Research methodology and theoretical framework education essay

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RESEARCH QUESTION: - HOW CAN "ABC HIGH SCHOOL"IMPROVE IT'S MOTIVATION TECHNIQUES TO DECREASE STAFF TURNOVER?

Rationale for study:

I have undertaken this research to find out if poor ways of motivation are the leading factors of high rates of staff turnover. And how the organization can improve it and adopt to different motivation techniques. This research study will help me to apply the theoretical classroom knowledge to the practical field or the real world and hence improve my skills and understand the dynamic nature of motivation in business.

Research methodology and theoretical framework:

-Primary sources of information:

I will make a questionnaire for the teachers who left in order to investigate what used to motivate them at work and the de-motivating factors. With use of indirect questions, I will investigate their main reason for leaving the former school.

I will also use make a questionnaire for the head teacher of the school. In this questionnaire, I will discuss about the involvement of teachers in the school development programs, how far the teachers used to like their job and other things relating to teachers motivation.

-Secondary sources of information:

I will look at some of the past records on the number of teachers who left and when they had joined the school. This will help me know for how long those teachers have been a member in that school.

ANTICIPATED DIFFICULTIES:

-I am worried that I might get limited information as the teachers will not want to show the bad side of his school.

-I might also get biased information from teachers filling in the questionnaire and they might not be even be free with me when discussing questions indirectly related to pay.

SOLUTIONS:

-Crosscheck with the school's data about the teachers.

MODULES TO BE COVERED:

-Motivational theories

-Motivating and de-motivating factors

ACTION PLAN:

Date (2010)

Action

August 1st - August 14th, 2010

Prepare the research outline. Discuss possible topics with the supervisor

August 15th - August 22nd, 2010

Select an appropriate topic

August 23rd - August 25th ,2010

Select an appropriate firm to carry out the research.

September 1st- September 22nd, 2010

Observing the business and collecting necessary data.

September 23rd - September 28th, 2010

Framing an appropriate question.

October 25th - October 21st ,2010

Collecting the necessary data as per the research question.

November 1st- November 7th, 2010

Writing the first draft

November 10th , 2010

Submitting the first draft to the supervisor

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

My sincere acknowledgements to the management and the staff members of ABC high school whose perception and data inputs have been of massive aid in the accumulation of this essay.

I also take this opportunity to thank my supervisor Mr. Kibuuka for his continuous guidance and valuable directions through out this accumulation and heart felt thanks to my parents and friends who also contributed in one way or another.

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted to find out the ways on how "ABC high school" can improve its motivation techniques to decrease staff turnover. The study particularly sought to decrease the problem of staff turnover in ABC high school.

The study was conducted through questionnaires, data being collected during a week from 18 teachers out of 25 teachers who left school and 10 teachers who are still serving the school.

The study established that the physiological needs of the teacher were not met. The study concludes that more number of teachers is also likely to leave the school as soon as an option is available to them. The study recommends that the heads of the school should consider all the needs in the hierarchy by Abraham Maslow instead of just considering one and letting the others out.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Acknowledgements………………………………………………………………………………4

Abstract…………………………………………………………………………………………...5

Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………………...7

Literature review………………………………………………………………………………...7

Methodology……………………………………………………………………………………...8

Analysis of data ………………………………………………………………………………….9

Conclusion and recommendations…………………………………………………………….11

INTRODUCTION:

ABC high school is an inspiring school with combination of students from 23 nations. It is the first multicultural school in Uganda. The mission is to enable generations of multiracial and multicultural student populations to acquire both knowledge and the essential spiritual freedom. The most important objective of the business is to provide affordable and quality education to the students.

Being a school, ABC is targeting the students living around the school and all over from the city.ABC high school is competing with various schools around it or the ones that provide the same courses or services at differing costs.

LITERATURE REVIEW:

ABRAHAM MASLOW:

Maslow proposed a hierarchy of needs, which I as a student think is essential for a teacher to stay in school for a big number of years.

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In Maslow's hierarchy:

Physiological needs are the biological needs. For a teacher, it refers to the high wages enough to meet the weekly bills.

Security needs are the needs of being physically safe (job security).

Social needs are the needs of rewarding relationships with other employees at work.

Esteem needs is having status and recognition, achievement and independence.

Self- fulfillment/ actualization need is succeeding to your full potential. This is when the teacher is being promoted and given more responsibility.

It has also been observed by the various businesses that if employees are motivated to do something or to work effectively, the higher levels in the hierarchy must also be provided t them, money is not the only need for efficient levels of productivity and to reduce staff turnover.

"ABC high school" had a high rate of staff turnover in past years

The table below indicates the number of years the teachers stayed in this school before they left the school and moved on somewhere else.

Number of Teachers

Duration in the school (approx)

4 teachers

1 year

13 teachers

2 years

6 teachers

3 years

2 teachers

4 years

The table above shows us that out of the 25 teachers who left the school in the past 3 years only stayed for short time. Four teachers stayed for 1 year, thirteen teachers for 2 years, six teachers stayed for 3 years in school and only two teachers for 4 years.

Formula of staff turnover:

Employee Turnover

=

= 0.7105 Ã- 100

= 71.05%

The high staff turnover rate shows us that they were more teachers that left school than the actual number of teachers who stayed behind.

Questionnaires were used to know what the main reason was for the teachers leaving school and to know what reasons are affecting the current teachers and might force them to leave school.

The table below shows the responses of few teachers out of the 25 teachers who left the school.

number of teachers

REASON FOR LEAVING SCHOOL

8

Physiological needs

0

Social needs

1

Safety needs

3

Esteem needs

6

Self- actualization needs

The graph above shows us that the main reason for most of the teachers leaving the school was equally due to physiological needs and self- actualization needs.

This tells us that in order to motivate the teachers to work efficiently and give service to the school for a longer period of time; all the needs mentioned in the hierarchy are to be met.

As we observe from the above graph, three out of the five needs were met and that is why there were few teachers ho left due to those reasons. And the main reason was due to physiological needs and self-actualization needs.

A questionnaire was also given to the teachers still in the school asking them about few reasons that might dominate them to leave "ABC" high school. The graph below shows the reason which is likely to force the current teachers in the school to leave.

The teachers mentioned that their pay is very low when compared to the services they are providing the school. It does not meet their other needs or the utility bills. They are not even provided with accommodation or children's fees.

And few teachers also mentioned that when they will have an alternate choice which offers high pay and other benefits besides it like good work colleagues, job security and with recognition or appreciation when a good task is done. Therefore, this suggests that as soon as an alternative is going to be available or there is another choice of a school, they are going to leave.

This leads us to the question on how can "ABC high school" improve its motivation techniques to decrease staff turnover.

As I mentioned before, and even recognized by businesses that if you want your employees to work effectively and hence serve for a longer time as they are satisfied by the benefits they are getting from the service they are providing to the business. In reference to "ABC high school", if the head department wants the employees named to be teachers in this case, to serve the school, work effectively and hence educate the students for a longer time, they should also focus the other needs mentioned on the hierarchy by Abraham Maslow. They should consider pay that is suitable for the teacher and also provide encouragement from their other colleagues to keep them motivated towards their work and hence stay for a long period of time.

High rate of staff turnover in a school also destructs the students in a way that the teacher who has been teaching them suddenly leaves; they basically incur some problems with again understanding the new teacher, their new style of teaching and everything. And this sometimes, also affects on the academic performance of the student.

Therefore, I would suggest the head staff of the school to consider all the needs mentioned in the hierarchy described by Abraham Maslow i.e: self-actualization needs, esteem needs, and others. If the school only provides the teacher with accommodation but does not appreciate the teacher's hard work, the teacher will not feel a part of the school and will no longer to be happy to serve that school where no one appreciates her/ him and his/her hard work.

Therefore, considering Abraham Maslow's theory, I would advice the head department and the CEO of the school to focus on all the needs, not only a single need because that can also encourage the teacher leaving the school.

And if it is not for the school to focus on all the needs of a teacher to ensure that they stay for a longer period of time, the school can use F.W. Taylor's motivational theory. This theory is based on Taylor's ideas on the assumption that all individuals are motivated by personal gain and therefore, if they are paid more, they will work more effectively. So, if it is not possible to fulfill the higher levels of hierarchy they should use Taylor's motivation theory where they need to increase the teachers pay to increase up their possibility of staying in the school and serving the students.

However, there is a weakness to Taylor's theory that the employees are motivated by many other things and not just money. Therefore, I will advice this theory only when the school fails to use the theory of Abraham Maslow.

The staff will be motivated towards working hard for the school as the school is also providing him/her with everything they need. Therefore, the teachers will feel good about the position they hold in the school, the motivating colleagues they have and appreciation for the tasks they carry out at school. The teachers will feel like having another family at the school like home away from home. And therefore, they will definitely love to stay or be a part of such a school.

Hence, this will reduce the schools staff turnover and will improve work efficiency of the teachers and moreover the students will not loose any of their teachers. This will improve the image and the reputation of the school as it keep its employees very nicely and more and more teachers are likely to come in to seek for job in ABC high school.

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