There are many theories that are associated with child development. Social learning, cognitive learning theory, psychoanalytic theory, and psychosocial theory are some examples of what children go through during the developmental process. These theories are very important; they focus on child development, and many stages of life experiences in child development. Understanding the way infants grow and develop using different patterns are necessary for parents and caregivers. Caring and loving environments encourages the child's learning and growth development. When children have positive feelings about themselves, it becomes beneficial to them as they become adults. These are theories that have proven to be relative in so many ways.
Child development focuses on sciencetific studies and processes of stability in human children. According to Darwin,"â€¦" (1877). Many changes that children go through during development consist of physical, cognitive, and psychosocial development. Psychical development is found when a child may have problems with the development of their motor skills. For example, a child may learn how to walk, and talk later than most children is one example. Cognitive development is when a child who has problems with speaking around others. They may have tendencies of being shy, and psychosocial is when a child may have low self-esteem and poor social acceptance. These three domains help to describe the importance of what children learn and see this may have a major affect on their lives.
Influences on development
There are different influences on children; many influences come from environment, culture, race, and religion. The environment is one of the major influences especially those born to poverty. Most children think beyond in their adult lives they will become successful; yet many children settle for less and continue to live their lives in poverty. Children are influenced by culture it directly affects their sense of morals different cultures give different creeds of social acceptance different Children will look at the world with different perspectives life do to the worlds social climate religion adheres to a child's sense of morals and consequences.
Psychoanalytic is a view of development that describes these unconscious forces that motivate human behavior, which is referred to as psychoanalysis. The unconscious mind lies outside the vague boundaries of the conscious parts of the mind. These things are too painful to remain in the conscious part of the mind; these repressions are the egos defense mechanism. This could be many different things that people are unaware. These have deep lasting impressions that lead to serious mental behaviors. Sigmund Freud was the leading most expert psychologist in the physcoanalytic theory he believed the mind was made up of the id ego and superego. According to Freud the ego is a aspect the subject that emerges form the id that are biologically inheritated and the unconscious clashes of sexual drives and irrational impulses the ego also develops the id's acceptance of the world.
The stages of child development would include super ego is a part of the mind that places rules and demands of reality. The ego demands from both the id and the superego. A balance between the three is important to mental health.
Self- identity and gender identity are also important stages the child realizes to identify them self of who they are and who they are going to be. Gender identity would be children realizing if they are boy or a girl: they are developing self-concepts. (Paplia, 2008). However, (Fred, etl al., 1953, 1946a, 1964) believed that people are born with biological drives that make it impossible to live in society. These conflicts occur in sequences of five stages of psychosexual development. Freud's theory has made historic contributions and inspired a whole generation and some whom have taken this theory to other levels.
Psychosocial theory analyzes a child's feelings of self-worth and how they display to the way others treat them. Children's ability to interact with others or how they act with others gives them a psychosocial theme. A major psychosocial theme is very important at all times, but will always remain an issue at some degree throughout life. This crisis can be very critical for children. For example, the child has too much pressure to meet certain expectations, and is feeling overwhelmed. On the contrary, the child has permissive parents. This theory promotes the level of self-esteem. With the intention of making, the children feel shame about what he or she may be doing. Low self-esteem child will have no self worth about what he or she may be doing. they may also have identity crisis not really knowing who they are in this world. This is the main reason why we have so many children that commit suicide. Low self -esteem is the main cause of so many children committing suicide. It is very important that we instill high self-esteem by showing our children love, and support no matter what they may do. This will matter as they grow to be adults.
Social learning theory
Social learning theory comes from learning is very important during child development this learning comes from observing others behavior. Social learning is a transition between learning theories and cognitive learning theories. Observational learning is learning by choosing models to imitate when a child has watched someone doing something on a regular basis. For instance, my daughter has watched me fold the linen over the years now she helps me fold this is because she has learned from watching me since she has been a baby. Observational learning is very important, and critical in a child's life they want to learn and do everything possible. Bandura, (1977-1989) also makes a distinction between learning through observation, and imitation. There are four conditions before a person can model behavior. This includes paying attention, and being able to have the ability to replicate, and being able to show what they have learned throughout the observation process.
According to Rome-Flanders, Cronk, & Gourde, (1995) Modeling teaches new behaviors influences, frequencies, and encourages many different behaviors. Self-efficiency plays a big role in learning and children have to be able to believe in themselves. In order to have confidence to succeed towards the learning process this affects behavior. Without confidence, they do not believe in their self they will not feel successful in doing certain activities. Self-regulation is also important this is when one has their own ideas of choosing appropriate and inappropriate behavior when setting standards and goals. Self-instructions are strategies that teach learners instructions to guide their behavior this would be cognitive modeling, external guidance, self-guidance, and self-instruction.
Associative learning and Psychosocial tools
Associative learning is two kinds of learning operant conditioning, and classical conditioning, classical conditioning would be fear of something; this fear would be from something that has happened to someone. For instance, tornados if you have experienced something like this every time there is a strong windstorm this can make you become fearful that another tornado may hit. Operant conditioning would be for example, an award for good behavior in school; it is most likely that the child will always show good behavior to receive rewards. Classical conditioning is a natural process of learning this is different from operant conditioning this learning involves voluntary behavior this entails learning from consequences.
Cognitive learning theory
Cognitive learning focuses on the thought process and a behavior that reflects on these processes. According to J Piaget"â€¦" (1896-1980 there are to processes used by the individual in its attempt to adapt assimilation and accommodation. These processes are in life as the person increasingly adapts to the environment. Assimilation is the process of using or transforming the environment and placing them in to structures. There are four stages of development in cognitive development. One being the sensiormotor stage this is a period of development when the child demonstrates activities, and knowledge of the world. Pre-operational stage is when the child demonstrates the usage of the memory and imagination. Operational stage is when the child shows actions, and with formal operational stage, the child begins to demonstrate the use of egocentric thoughts, and intelligence at this stage of development. During this developmental process, it is very important that we challenge our children abilities during this process (J Piaget1896-1980).
Information is a process that explains cognitive development by analyzing the mental processes that are involved in perceiving and handling information. This process consists of usage of the brain. (Vygotskys, 2008) "Theory says that the brain is similar to the computer." This approach helps researchers to estimate the intelligence of a child. Different studies are in place to see how much data can be stored in the brain. This is in place to study, and to put a handle on the conscious unconscious parts of the memory. For example, the child memory is very different from the adult memory. For instance, there is a generic memory this comes from remembering basic routines that a child may do on a daily basis.
Script memory would be from repeated or familiar events that take place this could be a family gathering. Episodic memories are long-term memories this is a family vacation. Autobiographical are never forgotten memories and events that took place in a person's life that have special meaning. This could be a memory that had negative effects on the child. Memories have a lot to do with information processing if a child is unable to remember this can affect the way that they learn, and affect the developmental process.
How these three theories are similar and different
These theories a similar because, they all have something to do with the development of children and how they get to know themselves as a person. This helps children to gain the cognitive abilities of being able to deal with the tasks of childhood adolescence, and adulthood. Self-esteem has a major impact on development. Children are able to describe, and define themselves during this process of development. They also become able to adapt in the environment socially, and physically. These theories are very similar because brain development is the key factor being able to regulate emotions and understanding emotions.
These theories differ because psychoanalytic development focuses more on the unconscious emotional drives. This happens when people are unaware of things that are happening. The learning theory focuses more on learning experience and behavior development this theory show how the child grows and the mind becomes stronger being able to hold more information. The cognitive theory focuses on information processing, and development of the memory through each stage of development. Learning and cognitive are the two that are the most alike. These consist of the memory, and they way human's are processing information. Although, all of these theories are different, each one focuses on the human mind.
Interaction cognitive, physical, and emotional development
The interaction of physical, cognitive, and emotional development differ in children depending on their environment. Physical development- is the development of the body, and gross motor skills. Cognitive is when the child learns how to talk solving problems, and gain knowledge this is the sensorimotorstage. Emotional development in children begins to express feelings about themselves, others, and learning how to relate to others in the world. It is very important understanding the way that children grow. They can be discouraged in so many ways by having parents that show little interest this tears the child's self-esteem down making them feel worthless. There must be plenty of love, and support, and less pressure during this stage. Without support, Children can get severely depressed, and have emotional stages that will lead them into having to seek professional help, and this can follow them into adult hood.
My experience taking this course
I have learned many new things taking this course. I will be able to utilize these new skills when done. For instance, you think about things that may be going on in your everyday life. I also have good understanding about child development; experiential learning was one of my favorite assignments. For example, experiential learning for me is the best way to learn. I am the kind of person that if you show me something one time I take it and run with it. I also enjoyed talking about psychoanalytic perspective. What I learned from this perspective was there are things that people do on a daily basis without even realizing. This has a lot to do with the unconscious part of the brain.
In conclusion, social learning theory, psychoanalytic theory, and psychosocial theory has taught me a lot about child development. These theories are very important; they focus on life experience and cultural backgrounds, and the environment of the child. Many things can have negative effects on how they develop and grow. Understanding the way infants grow, and develop using different patterns are necessary for parents, and caregivers. A caring and loving environment encourages the child's learning, and growth development. When children have positive feelings about themselves, it will be beneficial to the child, as they become adults.