Methodology can be defined as the analysis of principles of methods, techniques and rules. The methodology involves the systematic study of methods. Which are applied to analyze the study or a specific project. To do the study planned and increase the trusty in the study, the different of the methodology can be accepted in the planned of the study or frame of the study. The research methodology involving the collection of theory, idea or concept of the study, comparing of the study that have different of the approach and individual methods that have different of the approach and individual methods that are conduced when the research is being performed. These mean that research methodology was the heart of the study. It is a particular or set of procedures.
Research methodology also can be defined as the system of collecting data for studies project. There are two way of collecting the data, either theoretical or practical research. Theoretical research is a process of identifying a care set of connectors within a topic and the showing how they fit together or related to the subject. For the practical research is, relating to, governed by or acquired through practice or action, rather than theory, speculation, or ideas, by free dictionary (http://www.thefreedictionary.com/practical ).
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According to M S Sridhar, (October 17, 2010) says that research methodology is a science of studying how research is done scientifically. A way to systematically solve the research problem by logically adopting various steps. Methodology help to understand not only the products of scientific inquiry but the process itself.
According to S M Sindhar (October 17, 2010) also tell about the benefits of doing the methodology of research. The benefits are:
Advancement of wealth of human knowledge.
Tool to the trade to carry out research; provide tools to look at things in life objectively.
Develop a critical and scientific altitude, disciplined thinking or a 'bent of mind' to observe objectively.
Enriches practitioner and his practice; provide opportunity to study a subject in depth; enable the researchers to make intelligent decisions; understand the materials which no other lend of work can match.
As consumers of research output helps to inculcate the ability to evaluate and use results of earlier research with reasonable confidence and take rational decisions.
Doing research is the best way to learn to read and think critically.
For the social sciences are methodologically diverse using qualitative, quantitative and mixed method approaches. Qualitative data is extremely varied in nature. It includes virtually any information that can be captured that is not numerical in nature. There is the type of qualitative data:
Quantitative data is the term that used to describe a type of information that can be countered or expressed numerically. This type of data collected in experiments, manipulated and statistically analyzed. To represent the quantitative data is in graphs, histograms, charts and tables.
Mixed method in research is the combining of quantitative and qualitative data. In the study results later, there will be the combining of the two data, the data from the qualitative data and data from the quantitative data. It also can provide more comprehensive answers to research questions.
In the case of research 'Reading habits among student in Faculty of Information Management', some method is used systematically to make the results of the hypothesis can be more clarify.
In this study, a lot of information was gathered from two types of sources which are printed and electronic sources. The printed materials can be easily found in Perpustakaan Tun Abdul Razak PTAR, Puncak Perdana Library, and electronic sources can be easily find using internet or any database.
From these sources, a lot of information about this article 'Reading' easy to be found but it hard to find when the title focused to the specific scope, which is 'Reading habits', or 'Reading habits among University students' and 'reading habits among students'. So, I forced to wide scope to complete this study.
3.1 TYPE OF RESEARCH AND RESEARCH DESIGN
In this scope will telling about the type of the research and the research design that will be use in this study. Here will be the specific of the type of the research and the research design to make others easy to know about this study.
3.1.1 TYPE OF RESEARCH
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According to Department of Health and Human Service (DHHS), (February, 2009) says that research wasâ€¦.
"a systematic investigation, including research development, testing and evaluation, designed to develop or contribute to generalize knowledge. Activities which meet this definition constitute research for purpose of this policy whether or not they are conducted or supported under a program which is considered research for other a program which is considered research for other purposes. For example, some demonstration and service program may include research activities; http://www.hhs.gov/ohrp/humansubject/guidance/45cfr46.htm#46.102."
However, according to University Research Council, Nipissing University, (January 29, 2008) says that research is any original and systematic investigation undertaken in order to increase knowledge and understanding and to establish facts and principles. It comprises the creation of ideas and generation of knowledge that lead to new and substantial improved insights and/or development of new materials, devices, products, and processes. It should have the potentials to produce results that are sufficiently relevant to increase knowledge. Good reflective inquiry produces theories and hypothesis and benefits ay intellectual attempt to analyze facts and phenomena. This search for individual facts or data requires an open-ended question for which is there no ready answer. Data are gathered through experiments, surveys or other methodologies.
So, the research meaning is the original works and systematic investigation on knowledge by someone who have the interest to do the research. It is also to increase knowledge and understanding on a subject. There are two type of research. However, research can be classified by purpose or by method. If the research by purpose, it have two categories, basic research and applied research. If the research by method, there are also have two categories, deductive research and inductive research.
In this study of 'reading habits among student in Faculty of Information Management' can be categories as applied research because this study using the basic research to increase the past theories, knowledge and methods to solving this study.
3.1.2 RESEARCH DESIGN
Research design is a framework or blueprint for conducting the research project. According to the education dictionary, (Jan 14, 2009), research design is a plan outlining how information is to be gathered for an assessment or evaluation that includes identifying the data gathering methods, the instruments to be used or created, how to instrument will be administrated, and how the information will be organized and analyze.
There are few components of research design. It is:
Define the information needed.
Design the exploratory, descriptive, and caused phases of the research.
Specify the measurement and scaling procedures.
Construct the pretest a questionnaire or appropriate form for data collection.
Specify the sampling process
Develop a plan of data analysis
There are two type of research design. It is quantitative research design and qualitative research design. In the quantitative research design, there are three component of quantitative research design. It is descriptive research, experimental research, and Quasi-experimental research.
For the qualitative research design also have three components in it. It is historical research, ethnographic research and case studies research.
So, the research design is the general plan on how research goes about answering research question. This research on 'reading habits among student in Faculty of information management' will use on descriptive research because this type of research can accurately portrays the situation of student perception on reading habits among student in Faculty of Information Management. Descriptive research phenomena as they exist and it will study generally take raw data and summarize it in a useable form. This type of research design that involve making careful description of the situation of the reading habits. It is necessary to have clear picture of the situation how the data should be collected and summarize.
The survey design conducted randomly to the students in Faculty of Information Management semester five and six only. However, there are four courses in faculty of Information Management. It is IM221 (Library Science Management), IM221 (System Management), IM222 (Records Management), and IM223 (Resource Center Management) for semester five and six. These types of student usually know about reading and reading habits mean in completing the studies. The suggestion from them can improve reading habits among student and also can improve the materials in library that can increase reading habits among student in Faculty of Information Management. The survey on students will help the lecturer, student and librarian in Faculty of Information Management to increase the reading habits and also foster the spirit of reading among students.
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The research will use questionnaire to get back the feedback from the student. The questionnaire is a research tool that consists of a series of questions defined by the researchers. From the questionnaire, the researchers can know and the research also can do the summarize on the research.
The questionnaire will be distributed among student in Faculty of Information Management, UITM Puncak Perdana. In faculty of Information Management, there are four courses, which are IM220 (Library Science Management), IM221 (System Management), IM222 (Records Management), and IM223 (Resource Center Management). From 100 sets of questionnaire, 25 sets will be distributed for each course.
The distribution of the questionnaire will take the place in the area of Faculty of Information Management, UITM campus Puncak Perdana, Shah Alam. The questionnaire will be collected by hands of me as a researcher.
3.1.3 THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVE
Theoretical perspective: reading habits, reading materials,
frequency of reading, amount of materials in reading,
and reading materials types according to gender.
Independent Variable: Dependent Variable:
Reading materials Reading Habits
Frequency of reading
Amount of materials in reading
Factor influence reading habits
In the research works, there are two type of variable that a usually use. It is dependent variable and independent variable. Dependent variable is the manipulation or introduces the independent variable. This kind of variable is depending on itself. The independent variable is the variable that needs the dependent variable to stand. Independent variable cannot stand itself.
This conceptual framework indicates the relationship which consists of the dependant and independent variables. This framework denotes the four variables which causes to single variable which were affected by the independent variable.
Reading habits is dependent variable, the variance in which to be explained by the four independent variables which are reading materials, frequency of reading, amount of material in reading, and reading materials types according to gender.
The independent variables in this case are reading materials, frequency of reading, amount of material in reading, and reading materials types according to gender. Thus, it is very important of reading habits for students.
On the other hand, the dependant variable is the reading habits. It can be seen clearly that the independent variables have influenced the dependent variable. This research indicate and elaborate clearly that the reading materials, frequency of reading, amount of materials in reading, and reading materials types according to gender among student as an independent variables that will have an effect and supported to reading habits among student as a dependent variables.
Reading habits is the behavior of the student in their reading. It is about the continued and regularly reading the material they like to read. Example, the student read the newspaper regularly.
Reading material is the material that the student take and like to read, but the materials they read for reading habits is the materials that they read regularly. Example, newspapers, magazines, comics, and novels. However, they must describe what name or types of newspapers, magazines, comics, and novels they often to read.
Frequency of reading
Frequency of reading is how frequent the student read the materials. How much time they spend in their reading every day.
Amount of material in reading
Amount of materials in reading is the numbers of materials they take to read in a day. Means that do the student refer to take more than one materials in a day for their reading habits.
Factor influence reading habits
In the reading habits there must be the factors that influence people or student to read. Usually student reading because they want to finish their assignment and works and they also influence by their family and friends. There are always having influence why people or student read and why they take the materials as their reading habits.
3.3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Research methodology is the way that shows the collection of data for the research project. In this section would tell about the type of data and collection methods, the population for this study, and the sampling design for this study.
3.3.1 PURPOSE OF RESEARCH
To do or to start the research, the researchers need to know what subject that have meet his or her interest to attract him or her to do the research. Then, there also must have the purpose of doing the research. This is the first step to do a research, must know the reason why the researchers do the research.
There is few purpose of the researchers do the research. First purpose is explanation. Every researchers need to know the purpose of the research that he or she doing. The researchers do the research because they want to increase the knowledge and develop the new knowledge that already has done by the past researchers. So, to do the research is like to explain on the subject that has being chosen to do. The researchers must explain why the research must be conducted and explain his or her interest on the subject that they have chosen to be their research.
The second purpose is prediction. Doing research is for the researchers make the prediction. Research is helping the researchers to assess the situation and give the forecast what will happen in the future. Type of the information that has high demand in the market now is the prediction of new product. These also use to make prediction that what will happen in the future. This will make the research more interested by the researchers in the future.
The third purpose of doing research is discovery. Doing research like the researchers found something that really important and this information will be so valuable in the future. That why research doing the research. It is to discover new idea, new knowledge, and also increase the knowledge that has being done by the past researchers.
The last purpose of doing the research is hypothesis. Doing the research, the researchers must know and do the hypothesis of their research. The researchers should know the hypothesis of the research that he or she conducted.
For this study 'reading habits among student in Faculty of Information Management' is using the applied research. So, here the purpose of the applied research, testing theories, generates the study, apply the study in the real worlds, and address more than just the abstract principles. The hypothesis of this study is encouraging students to read and make reading as their habits. After distribute the questionnaire and make the analysis of the questionnaire, this study can be applied by the real worlds as the reference.
3.3.2 TYPE OF DATA AND DATA COLLECTION METHOD
There are two types of data that usually use in research works. It is quantitative data and qualitative data. Quantitative data is in the numerical data. The information can be countered and showed in the numerical data. Normally this kind of data collected in experiments, statistical analyzes and manipulated.
For the qualitative data is kind of data that not in numerical data. It is much more than words and text. Usually, it showed the photograph, videos, sound recordings and so on. This kind of data can be collected by doing interview, direct observation, and written document.
The study 'reading habits among student in Faculty of Information Management' using the quantitative data. The data for this study will be collected by distribute the questionnaire. In this questionnaire there must be the question asking the respondent about the study. From the data that collected by questionnaire, i can get the answer about the study I am doing.
Population in research works is telling about the group of people that where the subject that the researchers taking. The group also will represent the works of the researchers. Before the researchers set the population for his or her research, the researchers must know about the community that he or she wants to become his or her population. The characters of the community also must be known. The community that will became the population in the research works also must have experience and knowledge about the research that the researchers conduct.
The population also is a group of the potential participants that will become the researcher population so that the researchers can generalize the results for his or her study. The population of the research for the study 'reading habits among student in Faculty of Information Management' is the student from semester five and six in the Faculty if Information Management. But, the students as the population in this study come from the 4 courses in the Faculty of Information Management. The four courses is IM220 (Library Science Management), IM221 (System Management), IM222 (Records Management), and IM223 (Resource Center Management).
The selected question will be give one questionnaire and they have to complete the questionnaire. The students that will be selected are randomly in the area of student semester five and six from the four courses. The feedback that given by the respondent will give the result to the study that conducted.
3.3.4 SAMPLING DESIGN
Sampling design of the research works is one of the process, action or technique in the choosing of the sample that the researcher need to do to get the data from the population that he or her target as the respondent of his or her study. These samplings also refer to the communities that represent the data for the study from the hall community. This mean that there will be some of the community will be choosing to be the respondent of the research.
The researchers need to do the sampling design to make the conclusion from the sample that on the population or from the questionnaire that have been distribute. From the sampling design also the researchers would get the answer for his or her research. Sampling design is important because the sampling can show the target of the researchers on the study.
In this research, the simple random sampling has been used. Selected a group of the subject (a sample) and for the study from the larger group (a population) is one of the simple random sampling design in the basic technique. Each person in the population will be selected as the target respondent.
In the conceptual, simple random sampling was the simplest of the sampling technique. It is not require a large population. In the simple random sample, the researchers must choose one of the people in the population and from that, there must not have any order to choose a specific individual. Here mean that, there no specific individual but choose the person in the population randomly.
Using and do the sampling design have the advantage. The advantage of doing the sampling design is it is easy, simple and can be apply in the small population. However, there are disadvantages doing this sampling design. It is the researcher need to listed the item and person in a population before doing the distribution of questionnaire so the researchers need to do the distribution work in the large population according to what he or she listed in the sampling design.
In this study of 'reading habits among student in Faculty of Information Management', the questionnaire will be distributed randomly to the student on Faculty of Information Management, UITM Puncak Perdana, for the four courses which is IM220 (Library Science Management), IM221 (System Management), IM222 (Records Management), and IM223 (Resource Center Management). There are 80 questionnaire will be distributed randomly to the student in Faculty of Information Management and the student that have been choose was student from semester five and six only.
3.4 INSTRUMENT DEVELOPMENT
The instrument is used to measuring some of the quality or the ability of the subject or the research works. The purpose of the instrument is to help the researchers to make the sampling of the study to get the data for the study. An instrument can be a test, form, interview, checklist, and a set of categories.
Usually in research works they use two of this instrument, questionnaire or interview. Questionnaire is the question that have stated by the researchers in the papers and this question must be fill completely by the respondent. The questionnaire is the open-ended questions. Interview is when the researchers go meet someone that a professional in the subject that researchers do and doing the interview by face-to-face.
The questionnaire is the simple way to distribute the survey to the population that has been chooses by the researchers. The questionnaire will be giving and collected by hand by the researchers itself. It is different in doing interview survey. The researchers need to go personally doing the interview and usually the person that being interviewed must be professional in the field that the researchers research.
The format questionnaire can influence the quality of data collected, but the order of the items in the questionnaire can influence the answer from the response given. The questionnaire must be stick to the purpose of the subject, the subject that have been choosing, and the objective of the research. The questionnaire strategically composed using various questions formats, it is open question and close question. Giving the questionnaire to the respondent is the appropriate for this kind of research which is needed the opinion and perception from the respondents on the research topic which is 'reading habits among student in Faculty of Information Management'.
The questionnaire content three (3) parts focused on specific areas. The areas of the investigation focus on: respondent interest in reading, respondent reading behaviors, and respondent opinion. Each of the section will be described below:
PART A: DEMOGRAPHIC
This section will tell about the characters of the respondents that have being chosen.
PART B: RESPONDENT INTEREST IN READING
In this section consist of question on the questionnaire is about the interest of the student in the materials the always read, the material that the student choose to read as their reading habits, and why they choose the materials as their habits in reading.
PART C: RESPONDENT READING BEHAVIORS
Respondent reading behaviors tell about the times the student refer to make the reading, where the place the student want to read usually, type of the material the student refer to read, the type of the access material the student choose to read, and how many materials the student read in a week.
PART D: RESPONDENT OPINION
This section ask the opinion of the student on the do they agree or disagree with the materials they choose can help them in study, do the reading give or increase their knowledge and experience, and what the student opinion about the reading habits and do the reading habits can help to shaping the personalities of the student.
3.5 DATA COLLECTION
Data collection is the process where the researchers collecting the data from the respondent that being choose either the researchers distribute the questionnaire or interview. Data collection also the way of colleting the data for the use in the various of study or making decision in some situation. Data collection is the important element in the research study.
Data collection can be made in several ways, either the researchers choose to use the distribution of questionnaire, interview, or direct observation. To plan the data collection the researchers must carefully think on the question that he or she will put in the questionnaire or in the interview because the answer or the result from the questionnaire and the interview will give impact to the data analysis and the research the end of it. The researchers also must think how to organize the data, the question and information later and before the distribution of questionnaire and interview.
The researchers should think in this data collection, what question or information should he or she put and how much the data the researchers should collect. In the data collection the researchers should put the data about the amount of the participant that will be in the research, characteristic of the research, type of the participants, demographic data and what the research want to do. All the data collection must relate to the research.
To collect the data for the research, the researchers must use this type of data collection method. It is opinion survey, questionnaire, individual interview and group interview, simulation, and direct observation. But, usually the famous method in the data collection is using the questionnaire and interviews. It is easy to use and faster to get the data feedback.
To choose the method for the data collection, the researchers must know the availability, reliability and validity. Availability is about the question that the researchers want to use in the questionnaire or in the interview, is it the question is available and is it the information from the result later is available to the research. Doing the research works, the research must have the reliability and the validity. If not there must be problem in the research works.
In this study 'reading habits among student of Faculty of Information Management' the researchers use the questionnaire in the data collection. For the data collection, in the questionnaire, the researchers divide question into four sections according to the important of the studies. The four sections is demographic, respondent interest in reading, respondent behaviors and the last section is respondent opinion.
In the questionnaire, there are parts that I do the question using the likert scaling. Likert scaling is the popular format in the research questionnaire. For this study, I'm using the administration likert scaling, it is each respondent is asked to rate the question have been asking in the questionnaire according the opinion of the respondent. Example of the administration likert scaling is number 1 until 5, number 1 refer to the strongly disagree and number 5 refer to the strongly agree. In this study also have the question asking about the opinion of the respondent on the subject that I take to be his or her studies. Also, in the questionnaire, I'm asking on the behavior of the respondent about the study that I conduct.
Using the questionnaire in these studies has the advantages and disadvantages. The advantage is using the questionnaire, the collected data faster because I can give to the respondent by hand and get feedback also by hand. But, the disadvantage is some of the respondent will do not want to answer the questionnaire and if they want to answer, sometimes they do not answer the question.
3.6 DATA ANALYSIS
After the researchers collect the data, the researchers must doing the data analyze to analysis the data that have been get by the researchers. The data analysis is the process on to evaluate the data that have been collected. There are three works have to be considered in the data analysis, it is data preparation, descriptive statistics, and inferential statistics.
Data that have been get from the respondent must be prepare to analyze it. In this preparation of the data, the respondent must do the checking works, review the data for the accuracy of the data, changing the data, and develop the data and documentation the structure of the data using the various actions, either using the computers or manual.
Descriptive statistic is used to give the basic visual on the data in the study. In this descriptive statistic, the action that been taken is doing the simple analysis and simple sample of the measures. In this action, there must already have the simple graph that shows the analysis from the data that have been collected.
The last of the works in the data analysis that researchers should consider is the inferential statistic. In this works the researchers do the conclusion of the data that the researchers have been prepare, and analyze it in the descriptive statistic. In this section also the researcher do the hypothesis works.
However, the researchers must know about the data methods of the data analysis that the researchers will used. Is it the data that the researchers collected is more on the qualitative data or in quantitative data.
In this study 'reading habits among student in Faculty of Information Management', I am using the SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences). SPSS is the characteristic that are really important to analyze the statistic for the social research.
For the conclusion, the research methodology is telling about the method that being used in the research works by the researchers to finish the thesis. In this chapter, there must be about the type of research that researchers used, research design for this studies, the variable of the studies, research method have to used to complete this research works, the data collection, and the data analysis that must do in this research.
In this chapter will telling briefly about the research method that must be used before continue to another chapter that more deeply about this studies.