Remigration Of Pakistani Expatriate Education Essay

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Remigration can be defined as the return of migrant to the city of origin where as an expatriate can be defined as a person who has citizenship in one country but living in another country. As we know that people migrate from underdeveloped to developed nation in pursuit of a better life but then why some people choose to come back if life abroad is such a blessing.

According to recent research people come back due to several reason such as are unable to integrate in the society, some expats believe that there are greater opportunities in their home country as compared to host country, some achieve their goal which was to accumulate saving as much as they can and then came back to their homeland, some came back due to family problems such as take care of parents or they don't want their children's to grow up as foreigners. The result of this research shows that the main reasons due to which people are force to come back are family problems.

The research also focus on challenge they faced abroad such as discrimination, home sickness, communication and adjustment problems, the results of this research show that the main challenge they face is related to social and cultural problem. The research has also helped to find out the problem they face after coming back to Pakistan which according to the result is law and orders situation in Pakistan. The research has also played an important part to determine that whether expats satisfied with their decision of coming back and do they have any intension of going back.

This information is very helpful for the policy makers, government as they can use this information and maximize the economic effects of their return as these are the expats who help in the transfer of savings, knowledge, skills , expertise, creative ideas to home land which if use properly can prove useful for the development of economy. On the other hand it help us understand the society needs and problems.

BACKGROUND OF THE TOPIC:

INTRODUCTION OF THE SUBJECT:

The world has been divided into developed and underdeveloped countries, developed countries are those where there is high level of development, high GDP, income etc as compare to underdeveloped countries thus people migrate from underdevelopment countries to developed countries. Many people around us want to go to abroad so that they can live a better life a country where their hard work and honesty is appreciated, health system is efficient, education system is better which help them secure the future of their children's and most important of all there are no security threats, there is no doubt that life abroad if we compare it with Pakistan is a blessing but still there are some who gave up all those opportunities and come back to their homeland. For e.g. there are 5,000,000 Pakistanis who came from Britain and have contributed to the economic development of Pakistan. (Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reverse_brain_drain).

HISTORICAL PERPECTIVE OF REMIGRATION:

There is a very famous myth that exists in the world "once a person migrates from his home country he is likely to come back to their homeland". But this trend has been in reverse according to (Nan M. Sussman , 2010) in 1640 to 1660 those people who return to Europe were in larger number then those people who migrated to New England colonies similarly those who migrated to united states return back to their home land between the period of 1908-1957.

Wyman an expert who conducted research on remigration according to him remigration is a very important topic for various psychologists; sociologists etc. for example psychologists view the behaviour, attitude of emigrants whereas sociologists focus on the effects the cause on the culture, society, and political environment of the host country as well as the home country.

Some expatriate return back to their home land after spending few year abroad whereas come back after spending a long tenure abroad. Those who come back early are usually those who are unable to adjust to the environment, culture of the host country or may be due to any legal or political problem that they faced in host country . This in turn cause a problem for those expatriate who want to stay in host country for a longer period of time or forever because these people are being viewed as a threat by the citizens of the host country. For example in the early 20th century there were around 8 million Italians who migrated to United States were as those around 5 million Italians expats who return to their homeland as they find it difficult to adjust in United States with all that discrimination, language barrier and cultural differences (Nan M. Sussman , 2010). On the other hand those who emigrated faced difficulty in adjusting to their home country environment as the facilities were not up to the mark as compare to those in United States.

Now days this wave of remigration has increased. According to the data collected by Internal Revenue Service of United States those expatriate who gave up or rejected their citizenship are around 1800 (Michelle Hirsh,2012). This according to the experts is mainly due to the positive growth in economy of Asia as compared to the slow growth in the economy of United States and Europe which is convincing expats to return to their home land and start up their own business.

This phenomenon has increased to great level as a result many researchers have formulated theories explaining why expatriate come back to their home land, what are the reason , its consequences etc.

PREVIOUS RESEARCH ON REMIGRATION:

As the phenomenon of return migration was increasing there were some studies that were conducted to determine why people return back, what factor cause it.

For example a study was conducted by Waldrof in 1995 in which he indicate that the probability of returning back was effected by satisfaction and other variables that are time dependent

Another study was conducted by Lindstrom in 1996 in which he focus on the return of Mexicans from United States and suggested that people return as the miss their families and feel disconnected when their families and feel disconnected when they are apart and the probability of return decreases when their families migrate with them.

Massey and Espinosa in 1997 conducted a study on return migration and found a positive relationship between remigration and new economies of migration.

Fewer amounts of studies are on remigration impact on both the host country and the home country. However Colton found that in the year 1993 conducted a study on the Yemeni expats who returned back to Yemen from Saudi Arabia. Colton found that after returning back expats faced difficulty in adjusting to the life style of their homeland more over they have to endure or again have to experience the process of social integration.

A recent study was conducted by Kulu and Tammaru in 2000, his study suggested that most people to return back after they got retired in the host country and decided to come back to their homeland (Robyn R. Iredale, Fei Guo, Santi Rozario).

EFFECT OF REMIGRATION:

SOCIAL EFFECTS:

The returnees feel that their family, friends in the home country play a very important role in making them feel they are at home ( Ho Thi Ngan ,2010). According to this study Returnees feel that it was difficult for them to maintain new relationship because the people of their home country were unable to understand the reason of why they choose to come back .When expats are deported due to some political and illegal acts that are not accepted in the host country the returnee is looked in a negative way as he brought a bad name for the peoples of the country, this further create difficulty for the people who are living in the host country as well those who are planning to visit those countries. On the other hand one positive impact is that it can help other fellow being of the home country to get job or can get help in terms of money as well as get an idea about a strange land.

ECONOMIC EFFECTS:

Return migration results in a positive impact on the economy ( Ho Thi Ngan,2010).

Emigrants when return back to their home are wealthier as compared to when they left thus they are in a position to buy land, build home, start their own business and create new product and services. This increase productivity.

Help bring highly qualified scientist, engineers, professors; researchers to their home land thus help in the transfer of knowledge.

Bring market information about the host country.

Help in transfer of technology from developed to underdeveloped nation.

Bring savings in home country.

The major impact on the economy of return migration is that they help bring skilled professional who can apply those skills, knowledge and experience in the development of their home country as well as make a further contribution through their funds that are invested in the home country. For example in Finland the emigrants introduce new ways of farming new crops etc. In Greece they help in the development of sanitation system as well as in the development of the infrastructure , in Europe they have become leaders of the labour union ensuring that their safety measure are maintained for the protection of the workers whereas in Norway a emigrant women started first feminist movement. (Robyn R. Iredale, Fei Guo, Santi Rozario).

CULTURAL EFFECT:

As expats moved from a developed to underdeveloped nation therefore due to lack of basic necessities such as shortage of electricity, water, basic transportation facilities, pollution etc. they feel difficult to adjust to the local life this create a psychological effect on the people who returned back ( Ho Thi Ngan,2010)

REVIEW OF LITRETURE:

CHALLENGES FACED BY EXPATRIATE ABROAD:

LEARNING LOCAL LANGUAGE:

It is important for migrant to have a command on foreign language as it will help them to not only show better performance at their educational institution but also increase their chances of success at work otherwise even simple task such as buying grocery, taking a bus can become a hurdle (Kristin McCarthy ,2003). A migrant supervisor may not be able to communicate effectively with the workers because of the language problem (Donald A. Ball, Wendell H, Mc Culloch, 1993)

HOMESICKNESS:

When the migrant move to his desire destination he feel depressed as being away from his from his homeland, parents, and friends (Kristin McCarthy, 2003). This is due to the fact that culture of Asian countries is traditionally communistic and family oriented which make the process of leaving homeland more difficult.

DISCRIMINATION:

After 9/11 attack there has been an increase in biasness against Muslims (Katherine E Garrett, 2006). Many people reported that they have been called by names such as "terrorist", are been targeted of bullying activities etc. One can clearly examine the discrimination faced by migrants abroad through THE GOLDEN MOUNTAIN POEM by (Jean Lau Chin, 2004) given below.

So liberty is your national principle; why do you practice autocracy? You don't uphold justice, you Americans, you detain me in prison, guard me closely. Your officials are wolves and tigers all ruthless all wanting to bite me. An innocent man implicated such an injustice! When can I get out of prison and free my mind?

HIGH COST OF LIVING:

Cost of living abroad is much higher, most of the expatriate face the challenge of unaffordable houses, high mortgages, taxes etc. Migrant face a great challenge in finding a place where they could live with their low income and if they are successful in finding a place it is usually in a very worse condition for poor lightning and sanitary conditions (Daniel Hiebert ,2010)

ADJUSTMENT IN SOCIETY:

Migrants understand the norms and values of their home country and learn the norms and values that are promoted by the host countries but still they are never able to identify themselves to either of the groups, in host country their parent values apply to minorities thus they feel shame while practicing those values as majority people have different norms and values (Sam, 1992). On one hand rejecting the norms that they have learned from their parents may result in emotional problems such as anxiety whereas on the other hand if they refuse the society norms and values they may not be able to integrate in the society.

REASON FOR RETURN MIGRATION

UNABLE TO INTEGRATE IN HOST COUNTRY:

Some expats return b ack because they collect false information about the host country which they assume to be true when they decide to migrate, thus they underestimate the problem or the challenges that they will be facing in the host country such as learning local language and putting up the knowledge and the skills they learn in the home country to use, they may underestimate the cost of living in the host country thus find difficulty in finding a place to live in affordable price (OECD, 2008). According to it if in the host country there are better skilled workers then unskilled then white collar people faced most difficulty in adjusting to workplace environment.

GREATER OPPORTUNITIES IN THE HOST COUNTRY:

Expats in the host country not only consider economic condition in the host country but also in the home country (OECD, 2008). For example now a days the western world is going through slow economic growth as compared to Asia which is experiencing rapid economic growth as a result more than 10,000 Indians have gave up their green card and decide to come back to their homeland (Rajini Vaidyanathan, 2011). Similarly according to Chinese Ministry of Education number of Chinese who have return to China has increased from 44000 to 135000 between 2007 to 2010 (Michelle Hirsch, 2012).

ACHIEVEMENT OF SAVING OBJECTIVES:

Return migration take place when expats have accumulated enough money that they could buy a land, build a house, start their own business and satisfy the needs of their family members (OECD, 2008).

DIVERSITY OR CHOAS:

The returnees usually found that the host country culture is diverse, thus they hate to see their children grow up in a culture whose norms are different from the norms and values of their home country, and thus they see their return as a way by which they could get their children attached to the customs of their mother land (Donna Przecha).

FAMILY OBLIGATION:

Problems that are related to family members who are left behind in the home country is mainly the reason due to which remigration take place for example most people return back to take care of their sick parents (Donna Przecha)

DEFINING THE PROBLEM:

"To assess the reason that cause Pakistani expatriate to come back to Pakistan unforceful as well the challenges they faced abroad".

The main purpose of my research is to find out why Pakistani expatriate choose to come back if life abroad is full of opportunities, what challenges they faced while living abroad.

OBJECTIVES OF RESEARCH:

The objectives of research are:

To highlight the challenges that Pakistani faced abroad that force them to come back to their homeland

To identify the problems that overseas Pakistani face when they come back to Pakistan

To identify are they satisfied with their decision of coming back to Pakistan.

THEOROTICAL FRAMEWORK:

NEW CLASSIC AND NEW ECONOMIC OF RETURN:

According to new classic return, international migration take place as a product of real income between the homeland and host country, people move abroad in search of high wages after taking into account all the pros and cons of migration (Russell King and Anastasia Cristau, 2008), this mean that before deciding to moving abroad he not only calculate the income difference but also the probability such as whether he will be able to find a better job in the desired country. According to this perspective the returnee can be consider as an individual who failed to enter in the labour market (Cassarino, 2004). Where on the other hand new economic of return sees it as a successful achievement of the individual, as the individual target was to go abroad meet his goal (which was earning high income and accumulate saving for their loved ones in their home country) and when all the money they need is accumulated they return back to their home land .Thus according to (Oded Stark, 1991) there has been a shift in focus from individual interdependence to mutual interdependence.

STRUCTURAL PERSPECTIVE

Structural perspective analyses return with respect to social and institutional factors. According to (Cassarino, 2004) there are four types of returnees

Return of failure:

According to it migrants return back because they are unable to bend themselves in the host country environment due to lack of cultural and social understanding of the host country environment.

Return of conservatism:

There are some migrants who even before migration decide to come back to their homeland no matter how much success they have achieved they planned to come back to their country buy a land, built a house on it and satisfy all the needs of their beloved ones thus they are able to enjoy their status within their social circle of their home country.

Return of retirement:

They are those migrant who after the end of their carrier lives return back to their homeland and live a peaceful life.

Return of innovations:

Some migrants in the host country believe that they have change themselves have acquire the skills, new innovative ideas and plan to bring change in their homeland and serve their country.

TRANSNATIOLISM

Transnatiolism develop an understanding of social and economic link between the host and origin country and the effect on the identities of the migrant ( Portes et al (1999). The return of the migrant does not end the cycle of migration but it is just a part of social and economic relationship system (Cassarino ,2004), because migrant return back or pay regular visit just to prepare themselves for reintegration with the people in their home country. The framework of transnatiolism is based on two interrelated fields.

Transnational identities:

migrant because of the combination of norms and values of host and country of origin develop "double identities" (Cassarino , 2004) ,because they are well aware of the fact that they will face difficulty in reintegration both in the society as well as in their professional environment. For e.g. if a returnees follow the norms and values of host country, rejecting the norms and values that they have learned from their parents then they may face emotional problems as well as rejection from people of society in home country (Sam,1992).

Transnational mobility:

in the second field migrants in order to better prepare themselves for their return to homeland and make it well organized, they maintain continuous contact with people in home country by moving back and forth in home and host country (Cassarino , 2004).

SOCIAL NETWORK

A person return back to their home land when he have acquired sufficient resources to make it easy for him to move back to his home land, (Cassarino ,2004) these resources can be either tangible or intangible or both.

IMPORTANCE AND SCOPE OF STUDY:

Help government understand the economic benefits of return migration so that they can encourage it.

This study is specifically useful for policy makers and regulatory bodies as they can encourage government organizations as well as international organization to discuss on the activities that will help them maximize the positive impact of return migration.

Another useful contribution is made towards the theory of migration and reverse migration.

The most enlighten contribution is towards the society and our understanding towards societal needs and issues.

Help the overseas Pakistani division to lighten the problems faced by Pakistanis abroad and take influential steps to help them reduce those problems.

Help government create an environment that encourages contribution for the development of homeland by developing investments and saving schemes.

Help in strengthening the relationship between the returnee and the host country.

RESEARCH DESIGN:

DATA COLLECTION METHODS:

PRIMARY DATA:

Primary data is collected through the use of questionnaire which was filled by Pakistani expatriate.

SECONDARY DATA:

Secondary data is collected from the information collected from various sources on internet, newspaper articles, books and research that is already been conducted by people on topics related to the subject

SAMPLING DESIGN

SAMPLING UNIT

Sampling unit are the Pakistanis expatriate who came back to Pakistan unforceful

DEMOGRAPHICS:

AGE: 26-50

OCCUPATION: WHITE COLLAR

RETURN TO PAKISTAN WITHIN: 2001-2012

TIME SPEND ABROAD: 4 YEAR OR MORE

SAMPLING METHOD

The sampling methods used for this research are:

SNOW BALL SAMPLING:

It is a non-probability sampling technique and used by the researcher when it is very difficult to find the subjects on which research is conducted. Since the respondent of this research are Pakistani expatriate who came back to Pakistan unforceful, such respondents belong to a very small group of population thus it will be very difficult to locate them without use social networks.

CONVIENENCE SAMPLING:

It is again a non-probability sampling techniques. It is used because in this sampling technique the researchers use that subject that is easily available to provide data for the research

SAMPLE SIZE:

The sample size of this research is

n=100

Since the sample size is greater than 30 thus Z test is applied

Formula: CR = P- π Ho

σp

Where σp= √µ (100- µ)

n

TIME AND COST:

RESEARCH STAGES

TIME

COST

RESEARCH PROPOSAL APPROVAL

1 MONTH

0

LITRETURE REVIEW APPROVED

1 WEEK

0

QUESTIONARE DEVELOPMENT

1 WEEK

0

QUESTIONARE APPROVAL

2 WEEK

0

QUESTIONARE PRINTING

1DAY

500

QUESTIONARE FILLING

1 MONTHS 3 WEEK

3000

ANALYSIS OF DATA

3 WEEK

0

FINAL REPORT COMPILATION

2 WEEK

0

REPORT PRINTING

2 DAY

1000

TOTAL

5 MONTHS 2 WEEK 2DAY

4500

LIMITATION:

The following limitations were encountered during research:

It was very difficult to find out the respondents of the research therefore snowball and convenience sampling was used.

Due to time limitation and keeping in consideration it was difficult to find respondents only a small sample size of 100 was selected

Expats show resistance in giving their visiting card.

Even if you were able to find a expats it was difficult to meet them and get the questionnaire filled due to their busy schedule

Some expats show resistance in disclosing their personal information

QUESTIONARE DEVELOPMENT:

The questionnaire has been developed in order to collect primary data form the respondents, the questionnaire and their purpose are given below:

What was your reason for coming back to Pakistan?

_______________________________

_______________________________

_______________________________

AIM: the purpose of this questionnaire was to find out the reasons which force the respondent to come back Pakistan.

What were the most difficult challenges you faced abroad?

________________________________

________________________________

________________________________

AIM: the purpose of this questionnaire was to find out that the challenges that expats face abroad.

What are the main problems you are facing in Pakistan after arrival?

_________________________________

_________________________________

_________________________________

AIM: the purpose of this questionnaire is to find out the problems they face after coming back to Pakistan.

NO

STRONGLY DISAGREE

DISAGREE

NEUTRAL

AGREE

STRONGLY

AGREE

4.

I am satisfied with my decision of coming back to Pakistan.

5.

I have intentions of going back to abroad.

AIM: the main purpose of these questionnaire was to find out that are they satisfied with their decision of coming back to Pakistan and do they have any intentions of going back to host country.

AGE: ___________ HOST COUNTRY: _______________

GENDER: ___________ FAMILY SIZE: _________________

TIME SPENT ABROAD: _________ CITY OF BIRTH: _________________

YEAR OF RETURN: _________ CASTE: _________________

AIM: the purpose to collect this information was to create crosstab and find out the relation between the previous question and them.

HYPOTHESIS DEVELPOMENT:

Following are the hypothesis that will be tested in this research:

1. Null hypothesis:

H0: More than 30% of respondents came back to Pakistan due to cultural problem.

(H0: µ > 30%)

Alternate hypothesis

H1: Less than 30% of respondents came back to Pakistan due to cultural problem. (H1: µ < 30%)

2. Null hypothesis:

H0: More than 50% of respondents believe that the main problem they faced after coming back to Pakistan related to law and order situation in Pakistan. (H0: µ ≥ 50%)

Alternate hypothesis:

H1:Less than 50% of respondents believe that the main problem they faced after coming back to Pakistan related to law and order situation in Pakistan.(H1: µ < 50%)

3. Null hypothesis:

H0: More than 30% of respondents believe that the main challenge they faced abroad was social and cultural problems.(H0: µ > 30%)

Alternate hypothesis:

H1: More than 30% of respondents believe that the main challenge they faced abroad was social and cultural problems. (H1: µ < 60%)

4. Null hypothesis:

H0: More than 50% respondents disagree that they are satisfied with their decision of coming back to Pakistan.(H0: µ > 50%)

Alternate hypothesis:

H1: Less than 50% respondents disagree that they satisfied with their decision of coming back to Pakistan (H1: µ < 50%)

ANALYSIS OF DATA:

HYPOTHSIS TESTING:

1. Null hypothesis:

H0: More than 30% of respondents came back to Pakistan due to cultural problem.

(H0: µ > 30%)

Alternate hypothesis

H1: Less than 30% of respondents came back to Pakistan due to cultural problem. (H1: µ < 30%)

Frequency

Percent

Valid

Family

54

54.0

Patriotism

16

16.0

Cultural problems

15

15.0

Work related

14

14.0

Total

99

99.0

Missing

System

1

1.0

Total

100

100.0

Define level of significance (α)

The Level of Significance is assumed  = 0.05

For α = .05

Z tabulated = Z α = Z0.05= -1.64 (-Z in Left tailed test)

Test Statistics; Critical Region:

бp = μ (100 - μ )

n

бp = 30(100 - 30)

100

бp = 30 x 70

100

бp = 4.58

Now, find CR

CR = p- µHo

бp

CR = 15- 30

4.58

CR= -3.28

Decision Rule

Zcal = -3.24

If in a Left Tailed Test, Zcal < Ztab, then H0 is rejected and H1 is accepted.

Conclusion:

As CR = -3.28 < -1.64

That means Zcal < Ztab,

Therefore H1 is accepted (H1: µ < 40%)

And HO is rejected (H0: µ > 40%)

Actual Result:

After calculating p = 15% we are of the opinion that 15% respondents came back to Pakistan due to cultural problem.

2. Null hypothesis:

H0: More than 50% of respondents believe that the main problem they faced after coming back to Pakistan related to law and order situation in Pakistan. (H0: µ ≥ 50%)

Alternate hypothesis:

H1:Less than 50% of respondents believe that the main problem they faced after coming back to Pakistan related to law and order situation in Pakistan.(H1: µ < 50%)

Frequency

Percent

Valid

Corruption

3

3.0

Power crises

8

8.0

Law and order situation

46

46.0

Employment of deserving status

9

9.0

Poor education

6

6.0

Traffic jam

3

3.0

Others

22

22.0

Total

97

97.0

Missing

System

3

3.0

Total

100

100.0

Step 2: Define level of significance (α)

The Level of Significance is assumed  = 0.05

For α = .05

Z tabulated = Z α = Z0.05= -1.64 (-Z in Left tailed test)

Step 3: Test Statistics; Critical Region:

бp = μ (100 - μ )

n

бp = 50(100 - 50)

100

бp = 50 x 50

100

бp = 5

Now, find CR

CR = p- µHo

бp

CR = 46- 50

5

CR= -0.8

Step 4: Decision Rule

Zcal = -0.8

If in a Left Tailed Test, Zcal > Ztab, then H0 is accepted and H1 is rejected.

Conclusion:

As CR = -0.8 > -1.64

That means Zcal > Ztab,

Therefore HO is accepted (H0: µ > 50%)

And H1 is rejected (H1: µ < 50%)

Actual Result:

After calculating p = 46% we are of the opinion that the main problem they faced after coming back to Pakistan related to law and order situation in Pakistan.

3. Null hypothesis:

H0: More than 30% of respondents believe that the main challenge they faced abroad was social and cultural problems.(H0: µ > 30%)

Alternate hypothesis:

H1: More than 30% of respondents believe that the main challenge they faced abroad was social and cultural problems. (H1: µ < 60%)

Frequency

Percent

Valid

Language and communication

9

9.0

Religious adjustment in society

10

10.0

Homesickness

13

13.0

Discrimination

13

13.0

High cost of living

9

9.0

Social and cultural problem

26

26.0

Others

10

10.0

None

8

8.0

Total

98

98.0

Missing

System

2

2.0

Total

100

100.0

Define level of significance (α)

The Level of Significance is assumed  = 0.05

For α = .05

Ztabulated = Z α = Z0.05= -1.64 (-Z in Left tailed test)

Test Statistics; Critical Region

бp = μ (100 - μ )

n

бp = 30(100 - 30)

100

бp = 30 x 70

100

бp = 4.58

Now, find CR

CR = p- µHo

бp

CR = 26- 30

4.58

CR= -0.9

Decision Rule

Zcal =- 0.9

If in a Left Tailed Test, Zcal > Ztab, then H0 is accepted and H1 is rejected.

Conclusion:

As CR = -0.9 >-1.64

That means Zcal > Ztab,

Therefore HO is accepted (H0: µ >30%)

And H1 is rejected (H1: µ < 30%)

Actual Result:

After calculating p = 26% we are of the opinion that 26% main challenge they faced abroad was social and cultural problems.

4. Null hypothesis:

H0: More than 50% respondents disagree that they are satisfied with their decision of coming back to Pakistan.(H0: µ > 50%)

Alternate hypothesis:

H1: Less than 50% respondents disagree that they satisfied with their decision of coming back to Pakistan (H1: µ < 50%)

Frequency

Percent

Valid

Strongly disagree

14

14.0

Disagree

15

15.0

Neutral

29

29.0

Agree

28

28.0

Strongly agree

11

11.0

Total

97

97.0

Missing

System

3

3.0

Total

100

100.0

Define level of significance (α)

The Level of Significance is assumed  = 0.05

For α = .05

Ztabulated = Z α = Z0.05= -1.64 (-Z in Left tailed test)

Test Statistics; Critical Region:

бp = μ (100 - μ )

n

бp = 50(100 - 50)

100

бp = 50 x 50

100

бp = 5

Now, find CR

CR = p- µHo

бp

CR = 15- 50

5

CR= -7

Decision Rule

Zcal = -7

If in a Left Tailed Test, Zcal < Ztab, then H0 is rejected and H1 is accepted.

Conclusion:

As CR = -7 < -1.64

That means Zcal < Ztab,

Therefore HO is rejected (H0: µ > 50%)

And H1 is accepted (H1: µ < 50%)

Actual Result:

After calculating p = 15% we are of the opinion that respondents are satisfied with their decision of coming back to Pakistan

CROSS TABULATION ANALYSIS:

What was your reason for coming back to Pakistan? * Year of return Cross tabulation

Year of return

Total

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2005

What was your reason for coming back to Pakistan?

Family

3

3

3

11

4

7

12

10

53

Patriotism

1

0

3

1

0

4

1

5

15

Cultural problems

1

1

0

4

0

2

3

3

14

Work related

0

0

1

1

4

5

3

0

14

Total

5

4

7

17

8

18

19

18

96

Analysis

Percentage of people who come back due to reason work related is highest n the year 2009, 2010 and 2011 this is due to the financial crises resulting in recession, high unemployment due to which many came back as to progress professionally. Percentage of people who come back due to family reasons is highest in the year 2009, 2011 and 2012

What was your reason for coming back to Pakistan? * Age Cross tabulation

Age

Total

25-30

30-35

35-40

40-45

45-50

50-55

25-30

What was your reason for coming back to Pakistan?

Family

10

9

14

7

14

0

54

Patriotism

3

4

2

1

2

3

15

Cultural problems

3

1

2

1

3

5

15

Work related

6

2

2

1

1

2

14

Total

22

16

20

10

20

10

98

Analysis

People between the age of 25-30 come back because of work related problem which means that they were not able to adjust themselves in the as many of the respondent believe that it was difficult for them to continue their job with study . percentage of people who come back due to family reasons is highest in the age bracket of 35-40 and 45-50 showing that people of the between 35-40 and 45-50 are in the stage when their children are growing and have grown still are struggling between the norms and values of their parents country and the country in which they are living as a result to raise they decide to come back to prevent them struggling between two different worlds. most of the people of this age are forced by parents to support their siblings , look after them etc.

What was your reason for coming back to Pakistan? * Time spent abroad Cross tabulation

Time spent abroad

Total

5

10

15

20

5

What was your reason for coming back to Pakistan?

Family

8

24

17

5

54

Patriotism

2

6

8

0

16

Cultural problems

4

4

4

3

15

Work related

3

8

1

2

14

Total

17

42

30

10

99

Analysis

the percentage of people who came because of family reason is highest among the people who spent more than 5 years and less or equal to 15 the people belonging to this period are those whose family is growing thus it is difficult for them to support them abroad more over they receive strong pressure from their parent to come back to take care for them, get married and to support their siblings. Were as on the other hand the lowest is in among people who spend 20 or more than 20 because they have adjust themselves abroad and these are the individuals who come back to get their children married.

What was the most difficult challenge you faced abroad? * Host country Cross tabulation

Host country

Total

United Kingdom

United States of America and Canada

Middle East

Others

United Kingdom

What was the most difficult challenge you faced abroad?

Language and communication

1

0

7

1

9

Religious adjustment in society

3

6

0

1

10

Homesickness

5

6

2

0

13

Discrimination

5

3

3

2

13

High cost of living

5

4

0

0

9

Social and cultural problem

10

9

6

1

26

Others

4

4

1

1

10

None

2

5

1

0

8

Total

35

37

20

6

98

Analysis

In United Kingdom the most difficult challenge faced by people was social and cultural related mean that problem faced by them related to society, norms that make it difficult for them to live in society, in united and Canada again the most difficult challenge is related to society and culture as most respondent feel that their working environment was hard, they were living a computerized life etc.were as in middle east the most difficult challenge is related to language and communication were as in others it is discrimination

What was the most difficult challenge you faced abroad? * Time spent abroad Cross tabulation

Time spent abroad

Total

5

10

15

20

5

What was the most difficult challenge you faced abroad?

Language and communication

2

4

2

1

9

Religious adjustment in society

1

3

4

2

10

Homesickness

1

8

3

1

13

Discrimination

2

6

5

0

13

High cost of living

2

3

3

1

9

Social and cultural problem

5

11

9

1

26

Others

4

4

1

1

10

None

0

3

2

3

8

Total

17

42

29

10

98

Analysis

As we see the social and cultural problems are the main problem faced by expats which is highest in the year 10 but after that it decreases as more and more year are spend abroad showing that they are able to adjust themselves in the society similarly if we see home sickness which is highest in the year 10 and decreasing onwards confirming to home stage stages in the first stage the person enjoy the environment, culture thus as we see in the table home sickness is lowest in years up to 5, then in the second stage the person stared feel loneliness, miss his family, friend and so homesickness is highest in this period similar as what is indicated by the table, then in the third stage the homesickness started to decline but still a little bit persist and in the last stages as he accept the difficulties adjust himself properly thus homesickness decline.

The table also indicates that the discrimination faced by people who spent 20 or more years is the lowest showing that they adjust themselves accordingly to the requirement of the society

What are the main problems you are facing in Pakistan after arrival? * Year of return Cross tabulation

Year of return

Total

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2005

What are the main problems you are facing in Pakistan after arrival?

Corruption

0

0

0

0

0

1

2

0

3

Power crises

1

0

1

1

1

2

2

0

8

Law and order situation

3

2

2

8

4

11

7

6

43

Employment of deserving status

0

1

1

1

0

0

3

3

9

Poor education

1

0

1

1

0

0

2

1

6

Traffic jam

0

0

0

1

0

0

1

1

3

Others

0

1

2

5

2

4

2

6

22

Total

5

4

7

17

7

18

19

17

94

Analysis

The table indicates that in all the years the main problem faced by people coming back to Pakistan is law and order situation in Pakistan which is highest in the year 2008, 2010, 2011, 2012.

What are the main problems you are facing in Pakistan after arrival? * Age Cross tabulation

Age

Total

25-30

30-35

35-40

40-45

45-50

50-55

25-30

What are the main problems you are facing in Pakistan after arrival?

Corruption

0

0

1

0

1

1

3

Power crises

3

2

2

1

0

0

8

Law and order situation

7

9

9

6

8

7

46

Employment of deserving status

2

1

3

1

1

1

9

Poor education

0

0

3

0

2

0

5

Traffic jam

1

1

1

0

0

0

3

Others

9

3

0

2

7

1

22

Total

22

16

19

10

19

10

96

Analysis

If we see the total of the table we will realize the problem faced by younger expats is highest and the problems are categorize as others which include pollution, hypocrisy etc. Were as the second highest percentage is of people between the age of 35-40 and 45-50,the highest problem faced by them after returning to Pakistan is related to law and order situation and the lowest problems are faced by people of 30-35 age and the problems they face is again related to law and order situation.

Age * Time spent abroad Cross tabulation

Time spent abroad

Total

5

10

15

20

25-30

4

7

10

1

22

30-35

2

6

7

1

16

35-40

5

11

3

1

20

40-45

1

5

4

1

11

45-50

2

9

5

4

20

50-55

3

4

1

2

10

Total

17

42

30

10

99

Analysis

The highest time spend abroad is up to 10 years by the age group of 35-40 were as the lowest time spend is 20 years by the age group of 25 to 45.

CONCLUSION:

The after the analysis of data we can conclude that

Most people do not come back to Pakistan due to cultural problem but after analysis of data we can clearly tell that the main reason that force them to come back are family problems.

According to most of the respondents the main challenge that they faced abroad were social and cultural problems.

Most of the respondents believe that the main problem they faced after coming back to Pakistan is related to the law and order situation in this country.

Most of the respondents who choose to come back are dissatisfied with their decision.

Apart from family reason Pakistani in the year of 2009 to 2011 mainly come back due to work related problems as during this year the western world is going through financial crisis.

Most of the respondents between the age of 25-30 came back due to cultural problems whereas respondents between the age of 35-50 came back due to family problems

People who spend 5 to 15 year are usually people who came back due to family.

In all the countries the most difficult challenge faced by Pakistani is social and cultural problem except middle east where the main challenge was discrimination.

The data of the research also satisfy the homesickness cycle

Most of the problems are faced by younger generation after coming back to Pakistan.

The highest time spend abroad is up to 10 years.

If we summarize it we can say that the main challenge that migrant faced abroad is related to culture and society but the main thing that force them to come back are family problems, and those who choose to come back are not satisfied as the feel that the biggest problem in Pakistan is security issues.

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