Research Methodology of Quasi experimental theory

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This chapter deals with the description of methodology and the various steps adapted to collect and organize data for the study, research methodology involves the systematic procedure by starting from the initial identification of the problem to its final conclusion. Methodology is a significant part of any study, which enables the researcher to project the research undertaken.


The research approach adopted for this study was an experimental approach.


The researcher has selected the design Quasi-experimental in nature with one group pre test, post test design.


Data was collected from 18 primary schools at Madurai, namely Madura School, LPNI School, Nicholson primary school, Madurai Thirumangalam PandiaKula Nadar Matriculation School, Jain school, DMR schools and Corporation schools were the samples.

Madurai Thirumangalam Pandiakula Nadar School has 520 students is situated in pasumalai, which is 1 Km away from the college and data was collected from 10 primary school teachers.

Jain Matriculation High School has 400 students is situated in pasumalai, is ½ Km away from the college and collected data from 9 primary school teachers.

Church of South India Primary School has 220 students is situated ½ km away from the college and data was collected from 12 teachers.

Madura Primary School has 220 students is located at Thanakankulam which is 8 kms away from the college and collected data from 12 teachers.

Corporation Schools are located at Thiruparankunram block is 3-8kms away from the college and data was collected from 21 teachers in 10 schools.

Chandler Matriculation Higher Secondary School is located in Mangalapuram which has 650 students is 12 kms away from the college and data was collected from 10 teachers.

Lucy Pessy NI high school and Nicholson Schools are located in K.Pudur which has 550 and 215 students is 13-15kms away from the college and data was collected from 16 primary school teachers.

Diocese 0f Madurai & Ramnad Schools in west gate and south gate of Madurai are situated 7 kms and 9 kms away from the college respectively and data was collected from 9 teachers, which has 180 and 150 students respectively.


The target population for the present study includes the primary school teachers in the selected schools at Madurai.

Accessible population for this study includes teachers working in primary schools


The samples in the present study were 100 primary school teachers and children in selected schools.


The researcher adopted purposive sampling technique to select the teachers.


The samples were selected based on the following inclusion and exclusion criteria.


Teachers who are working in primary schools.

Both male and female teachers were included.

Primary school teachers who are available during the time of study.


Teachers who are absent during the time of data collection.

Teachers who are teaching in high school and higher secondary schools.


The questionnaire was prepared to assess the knowledge of teachers in early detection of eye problems among school going children. The questionnaire was prepared with the help of various resources, literature review and opinion from the subject experts, to ascertain the effectiveness to bring out the correct content on early detection of visual impairment. A structured interview schedule was used to elicit response from the teachers. Average time taken to complete one questionnaire was about 20-25 minutes.

The planned teaching programme on early detection of visual impairment in children was prepared which includes the information about anatomy and physiology of eyes, causes, signs and symptoms, management, testing visual acuity, diet, TV viewing behavior , first aid and prevention of visual impairment. Visual acuity was checked for school going children with snellan's chart.

The tool consists of part I and part II. Part II consists of 4 sections.

Part I: Demographic data

It includes age, sex, religion, teaching experience, source of knowledge, first aid training regarding eye problems. Based upon their answer a tick mark (√) was put for the appropriate response of each item.

Part ll: Questionnaire on knowledge of early detection of visual impairment in school children

It consists of 35 multiple choice questions related to knowledge regarding early detection of visual impairment in school children among primary school teachers.

Self administered structured questionnaire related to anatomy and physiology of eye, causes and management, testing visual acuity, diet and TV viewing behavior, First aid and prevention of visual impairment. The respondents are requested to place a tick mark (√) against the most appropriate answer.

The interview schedule consists of 35 multiple choice questions. Each question was given four alternative responses, out of which, one was right answer and was given a score of "1" and the other three responses were given "0" score. Maximum score is 35 and minimum score is 0.


0 -15 - Inadequate knowledge

16 -25 - Moderately adequate knowledge

26 - 35 - Adequate knowledge


The content validity of the instrument was validated by obtaining opinion from experts in the field of nursing and pediatrician. The appropriate modifications were made according to the suggestions given by experts in simplification in the language, reorganization and addition of certain items and the tool was finalized. (Few items as recommended by the experts were modified and included in the questionnaire). Then the tool was translated into Tamil language based on the need for the study participants.


The reliability of the tool was elicited by using test-retest method. The tool was administered to 10 samples. The interval between pre and post test was 7 days. The tool was found to be clear and understandable. The teachers completed answering the questions in 20-25 minutes.

The validity of the planned teaching programme on early detection of visual impairment in school children among primary school teachers was assessed by experts for its appropriateness, organization of content and the language.


The data was collected for 6 weeks. Written permission was sought and obtained from the concerned authorities of 22 schools namely MTPKN, Jain matriculation school, CSI primary school, Madura primary school, LPNI higher secondary school, Nicholson primary school, Diocese of Madurai & Ramnad schools, Chandler matriculation school and corporation schools of Thiruparankunram block in Madurai. An initial rapport was established to the students and teachers and explained the purpose of testing visual acuity and the purpose of study was explained to them. A total number of 400 students between age group 6-10 years, students who were straining to read or impairment in attention and not wearing spectacles were tested for visual acuity with the help of snellen's chart (E chart) to assess the prevalence of visual impairment and children with visual problems were referred to Christian mission hospital. One day was allotted in each school to test visual acuity. Pre test was given to the teachers after obtaining the willingness to participate in the study. Consent was obtained and the self administered questionnaire was given to teachers, on an average of 4-12 teachers were interviewed in a day. The average time taken to complete one questionnaire was about 20-25 minutes. The teachers were interviewed during 5 days in a week except Saturdays and Sundays. After the pre test planned teaching programe on early detection of visual impairment in school children was given with the help of audio visual aids, the time taken for the teaching is about 30-40 minutes. Teachers were made to sit in the chairs in the staff room or multipurpose hall and conducted interview and planned teaching, 3-4 days were allotted for each setting. All the teachers were much cooperative and the investigator expressed her gratitude for their cooperation.


Date DAY Place &Activity Number of subjects

05-07-10 Monday Pre test in MTPKN school, Pasumalai. 10

06-07-10 Tuesday Pre test &planned teaching programme in

-07-07-10 Wednesday MTPKN School.

08-07-10 Thursday Pre test &PTP in Corporation School, west gate & 1+9

&Jain Matriculation School, Pasumalai

09-07-10 Friday Pre test &STP in Diocese of Madurai & 6+3

Ramnad schools, West gate &south gate.

12-07-10 Monday Pre test in Madura primary school, Thanakankulam 12

13-17-10 Tuesday Post test in MTPKN school.

14-07-10 Wednesday PTP in Madura primary school,

15-07-10 Thursday Post test in DMR school &corporation school, west gate

16-07-10 Friday Pre test in Nicholson primary school &LPNI school, 16

K.Pudur &post test in Jain Matriculation school

17-07-10 Saturday PTP in Nicholson &LPNI schools, K.Pudur.

19-07-10 Monday Post test in Madura primary school, Pre test in Chandler 10

Matriculation Higher secondary school, Mangalapuram

20-07-10 Tuesday Pre test &PTP in 3 corporation schools, Thirunagar 9

21-07-10 Wednesday Pre test &PTP in corporation schools, Thiruparankunram 12

22-07-10 Thursday Pre test and PTP in CSI primary school, Pasumalai 12

23-07-10 Friday PTP in 5 corporation schools, Thiruparankunram

24-07-10 Saturday Post test in Nicholson Primary school &LPNI school.

26-07-10 Monday Post test in Chandler Matriculation school &corporation schools,


27-07-10 Tuesday Post test in corporation schools, Thiruparankunram

29-07-10 Thursday Post test in corporation schools, Thiruparankunram

30-07-10 Friday Post test in CSI primary school, Pasumalai


Data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics.


To find out the feasibility of the tool a pilot study was carried out in corporation school in Thiruparankunram during the first week of July. Ten samples were selected by convenience sampling technique and 40 students visual acuity was checked using Snellan's chart. The pilot study showed that the tool was appropriate. The teachers asked doubts and clarified their doubts immediately in early detection of visual impairment in school children and they actively participated in the study. The time taken to complete the tool was found to be satisfactory in terms of simplicity and clarity.


The proposed study was conducted after the approval of research committee of the college. Permission was obtained from the principals/headmistress/correspondent of schools in Madurai. The oral consent of each individual is obtained before data collection. Assurance was given to the study participant regarding the confidentiality of the data collected. Thus the ethical issues were ensured in the study.