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The start of my research for unit 2 began by exploring all resources and methods like the use of the internet online sources and the library. As I work as a learning teacher in construction, mainly supervising and showing practical demonstrations to the students. I can include and make use of functional skills in my sessions like maths we would use this for all our building calculations English to write up our mock estimates for potential work a client may want, ICT would be employed to design say the layout of a building or kitchen for example.
Negotiation would be used to put down ground rules for the workshop as this can be dangerous environment there must be a strict policy of do's and don'ts for example no throwing of anything in the workshop.
Communication would be employed in the use of good clear power points showing ways to build the models and with the use of hand-outs to re enforce this.
Group work would be used to demonstrate how to build a model the students would then be asked to build their own on doing this I would constantly move around the group giving them one to one tuition and feedback and adapting my approach to the need of the learner.
Also I would make use of inclusivity by differentiation I could employ this by using as many different teaching technics as possible to include and accommodate all learners.
As For the further three segments of research I accessed various online resources like the Athens account and other online library's and also researched out of the library college and external sources and books by the likes of Geoff Petty, Ann Gravels & Reece & Walker. The best start in my research in all areas was to use Ann Gravells this is a book I purchased from the library. Having jotted notes from Gravells I could to compare her findings to other authors like Geoff Petty and Reece & walker for example.
So After functional skills I decided to investigate the area of inclusion as I found this more stimulating and fascinating. Petty (2009) makes for some interesting views such that includes minority groups like ethnic and the various working classes he claims they get unfairly treated in education. Also other interesting remarks he made was the shortage of females in certain subjects like science, maths and technology associated subjects. Inclusion can be a very debatable and sometimes controversial subject like issues with various religious and ethnic symbols, we always have a duty to respect other peoples beliefs and culture but also we have to prohibit some particular groups from displaying or wearing their religious symbols or outfit to not offend others and some more serious issues of security and safety.
Negotiating with learners was next I explored and I might now see that some of the further subjects overlapped each other. For instance some of the inclusion concept overlapped with negotiating with learners. Appreciating your student and treating them as individuals was a common theme in these topics.
The final research area was the use of communication and the potential barriers it can create. I was surprised that there are so many factors that are significant to aid with communication between teacher and student. Like simple thing keep eye contact with learners, make use of body language use of arms and hands to express yourself more some students learn more from visuals.
The method I will take to study them will be; to devote time doing research in the LRC at south Cheshire College I have chosen to do this because there is a wealth of information available in the array of books in the library. The evidence that I will produce to support my research will be in the reference and bibliography the second approach will be to research on the internet. The internet although may not be totally perfect it has a vast array of knowledge which can be accessed very quickly.
Negotiating with Learners.
Negotiating with learners can be a very intimidating exercise and it can also be disheartening for the tutor or even the learner is going about it in the wrong way. The way in which a tutor or teacher shows this can either lead to the learner having great respect for the tutor or a lack of respect.
As a rule the teachers have had control of what happens in the classroom and the students have surrendered their freedom of choice after making the initial decision to do the course. (HEFCE, 2004).
The ability of the teacher to negotiate is affected by:
â€¢ The view of education within the organisation; the established view of how the organisation operates
â€¢ Personal factors which influence the extent to which the teacher feels comfortable
â€¢Negotiating with learners
â€¢The demands of the course which define the limits of what can be negotiated and to what extent
Areas of Negotiation
There becomes a point when at some time there begs the question what can be negotiated in the classroom.
It is good point to remember that the matter is never a straight forward choice between 'negotiable' and 'non-negotiable'. Between all the cases there has to be a range of negotiability, between both the teacher and the learner. There is always the possibility to reach some degree of negotiation though here are some examples.
â€¢ Course process
â€¢ Method of assessment
â€¢ Assessment process
â€¢ Assessment process
â€¢ Control and discipline
â€¢ Control and discipline
This gets well away from the conventional view of the learner's role where his or her control is largely abandoned after making the initial choice of course of study. (McCarthy, 2002).
Initial Assessment is the method of gathering information about how much the student knows. (Clues and Charlton, 2007).
Initial assessment of the learners' requirements and chosen learning style takes place before their courses starts. When this has been assessed by the course tutor then the Learners can be matched to the course that suits those most.
Learners are able to agree some or all of their learning goals in negotiation with tutors.
A helpful and respectful affiliation between learner and teacher enables the planning of achievable learning goals
Access to differentiated online learning resources can expose more extensive and appropriate ranges of options for the learners
Motivated learning through online resources and tutorials can enhance learners' confidence to take up more learning opportunities
Learning matches learners' lifestyles.
The tutor can employ the use of different delivery methods in his or her lessons that can suit the different needs of the learners.
Heinich et al. categorized instructional methods into the following ten categories (Heinich et al. 2002):
6 Cooperative learning
10 Problem solving
Some research suggests that learners have different experiences when learning in the classroom so there are some points to remember when delivering the session
1 Keep it fun
2 Make it active
3 make it interesting
There ought to be no obstacles to education. Teachers deserve access to the content, tools, resources, and people that can help them do their valuable work. This section was created with one goal in mind: to help our colleagues connect with the resources they need to play a vital role in their classrooms and communities. (Teach without borders, 2010).
The most significant recourse of today has to be the computer. This used in together with an overhead projector is used to show power point presentations or film clips. This can also be used for the internet and used to show real-time clips from sites such as YouTube.
Adapting Session Plans
Adjusting the session plan can be very challenging and it needs to be looked at in detail so not to lose the main characteristic of the learning inside it. The following adjustments can be made to any session plans;
The appearance of the work, Try to cut the assignments into smaller more manageable chunks or create smaller tasks and explain what is asked from the learner and why.
Adjust the learning environment, make use of the technology available (computers, tape recorders, calculators, etc.), try to seat learners in a way free from any distractions
Adjust time constraints; maybe allow learners extra time to complete their task.
Functional skills are practical skills in English, mathematics and ICT that enable learners to deal with practical problems and challenges. They allow individuals to work confidently, effectively and independently in everyday life.
For example, they help us recognize good-value deals when making purchases, write an effective application letter, or use the internet (fssupport.org, accessed 26/02/2011)
Integrating Functional Skills within their studies include language, literacy, maths, ITC.
Functional skills will be embedded in key stage 3 and 4 and GCSEs at school and will play a compulsory role in all diplomas, apprenticeships and foundation learning and also being its own entity for adult learning.
Functional skills is an integral part of our lives, and it plays a key part in the government's strategy for the 14-19 year olds and the people in adult education. The delivery of function skills can be taught using an array of different methods, from individual tutorials to full group delivery.
Functional Skills qualifications in the subjects covered are there to help give the learner more self-confidence and their being able to cope better with the demands of everyday life.
There are a very large number of online content concerning barriers in communication. You can categorise some of the barriers to learning as
â€¢ Physical there can be insufficient lighting in the classroom or background noise or maybe the temperature is too hot or cold.
â€¢ Personal some learners may have psychological barriers or personal issues. It is common for learners to have personal issues.
So to try and take down some of those barriers we need to make the classroom feel as comfortable as possible try and create fewer distractions for the learners.
Gravells (2008) lists a lot of various barriers. These can be categorised as verbal, non-verbal and writing related issues. Verbal barriers this can be in the form of the tutor talking to slowly or even too quickly.
Having a strong or broad accent can be a barrier also
Lower level students can find it difficult and confusing if a more complicated words are used. Non-verbal can give reference to your body language and domineer, it is very important to get eye contact t with your lerners,always use a smile to give your learners a sense of warmth also get hands out of your pocket, try to use your hands and arms to express yourself.
There are also the written barriers in communication these can be from lack of pictures or images for example on hand-outs or overloading a slide with too much information.
Also the type of font used size and colour are examples of written barriers.
Nonverbal Communication (NVC) is also a useful tool i.e., verbal language is not the only source of communication. However, much of the study of nonverbal communication has focused on face-to-face interaction, where it can be classified into three principal areas: environmental conditions where communication takes place, the physical characteristics of the communicators, and behaviours of communicators during interaction. Knapp & Hall, 2002, p.7
G. W. Porter divides non-verbal communication into four broad categories:
Physical. This is more of the personal type of communication. It includes the use of facial expressions, the different tones of a voice, sense of touch, sense of smell,
Aesthetic. This is the type of communication that takes place through creative expressions: like playing an instrumental, music, dancing, and painting.
Signs. This is the mechanical type of communication, which comprises of the use of say signal flags, the 21-gun salute for example also things like horns.
Symbolic. This is the type of communication that makes use of say religious matter
Verbal Communication is the spoken orally and is an unwritten way of communicating. It uses words, vocabulary, numbers and symbols and is organized in sentences.
Barrier - physical or nonphysical obstacles or hindrances that can slow or stop communication. (CDCP, 2010).
The Disability Discrimination Act has a vital role to play in dismantling barriers and delivering equality of opportunity for disabled people in higher education. Initiatives to recognise diversity within the student population and to understand the continuum of learner differences will help institutions to recognise and reduce barriers to learning for disabled people. However, some barriers to learning may still persist, either because they are outside the control of institutions or because they are a feature of a person's impairment. (The OU, 2006).
Negotiating with learners can be a daunting task. At some stage the question has to be asked: what, indeed, can be negotiated in the classroom. Initial assessment is necessary to starting a base from which to teach. Learners are able to agree some or all of their learning outcomes in negotiation with tutors. Employing The use of many different delivery methods means that the tutor can Taylor his or her deliver session in all sorts of ways to suit the needs of the learners. This can be met through careful planning which foresees possible barriers to learning.
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