Reliability And Validity Of The Instruments Education Essay

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Education is the imparting and acquiring of knowledge through teaching and learning, especially at a school or similar institution. Similarly according to the web definition, education is instruction, teaching, pedagogy, didactics, educational activity (the activities of educating or instructing; activities that impart knowledge or skill)", it also includes "knowledge acquired by learning and instruction" and "(the profession of teaching (especially at a school or college or university))". Another famous saying by Peter Ustinov Dear Me (1977), "After all, what is education but a process by which a person begins to learn how to learn?"

Education is a self-enlightening process. It is an important component of life and always the most powerful weapon used to change the world. The function of education is to teach one to think intensively and to think critically. By definition, knowledge, teaching and learning is the trio of education, where each of the traits is ranked equally for a quality education.

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Knowledge according to the Oxford English Dictionary is expertise and skills acquired by a person through experience or education; the theoretical or practical understanding of a subject; (ii) what is known in a particular field or in total; facts and information; or (iii) be absolutely certain or sure about something: . There is a strong relation between education, knowledge and institutions, the whole process which ensures learning, knowledge and education, is carried out in institution or academia. Teachers and the students are the active entities which participate in the whole process of education in academies.

From the very beginning of life on the planet, knowledge is considered to be as important as life. Survival of the life is always dependant on knowledge. Humans started this process of learning and acquiring knowledge by analysing the nature. Today, the study of nature is commonly known as Science (John, 2007). It is the science who leads the world in such an environment where we live today. Science escort the huge number of discoveries, and these are the scientific ideas which contributed and still contributing to the technological change - which made drastic affects on the society in all the facets like industry, health, commerce and perceptibly in the life style, art and culture too. Due to the science and its emerging technologies today we live in an environment so called a global village, by means of digital machines, computers, internet, Personal Digital Assistances (PDAs) and mobiles etc.

Science seeks knowledge from natural events, living organisms and non-living matter and energy (John, 2007) all of these are different branches of science like mathematics, chemistry, biology and physics. Here in this research we would take the study of physics as the issue at hand. Physics is the scientific study of matter and energy and how they interact with each other (Andrew, 2011). Physics is considered to be the foundation of science. From physics, you can expand naturally into the more specialized applications, going from thermodynamics & nuclear physics into chemistry, for example, and from mechanics & material physics principles into engineering (Andrew, 2011). And finally concluded by (Andrew, 2011), physics is the study of matter; energy, space and time, without which there would be nothing in existence to react or thrive or live or die. The entire universe is built upon of the principles revealed by a study of physics.

Knowledge of science is an essential key in the hands of student to the proper understanding of current issues and then their proper solution (Govt of Pak, 2007). Education in science serves three purposes; prepare students (i) to study science at higher levels of education, (ii) to enter the workforce, pursue occupations, and take up careers, (iii) to become more scientifically literate citizens (John, 2007). Learning about nature demands systematic way methodology referred in literature as "scientific inquiry" generally includes verity of empirical approaches, techniques, and procedures to collect, examine and analyse the data from nature to construct a knowledge base. A scientific knowledge takes four forms: hypothesis, facts, laws, and theories (John, 2007), requires some systematic and untraditional way of teaching. Science teaching must be through an experimental method which should base upon investigation and scientific periods.

"And without method there is no organisation nor construction" - Bluwer.

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Teacher-student interaction is basically the teacher's responsibility in order to bring expected changes in the student behaviour (Dandekar). There are so many ways of effective teaching, a listing of teaching methods by (Abrahamson, 1996) includes: talk to students, talk with students, have them talk together, show students how, supervise them, provide opportunities for practice. Variety of methods are discussed by (Dandekar) includes, Teacher learning experiences, Large Group Methods (Lecture, Symposium, Panel and Team meeting), Small Group Methods (seminar, tutorial, group discussions, brain storming, workshop, rule pay, demonstrations etc), individual methods (reading, project, simulation, programmed learning), each have its own pros and cons.

Traditional method of lecturing mostly used by the teachers in the developing countries like Pakistan in sub continent is not very effective as a science teaching method. Generally this kind of methodology suffers the problems of formal atmosphere and passive audience etc. "Teaching methods which place the student in an active situation for learning are more likely to be effective than those which do not" (Miller, 2008). The most adoptable method in this course is the laboratory method. The teacher must assure the full and active participation of students. He must involve them in situation by interrogation and propel them to think and analyse the situation. Student must be the centre of activity and teacher's role that of a guide (Miller, 2008).

Learning is naturally an active process of modification in behaviour. This change in behaviour occurs because of experience of day to day life. These changes appear in man as habits, aptitude, skills, knowledge, understanding and insight. So, learning involves putting students into situation that compel them to read, speak, listen, think and write in a specific way. So learning also involves proper adjustment with environment (Dodge, 1998). It is often seen that certain points have become clear. These are as follows:

Thinking of student as inactive process of inside learning both mentally and physically, giving them opportunities to analyse, to try and to make hypothesis, seeking theoretical knowledge rather than to refer them directly, presenting learning facilities by means interrogation based activities and having proper understanding about technology, society and environment.

It was concluded that such experiments and other practical studies which are held whether in classroom or laboratory, play a significant role in the understanding of above mentioned points. As far as the provision for meaningful learning is concerned, these experiments and activities are the most important feature which draws a line of difference between science and other sciences. Because it provides opportunities for experiments, investigations, interrogation of students by minding the survey, establishing the hypothesis, developing their researching skill and finally interpreting the results (Odubunnj and Balagun, 1991). Science assures full participation of students in the subject, arouses curiosity and interest. It carries the cases, actualities and facts which are impossible otherwise to bring in class with their real focus (Aslanoand Dodge, 1993).

Students are the centre of activity, while performing an experiment. They learn by living and performing. While doing experiment dynamism can be seen at working in class. Laboratory method assures the active participation of students.

So, it carries greater value in terms of education. And the most valued learning method is learning by living and performing, preparing experiments and investigation (Trgen, 1997).

Today, when science and technology are developing with ratting rate, science education is imparted through different activities and methods. Among these methods, the most efficient one is laboratory method (Lawson-1995). A lot of scientific study researchers have proved the fact that laboratory has an important and central place in science education (Erten, 2000).

Laboratory is a place where students get themselves involved actively in a situation pertaining to facts and actualities. They learn scientific methods and techniques. They develop their understanding and insight. They formulate their idea and interpret the data more accurately (Adey, Shayer and Yates, 1995).

Laboratory applications are what is the complementary part and focus point of science education. So, it matters a lot to develop and ease the use of laboratories in almost all the school for the purpose of developing and widening the learning domain (cognitive-knowledge, effective-attitude, and psycho motive skills).

Some of the research works show that many of the science teachers do not pay heed to laboratories or to arrange their lessons in laboratories. And most of such teachers are either those who didn't have laboratory habit or those who do not have such facility in their school (Sahin, 2001).

1.1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

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The purpose of this study will investigate about the effectiveness of laboratory teaching on learning domains as compared to traditional lecture method of learning.

1.2 OBJECTIVES OF STUDIES

The following will be the objectives of the study:

To show the importance of laboratory instrument in the schools.

To examine the level of students Physics' abi9lities/skills at secondary level.

To find the comparative effect of laboratory teaching and traditional lecture teaching for Physics on cognitive domains to male students at secondary level.

To find the comparative effect laboratory teaching and traditional lecture teaching for Physics on learning domains to female students at secondary level.

To investigate the problems faced by teachers in developing Physical abilities among students.

To examine the difficulties faced by the students in achieving mastery level in Physical skills.

To find the comparative effect of traditional lecture method and laboratory method on academic achievements of male and students for Physics at secondary level.

To find effectiveness of laboratory teaching on different levels of cognitive learning domains (knowledge, comprehension, and application of knowledge) on male and female student in Physics at secondary level.

To compare effectiveness of laboratory teaching on psychomotor skill (skill development) of male and female students in Physics at secondary level.

1.3 HYPOTHESIS

To achieve the objective of this study, following null hypotheses will be tested.

A. There is no significant difference in academic achievement of male students in Physics taught by a laboratory method and those taught by traditional lecture method of teaching at secondary level.

B. There is no significant difference in the traditional lecture method at secondary level.

C. There is no significant difference in the achievement in cognitive learning domain in Physics (knowledge, comprehension, and knowledge application) male students taught by laboratory method and those taught by traditional lecture method at secondary level.

D. There is no significant difference in the achievement in psychomotor skill (skill development) of male students in Physics taught by laboratory method and traditional lecture method at secondary level.

1.4 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

Due to non-availability of standardized instruments the researcher will himself develop instruments for the data collection of the study.

1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

There is a great need to enhance the quality of science education in Pakistan. This can be achieved by bringing drastic changes in the content and methodology of science curricula. The main purpose of this study is to find out the comparative effectiveness of science teaching with and without involving the students into laboratory activities. The findings of this study would be helpful in:

Motivating science teachers to teach Physics in more innovative ways.

Motivating teacher trainers to include these findings in their training programs.

Increasing the use of laboratory activities throughout the teaching process in the schools.

Producing guidelines for further researches.

Making learning of Physics more interesting activity.

Bringing out students from passive learning to active learning by involving them into laboratory activities.

1.6 DELIMITATIONS OF STUDY

In view of the limited time and resources at the disposal of the researcher, the study will be delimited to:

Science students (male and female) of 9th class only.

District Haripur (NWFP).

Subject of Physics.

Specific chapters of Physics 9th class.

3 METHODOLOGY

The study will be experimental. The equivalent groups experimental design will be used in this research i.e. grouping will be made on the basis of pre­ test by equating procedure having approximately same achievement level.

RE = O1 T O2

RC = O3 O4

Where R = randomly selected group

E = experimental group

C = control group

O = observation

T = treatment

Both experimental and control groups will be given equal treatment of laboratory teaching and traditional lecture method teaching respectively. At the end of experimental duration, final achievement tests, the post test will be administered to find out the difference of achievement.

3.1 POPULATION

The study will be conducted to examine the effectiveness of laboratory teaching and traditional lecture method in teaching of Physics at secondary level, therefore all the students of science group studying at secondary level will constitute the population of this study.

3.2 SAMPLE

One school of boys and girls will be sample of study.

3.3 INSTRUMENTS

The post-test is of both male and female students are instruments of research. The pre-test and post test will be constructed by researcher after a thorough review of techniques of test construction related to subject of Physics under the guidance of Physics teachers and experts. The pre-test and post test consist of hundred MCQS (skill developments ability items). For this purpose five to seven chapters will be selected from the text book of Physics for 9th class.

3.4 RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY OF THE INSTRUMENTS

In order to check the validity of the instruments, the expert opinion of the research adviser and experienced teachers and NEAS's focal person will be sought.

3.5 DATA COLLECTION

Data for this research will be collected by administering pre-test. Pre test will be administered before starting the treatment and post-test will be administered after the treatment. The post-test will be conducted to examine the effect of laboratory based learning and traditional method. The pre-test and post­ test scores will serve as data for study.

3.6 DATA ANALYSIS

In order to find the difference in performance of both groups taught by two different methods, the statistical measure of mean score Covariance, Standard Deviation, Average and t-test will be used according to the following formulas.

LITERATURE CITED

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Differences: A Third Component in Problem-Solving Instruction." Journal of research in science teaching 21(1):71-82, 1984

Watch, D., Tolat, D. and McNay, G.(2009) Academic laboratory. Retrieved

15/07/09From http://www.wbdg.org/design/academic lab.php

Miller, R. (2008). Taking scientific literacy seriously as a curriculum aim.

Asia-PacificForum on Science Learning and Teaching, Volume 9, Issue 2,

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http://physics.about.com/od/physics101thebasics/f/WhatisPhysics.htm

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Abrahamson S. (1996), Time to Return Medical Schools to Their Primary Purpose: Education, Academic Medicine, Vol. 17, No. 4, pages: 343-347.