on the instructors' preferred way of teaching and dealing with students but rather, recommend options for improvement.

Definition of Terms

Below is a set of terminologies conceptually and operationally developed to aid the readers in understanding the content of the entire study.

Academics. It is defined as college or university courses and studies1.

Achievement. Something accomplished successfully, especially by means of exertion, skill, practice, or perseverance2.

Agreeableness. It means a tendency to be compassionate and cooperative rather than suspicious and antagonistic towards others3.

Attitude. It is a predisposition or a tendency to respond positively or negatively towards a certain idea, object, person, or situation4.

Character. A unique or extraordinary individuality; a person characterized by peculiar or notable traits; a person who illustrates certain phases of character5.

Clinical Instructor. It refers to a college or university teacher who ranks below an assistant professor6.

Conscientiousness. It means the tendency to show self-discipline, act dutifully, and aim for achievement7.

Curriculum. It refers to the combination of different training courses arranged in a sequence8.

Education. It refers to the gradual process of acquiring knowledge9.

Emotional Quotient. It is a notional measure of a person's adequacy in areas such as self-awareness, empathy, and dealing sensitively with other people10.

Extraversion. It is characterized by positive emotions, surgency, and the tendency to seek out stimulation and the company of others11.

Fear. It means to be uneasy or apprehensive about12.

Intelligence Quotient. It refers to a score derived from a set of standardized tests that were developed with the purpose of measuring a person's cognitive abilities in relation to the age group13.

Knowledge. It is the awareness and understanding of facts, truths or information gained in the form of experience or learning14.

Learning. It means acquiring new knowledge, behaviors, skills, values or preferences15.

Motivation.   It refers to the internal and external factors that stimulate desire and energy in people to be continually interested in and committed to a job, role, or subject, and to exert persistent effort in attaining a goal16.

Neuroticism. It is the tendency to experience negative emotions, such as anger, anxiety, or depression. It is sometimes called emotional instability17.

Nursing. It is a profession concerned with the provision of services essential to the maintenance and restoration of health by attending the needs of sick persons18.

Nursing Care Management. It refers to the professional course undertaken by nursing students, and involves case management of aging, pregnancy, and illnesses across the life span through the utilization of the nursing process.

Openness. It refers to the general appreciation for art, emotion, adventure, unusual ideas, imagination, curiosity, and variety of experience19.

Perception. It means conscious understanding of something20.

Performance. It means the actual effort that the individual undertakes in order to carry out the work21.

Personality. It refers to the complex of all the attributes -- behavioral, temperamental, emotional and mental--that characterize a unique individual22.

Process. It is a sequence of interdependent and linked procedures which, at every stage, consume one or more resources (employee time, energy, machines, money) to convert inputs (data, material, parts, etc.) into outputs. These outputs then serve as inputs for the next stage until a known goal or end result is reached23.

Respect. It refers to the condition of being honored or well-regarded24.

Skill. It refers to the ability and capacity acquired through deliberate, systematic, and sustained effort to smoothly and adaptively carryout complex activities or job functions involving ideas (cognitive skills), things (technical skills), and/or people (interpersonal skills)25.

Student. It is defined as a learner who is enrolled in an educational institution26.

Trait. It refers to a component of a personHYPERLINK "http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/person.html"'HYPERLINK "http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/person.html"s behavior that is assumed to serve as an explanation of his or her enduring personal characteristics27.

ENDNOTES

1"Academics," http://www.thefreedictionary.com/academics

2"Achievement," http://www.brainyquote.com/words/ac/achievement

126858.html

3"Agreeableness," http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Big_Five_personality_traits

4"Attitude," http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/attitude.html

#ixzz10fWuZupI

5"Character," http://ardictionary.com/Character/4078

6"Clinical Instructor," http://yourdictionary.com

7"Conscientiousness," http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Big_Five_personality

_traits

8"Curriculum" http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/curriculum.html

9"Education," http://wordnetweb.princeton.edu/perl/webwn?s=education

10"Emotional Quotient" http://www.thefreedictionary.com/EQ

11"Extraversion" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Big_Five_personality_traits

12"Fear," http://wordnetweb.princeton.edu/perl/webwn?s=fear

13"Intelligence Quotient" http://www.wordiq.com/definition/IQ

14"Knowledge" http://www.wordiq.com/definition/Knowledge

15"Learning," http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Learning

16"Neuroticism" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Big_Five_personality_traits

17"Motivation" http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/motivation.html

18"Nursing" http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=4601

19"Openness" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Big_Five_personality_traits

20"Perception," http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/perception

21"Performance," http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/eng/isp/cpp/adjudframe/

glossary.shtml

22"Personality," http://wordnetweb.princeton.edu/perl/webwn?s=personality

23"Process" http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/process.html

24"Respect," http://wordnetweb.princeton.edu/perl/webwn?s=respect

25"Skill" http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/skill.html

26"Student," http://wordnetweb.princeton.edu/perl/webwn?s=student

27 Trait" http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/trait.html

CHAPTER 2

Review of Related Literature

The following articles and studies have been found by the researchers useful to support this undergraduate thesis.

Local Literature

Personality, Academic Performance, and Achievement

Researchers feel that personality is best viewed as learned behavior - an individual may have an aggressive personality because being aggressive has paid off in the past. Freudian psychologists believe that personality is best understood in terms of conflicts that arise among our desires, our reason, and our conscience1.

The Cognitive Social Learning Theory sees personality as the result of continuous interaction between the person and his environment2. It emphasizes the notion that personality emerges from an ongoing interaction among individuals, their actions and their environment. Environmental forces shape up our personalities, but we choose, alter, and interpret the situations we encounter to access personality.

The Humanistic Theory states that we all have a natural need for self-actualization3 - that is, a drive to behave in ways consistent with our self-concepts. In one study, it was found that those people whose self-concept fell short of their ideals were most likely to feel sad, disgusted, unfulfilled, even depressed. Those whose self-concepts were at odds with what they think they should be were more likely to feel guilty, shameful, fearful, and anxious.

More effective teachers are those that have personalities like being bold, aggressive, extrovert, active, energetic, strong, good communicator, relaxed, practical, predictable, sensitive, open-minded, accepting, reasonable, gracious, expert, knowledgeable, wise, decisive, stable, rational, and sensible behaviors. It was also found that specific teaching variables such as learner-centeredness do not increase the students' rating for teaching performance but more as a function of their personality.

The personality of a teacher is a major factor affecting how they communicate and deal with their students; however, it is a largely unexplored context of distance education4. It was concluded that teacher personality influenced the way by which students reacted in class. It is the teacher's personality that can affect student learning outcomes via the psychological environment of the classroom. Students who feel at ease with their teachers often exhibit greater academic performance, achievement, and competence5. Teachers who allow their students to be autonomous and learn in their own way, at their own pace, show higher academic intrinsic motivation, and increased preference for the most favorable challenges6.

These literatures are related to this present study as it gives light to what is personality, academics, student achievement and performance. It lets the readers understand the interplay among these entities.

Perceptions of the Subject and Teacher-Student Relationship

The teachers need to undergo a reflection not only on the resources and changes that will be made in the curriculum for effective teaching, but also on their capabilities, beliefs, and dispositions to implement the changes. After rigorous trainings on strategies to teach, teachers need to assess to what extent they can implement and what is learned in teaching7. This implies that the effectiveness of teaching would depend on the perspective of the teachers themselves about what is learning and teaching. In order to make such strategies and methods in teaching effectively, the teacher needs to develop first a perspective on the nature of teaching and language learning.

There is an increasing interest to comprehend an academic dilemma that affects every institution. In terms of teacher-student relationship, perception of one group toward the other group with regard to cheating defines thought patterns between these two groups8. Perception is deemed significant in any relationship as this affects interaction. How an individual or group would relate to another is often predisposed to by the preconceived notion of the other individual or group. Naturally, a pleasing preconception of a certain entity would result to a harmonious relationship. A contrite one would result otherwise. The area of morality centers as one of the fields that contribute to group interaction. Further, social comparison speaks of how one would view the actions of others to compare one's own view of deciding if one's perception of societal reality is correct.

These literatures are related to this present study because it shows how perceptions impact the way teachers discuss on topics in front of a class. To effectively teach, the lecturer must embrace both the teaching and learning process. Perceptions also affect student performance as it deliberately affects the attitude towards the subject and teacher as well, through the psychological atmosphere created within the classroom.

Determinants of Teaching Efficacy

It is also argued that teacher efficacy may influence student achievement through teacher persistence9. Teachers with high efficacy take responsibility for student learning and may view student failure as a push for greater effort to improve achievement. These teachers spend more time monitoring and working with their students, providing the means for higher levels of student engagement. Efficacious teachers are more likely to implement instructional strategies to enhance student learning, rather than just covering the curriculum. They also take more risks and have confidence in overcoming classroom challenges, which contribute to higher student achievement.

In contrast, teachers with low efficacy feel they have only minimal influence on students' learning outcomes. Such teachers give up more easily when confronted with difficult situations, are less resourceful, and often feel that students cannot learn because of extenuating circumstances. Such teachers tend to create classroom cultures that "undermine students' sense of efficacy and cognitive development" and rely on extrinsic motivation or punishment to get students to study. Pre-service teachers with a low sense of teacher efficacy have an orientation toward control, take a pessimistic view of students' motivation, and rely more on strict classroom regulations, extrinsic rewards, and punishments to make students study. Teachers who lacked a secure sense of teacher efficacy were reported to "show weak commitment to teaching, spend less time in subject matters in their areas of perceived inefficacy, and devote less overall time to academic matters". Greater efficacy makes teachers less critical of students when they make errors and pushes them to work longer and better with a student who is struggling. Teachers with a higher sense of efficacy show greater enthusiasm for and are more inclined towards teaching, feel more commitment to teaching and are more likely to stay in the profession.

This literature is related to this present study because teaching efficacy is one direct factor to consider in student performance. Efficacious teachers are those who strive for improvement despite failure, and those who create a motivating milieu for the students.

Foreign Literature

Motivation

Goal Setting is extremely important to motivation and success10. Certainly, you need some intelligence, knowledge base, study skills, and time management skills, but if you don't have motivation, you won't get far. Interest is also an important motivator for a student. So is a desire to learn. When you link these two things together, you create success. Often success in an endeavor leads to more interest and a greater desire to learn, creating an upward spiral of motivation toward a goal you have established.

This article is related to our study because motivation is one of the factors why some students work hard & well whereas others perform poorly. Motivation is an important factor especially for the students and professors. It is a process of arousing behaviour, sustaining behaviour & channeling behaviour in specific course. In Nursing Care Management subject, students need to be motivated to perform well in their academic performance, to develop efficiency and to reduce absenteeism.

Learning Styles

Recent educational research suggests that active learning has a significantly positive effect on student success11. With graduation and retention a growing concern in an increasing number of colleges and universities, active learning is attracting much attention in the academic world. In addition, identifying a student's learning style can support professors' efforts to utilize active learning strategies. The process, which includes identifying learning styles and creating profiles, leads to active learners in college classrooms positively impacting retention and graduation rates.

Active learning can be defined as students actively involved in the learning process12. Students need to be more involved than listening to the professor or reading the text. Students need to interact with the professor and fellow students in order to develop higher order thinking skills. Students need to know their learning styles and engage with the subject matter.

Students learn through processes resulting from social, psychological and organizational thinking patterns, which are their learning styles.

Learning styles are also a factor for student performance. No one is as much alike anyone. Learning styles may be different for students enrolled in one course. As the article discussed, the most talked about learning style is the so-called active learning. In active learning, students are interactive of what the teacher discusses. It is the type of learning style where students are encouraged to question, critically think, and share insights.

Teaching Strategies

An area of continuing development is media delivered instruction13. Today's computer literate student body is less willing to endure lectures supported by certain media such as overhead transparencies. Minimally, LCD projected lectures prepared by presentation software with accompanying handouts are expected. Live lectures with web links to manufacturer homepages or medical links are useful to stimulate interest and keep content current. Quizzes accessed via the Internet offer a new twist on the old "take home" quiz. These types of activities appeal to students and make for more efficient use of both their time and the instructors' time. Web based resources are phenomenal, and, when integrated into the classroom, they can significantly enhance the learning experience. Conversely, many students utilize electronic media technology in their class presentations.

An electronic means of delivery, whether provided to the distance or local student, puts new demands on faculty. Educational / instructional technology is a body of knowledge of considerable depth. Graduate degrees in educational technology are on the increase as educators in all fields begin to recognize that technology will have a significant impact in the classroom, live or virtual. One might argue that the nursing profession, as a hands-on profession, doesn't lend itself to this type of delivery. Certainly, the didactic portion of any curriculum can be served up in this fashion. Virtual reality technology simulations can provide additional experiences.

From learning styles, another indispensable factor to consider is teaching strategies. The reception of knowledge from teacher to student may lie on the student's preferred learning style, but the way by which the teacher process and transfer knowledge from him to his students lies on his use of teaching strategies. Virtual learning is so far, the controversial type of teaching strategy. It has not yet been proven 100% effective but some believe virtual simulations are equally as good as classroom-set discussions.

Teachers and Students in Academic Excellence

Teachers and students are two related components that support each other towards attaining academic excellence14.

Great teachers meant those who possess excellent academic achievements and noble personality.

"Academically, a great teacher is one who is well-educated and highly knowledgeable, skilled in teaching and learning techniques and is a visionary," it said.

Great teachers, the sermon added, are those who are patient and don't give up easily, well-mannered and have strong faith.

Excellent students, meanwhile, refer to those who are outstanding in their academic achievement, co-curriculum and possess noble attributes such as loyal to and respectful of their teachers, protecting their teachers' integrity and well-mannered.

Teachers and students are the most imperative people in the teaching-learning process. With great teachers come excellent students. Since teachers are the ones who hone their students to become competent in whatever field they wish to endeavor, they are expected to be highly qualified and competent, themselves. They must be equipped with the appropriate knowledge and skills, and must possess good character traits.

Local Studies

Perception of Students to the NCM Subject and Clinical Instructors

Actual studies which focus on student-teacher learning relationship, perceptions, attitude and behaviors have already existed. Local universities and colleges have published such case studies and researches, involving these matters as it reveal relationship or affectation to the learning capabilities and techniques of the students with their teachers or lecturers.

One study encompasses the credibility of their clinical instructors as perceived by their nursing students. Filipino Nursing Students' Views of their Clinical Instructors' Credibility, which was published last 2006 in the University of Santo Tomas (UST), utilizes a qualitative study which purports to capture how a select group of senior nursing students view their clinical instructors' credibility. This also entails to the concept of clinical credibility which has attracted the interest of some researchers in the field. It is interesting to note the substantive paucity of literature on this since the mid 1990s. Mainly, it explores how nurse lecturers maintain clinical credibility, specifically from an Asian context15. This may be co-related to the focus of the study, for credibility of a teacher when it comes to his/her field, plays a significant role in his teaching strategies. A greater effect can be applied to the learning of nursing students, if the perceived credibility and personality of these lecturers' are competent and appreciated, respectively.

Another study from UST entitled Filipino Pre-service Education Students' Preconceptions of Teacher Roles Viewed through a Metaphorical Lens implies on the belief that students who enter teacher- education programs bring with them a schema of teaching. This serves as reference points for understanding new experiences; this study explored Filipino pre-service teachers' preconceptions on teacher roles through a metaphorical lens. This study utilized metaphoric images which were listed, tallied, analyzed and categorized to show meaningful patterns and themes. Results showed that preconceptions converged into five clusters: knowledge source, direction-setter, character formatter, change agent and learner. Metaphors used were predominantly instructivist or teacher-centered, with some emerging constructivist or learner-centered leanings. The study offered possible explanations for these preconceptions, and their implications on teacher education programs16.

These studies are of importance because it seeks to determine student response though perception of the subject being taught and the lecturer teaching it. Students will most likely perform better in lecturers whom they think of as qualified and credible to teach.

Teaching Strategies

On a research made and published in De La Salle University - Manila last September 2009, entitled Teaching Approach, Perceived Parental Involvement and Autonomy as Predictors of Achievement, "The parents' and teachers' approach are important factors that influence students in their school performance. For instance, the way parents take care of their children and the way teachers deal with the students have an influence on the students' behavior in school. The way parents relate with their child and teachers handle their students also help explain a student's academic performance in school17." Relating this to the study, teaching approaches the teachers, may it be teacher-centered or learner-centered, have an effect on the amount and capability of the students' learning and academic achievement.

Personality

Teacher personality defines the nursing profession. Qualities such as personal magnetism, enthusiasm, cheerfulness, self-control, patience, flexibility, a sense of humor, a good speaking voice, self-confidence, willingness to admit errors, and a caring attitude are all desirable characteristics of excellent nurse teachers18.

Foreign Studies

Personality

Teachers' personal characteristics are conceived to be antecedents of teachers' occupational well-being, teachers' instructional performance in the classroom, and student outcomes19. Several teacher characteristics have been proposed as being conducive to these outcomes. Research has focused on broad personality characteristics, such as emotional stability, internal locus of control, hardiness, self-efficacy, and coping styles.

Teaching Efficacy and Competency

Education is the most powerful instrument whose effective use requires the strength of will, dedicated work and sacrifice20. Since this instrument is in the hands of teachers, they must possess Teaching competency, professional commitment and job satisfaction for its effective use. Education develops desirable habits, skills and attitudes which make an individual a good citizen.

In the present study an attempt was made by the researcher to study professional commitment, teaching competency and job satisfaction-their relationship and influence on each other and the results showed the high positive relation between professional commitment and job satisfaction but the relation between teaching competency and job satisfaction came to be positively very low for most of the dimensions and for some of the dimensions it came out as negative correlation. This means teachers who are satisfied with their job are also equally committed to their profession while job satisfaction level does not affect competency skills of the teachers21.

This is also related with our study because teacher commitment has been identified as one of the most crucial factor for the success of the student's education and for the university as well. Teacher's commitment is closely associated with their work performance.

ENDNOTES

1Dolores M. Recio, Merle F. Mejico, and Cora A. Añonuevo, Human Behavior: From the Disciplines of Anthropology, Psychology, and Sociology (Mandaluyong City: Books Atbp. Publishing Corp., 2004), 214.

2Recio, Mejico, and Añonuevo, 215-216.

3 Recio, Mejico, and Añonuevo, 216-217.

4Carlo Magno C., "Developing Contemporary Teaching Perspectives for EFL Teachers," Philippine ESL Journal, Vol. 2, (February 2009): 200.

5Vasquez, Leonarda C. Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement, Philippines: The Bookmark Inc, 2008 n.pag.

6Vasquez, Strategies, n.pag.

7Marcelo, Editha, "Faculty Perception on Student Academic Honesty," College Student Journal, Sept. 2006.

8 Marcelo, Editha, "Faculty Perception on Student Academic Honesty," College Student Journal, Sept. 2006.

9 Marcelo, Editha, "Faculty Perception on Student Academic Honesty," College Student Journal, Sept. 2006.

10Paul Treuer, Motivation: Student Handbook (Minnesota: University of Minnesota Duluth, 2006).

11Margaret Fritz, "Using Learning Style Inventories to Promote Active Learning," Journal of College Reading and Learning (March 2005).

12 Margaret Fritz, "Using Learning Style Inventories to Promote Active Learning," Journal of College Reading and Learning (March 2005).

13Susan Kapp and John Fergason, Contemporary Students: Learning Styles and Teaching Strategies (Washington: The American Academy of Orthotists and Prosthetists, 2005).

14"Great Teachers = Excellent Students," The Brunei Times., http://news.asiaone.com/News/Latest%2BNews/Edvantage/Story/A1Story20100925-239068.html.

15Allan B. de Guzman, et.al. "Filipino nursing students' views of their clinical instructors' credibility" August 2006; Nurse Education Today Vol.27 Issue 6, (August 2007): 529-533.

16Clarita de Leon-Carillo "Filipino Pre-service Education Students' Preconceptions of Teacher Roles Viewed through a Metaphorical Lens" Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education, Volume 35, Issue 2 (May 2007): 197 - 217.

17Aldrich B. Alvaera, et.al. "Teaching Approach, Perceived Parental Involvement and Autonomy as Predictors of Achievement" The International Journal of Research and Review, Vol. 1 (September 2009): pages 57-80.

18Al D. Biag, "A Divergent Perspective Analysis on the Characteristics of an Excellent Nursing Teacher Using Q Methodology" Philippine Journal of Nursing, Vol. 79, No. 2 (July-December 2009): 16.

19Uta Klusman, et.al. "Teacher's Occupational Well-Being and Quality of Instruction: The Important Role of Self-Regulatory Patterns," Journal of Educational Psychology, Vol. 100, No. 3 (August 2008): 702-704.

20"Teaching competency, professional commitment and job satisfaction," http://illusion.instablogs.com/entry/teaching-competency-professional-commitment-and-job-satisfaction/.

21"Teaching competency, professional commitment and job satisfaction," http://illusion.instablogs.com/entry/teaching-competency-professional-commitment-and-job-satisfaction/.

CHAPTER 3

Methods and Procedure

This chapter will be discussing the methodology to be used to determine instructor personality and the perceived academic performance of students.

Research Methodology

The researchers will be using the correlational method to present the data that will be gathered from 102 BSN Level IV students and 15 clinical instructors of Centro Escolar University Makati.

The correlational method is used to determine relationships that exist between two or more variables. For the purpose of this study, such method will be employed to find out if there is a significant relationship between the instructor personality and the perceived academic performance of students.

Subjects of the Study

The focus of the study will be the 4th year nursing students of Centro Escolar University Makati batch 2011 and the NCM lecturers of the same year level. The researchers will utilize the Sloven's Formula to determine the number of respondents. Using the Sloven's Formula, they will have 136 student respondents. Since there are six sections, the researchers have decided to equally divide the 136 students to 6, rendering 23 students per class. As for the clinical instructors, the researchers decided to pursue both NCM and RLE Lecturers, having a total of 15 respondents.

Sampling Technique

The researchers will employ purposive and cluster sampling as their sampling techniques. The researchers will be having the BSN Level IV students and clinical instructors as their respondents for the purpose of this study. As the respondents will be given an IQ and EQ test prior to the proper questionnaire, the researchers have thought that clustering them into four major categories for the IQ (High IQ, Low EQ; High IQ, High EQ; Low IQ, High EQ; and Low IQ, Low EQ), and five major personality traits (Neuroticism, Openness, Agreeableness, Extraversion, and Conscientiousness) will be imperative to ascertain the appropriate instructor personality and degree of perceived student academic performance.

Procedure of Data Gathering

The researchers will be utilizing two (2) sets of tests, three (3) tests for each of our two (2) groups of subjects: BSN Level IV students and the clinical instructors (4th year level). There will be three (3) tests for each of the subjects, in total of six (6) test materials prepared for data gathering. These will include an intelligence quotient (IQ) test, emotional quotient (EQ) test, and a constructed questionnaire focusing on the researchers' study.

The questionnaires and tests will be stated in English and will be distributed separately. The IQ and EQ test will be given initially for the researchers to analyze and cluster the selected sample from each of the two groups. After analyses of the IQ and EQ test, the researchers will then be able to determine who among the participants should be selected to continue with the constructed questionnaire, more focused in the study.

The data gathered will be arranged and presented both in quantitative and qualitative form.

Statistical Treatment of Data

N

Sloven's Formula

n =

1 + Ne2

Where:

N is the total number of population

n is the sample size

e is the margin of error, 0.05

As employed in this study,

205

N

n = = = 136 students for the entire batch

1 + Ne2 1 + (205) (.0025)

136 / 6 = 23 students per section

Percentage Formula

Total Number of Respondents

% = Frequency x 100

IQ Test Formula

IQ (Intelligence Quotient) = (Mental Age / Chronological Age) x 100

Writing Services

Essay Writing
Service

Find out how the very best essay writing service can help you accomplish more and achieve higher marks today.

Assignment Writing Service

From complicated assignments to tricky tasks, our experts can tackle virtually any question thrown at them.

Dissertation Writing Service

A dissertation (also known as a thesis or research project) is probably the most important piece of work for any student! From full dissertations to individual chapters, we’re on hand to support you.

Coursework Writing Service

Our expert qualified writers can help you get your coursework right first time, every time.

Dissertation Proposal Service

The first step to completing a dissertation is to create a proposal that talks about what you wish to do. Our experts can design suitable methodologies - perfect to help you get started with a dissertation.

Report Writing
Service

Reports for any audience. Perfectly structured, professionally written, and tailored to suit your exact requirements.

Essay Skeleton Answer Service

If you’re just looking for some help to get started on an essay, our outline service provides you with a perfect essay plan.

Marking & Proofreading Service

Not sure if your work is hitting the mark? Struggling to get feedback from your lecturer? Our premium marking service was created just for you - get the feedback you deserve now.

Exam Revision
Service

Exams can be one of the most stressful experiences you’ll ever have! Revision is key, and we’re here to help. With custom created revision notes and exam answers, you’ll never feel underprepared again.