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The study was carried out by Waddell. J.H in her titled "Fostering Relationships to Increase Teacher Retention in Urban Schools, In the Journal of Curriculum and instruction (JoCI), Vol. 4, No.1, May 2010, pages 70-85.
The main objective of this article is the critical examination of the components that cause teachers to remain teaching in urban schools past the five year attrition mark. Also, this work focused on retention of teachers in urban schools and method of retaining them. The topic area or article domain of this study is human resources management viz-viz retention of teachers in urban schools.
The targeted audiences for this study are the education policy maker, school leaders' e.g principal and all other meaning key player in the school management and other stake holder that are concern with policy making in education.
This article was published in the Journal of Curriculum and instruction (JoCI) and this work is based on empirical research, since the author based her argument on the fact that was anchored on the product of observations, by conducting research on this article of which 378 participants were selected, with relevant data collected and analyses. This article was written mainly for the elementary level of education. The reader should possess a general knowledge/background in the area of human recourses management with respect to education. The reader is expected to be versatile or harmed with, articles proceedings of conferences, seminars/ workshop papers and any other useful material on human management, school management etc.
This journal i.e. the Journal of Curriculum and instruction (JoCI) is an appropriate for the article, this is because its mission objective focuses on disseminations of scholarly work in the area of curriculum and instruction of which the title of this study perfectly fit into.
The findings of the research was also discussed in the study, this shows that it was based on empirical evidence as to support/buttress her observation from the research been carried out by the researcher.
Summarily, this article titled Fostering Relationships to Increase Teacher Retention in Urban Schools examines the factor of causes of urban teachers leaving teaching or transfer from urban areas before they are fully developed.
This study also critically investigated the components that cause teachers to remain teaching in Urabn Schools past the five year attrition mark. The findings of this qualitative study shows that school leaders drawing from occupational research and provision of enabling environment, in which teachers are supported and regarded as valued/esteemed decision makers in their schools is inevitable. It also emphasized on importance of human relationships in retention and growth of urban teachers.
It was observed from the article that the author had a section of meeting with the teachers and the principal; this is to facilitate better understanding of the interpersonal relationship of the administrators and administered. The results of the work show two major classes of influence that is external and internal influences which determines their commitment to teaching in urban schools. From this study, it revealed that when a person is valued, supported and needed by the organization he or she will be loyal and be committed the more to such and organization.
The contribution to knowledge, by this the article is original. The contributions of the article are the following:
Those principals can influence the retention of teachers at no financial costs by their uncomplicated actions.
That new teachers could be supported by developing professional learning environment.
That nurturing the internal characteristics that can help creating occupational commitment.
That human side of school reforms was of a special emphasis in this study.
That relationship is central to employees' satisfaction, productivity, professional growth and retention.
That recruitment and trading of principals that can foster a good environment, valued teachers, investment on teachers and giving of decision within a school.
The theoretical foundations and research for which this article was build on its human capital theory. This study was based on above theory in that the study recognized that teacher should be giving opportunity in significant decision making, Ingersoll (2007c). Also Fullan (2001) adds that relationship are paramount in helping the teachers feel empowered, valued and committed to the school, this was also agreed upon by the author of this article.
Examination of how well the study was presented by the author was built upon the appropriate foundation from the theoretical point of view, hence made use of correct approach. The result of the article were signifies relationship between the teacher and principal with the factors that can enhance teachers retention in the urban area hence, the reviewer of this article has confidence in the result.
Though the idea of the author is not all that new in spite of these, the study contributed significantly to knowledge while most of the solutions put forward by the author have been cited in other literatures.
The author of the study discussed well the objectives mentioned in the introduction part of this work.
One major shortcoming of this study is that teacher's responsibilities in the study were not mentioned hence not all of the important aspect and issues in its topic area investigated. The author would have contributed to knowledge in the area of responsibilities of teachers in urban area to faster relationship and retention in the job. From my own point of view appropriate comparisons to similar events, cases or occurrences was made by the author. In fairness to the author, some of the aspect of her work was done thoroughly but aspect of analysis and conclusion need to be re-examined despite this, the messages of the article is well understood.
There are adequate and appropriate examples, illustrations in this study. The study failed to address the issue of:
1. What are the roles of the study in fostering relationship and retention of teachers in urban areas?
2. What roles could be played by parent to enhance a good rapport and retention of teachers in the urban area?
3. How can the immediate environment could influence teacher retention in the urban area?
4. What are roles of teachers in fostering relationship and retention in the urban area?
5. How can the beginning teachers be integrated into the system as to ensure their retention in urban areas?
All the above suggested issues are important because they have interdependent relationship. The issues are not resolved since they are not part of parameters or variables measured by the author. Finally, the suggestion for resolving this issue is that further study could adequately take care of them.
Getting "Real" About Teaching Effectiveness and Teacher Retention"
According to Bartnett Berry in his research work titled "Getting "Real" About Teaching Effectiveness and Teacher Retention", in the Journal of Curriculum and Instruction (JoCI). Vol.4, No.1, 2010 page 1-15.
The objective of this article is:
To identify and retain the most effective teachers.
This article discussed on impact that teachers have on the development of student in society in term of classroom management and knowledge pass to the student. In addition, this article also mentioned about the effectiveness and teacher retention in decision of what to do on needed energy applied, enthusiasm as well as qualification.
This article intended and focuses on teachers which are majorly on their attitude, effective and willing knowledge impacted on university student.
The reader has general background of knowledge in education and teaching skills, likewise, the reader knowingly familiar with the Journal of Curriculum and Instruction (JoCI) this is because most of all citation were derived from it and it has clearly understanding on teaching management on the procedure involved.
The journal is very appropriate because it expatiated well and centrally focuses on teaching quality and practical demonstration of it in sense that it gives well explanation of what to do about retaining effective teacher in their professions. Evidence has prove and support the appropriation of this journal with series of teaching skill such as preparation, experience and collaboration.
The article is empirical in nature because the researcher findings were based on fact and evidence in the Journal of the Journal of Curriculum and Instruction (JoCI). It has shown in collaboration aspect of the article in order to improve to improve the quality of teaching.
In summary of this article, it shows that the researcher has buttressed comprehensively on teaching effectiveness and their retention. Teacher effectiveness has been demonstrated in many forms and the level at which teachers at higher level contribute well to the success of the young staff, teachers are trained to be professional which not really born as a teacher.
In addition, the Journal of Curriculum and Instruction (JoCI) helps in increasing level of teaching performance because it majorly focuses on.
Result of the researcher indicated that its secondary data while the importance of research findings give way to access the performance of teachers in classroom management as well as means to improve level of teaching quality among the teachers. In preparation aspect of teaching effectiveness, it has observed that teacher education panel of the American Educational Research Association did not clearly point to the superiority of any particular program structure of educational system.
In term of experience and collaboration aspect of teaching effectiveness and teacher retention, teacher experience is gradual process of acquiring knowledge in teaching skill which has to go beyond three year in working, the collective experience of teacher matter most for improving student achievement and ability to have better result in term of their performance. Meanwhile, collaboration is the collective commitments to student learning which improve teaching skills, experimentation and teaching analysis.
Conclusively, the result in collaboration aspect of teaching effectiveness shows that 51% of the teachers agree that other teachers have an impact to the success of classroom management whereby in return has positive contribution on student. Findings of the researcher were base on teaching effecriveness in classroom which contributes to performance level of young teachers in terms of knowledge sharing with the student.
Based on author researcher work, it contributes to level of teaching performance. Also, the researcher did not make use of any model or framework that will illustrate the stages involve in teaching effectiveness and means to measure performance level of teachers over the student. In actual fact, the researcher makes it obvious that other teachers have clear contribution to teaching skill of young teacher in knowledge sharing.
This article was not based on any theoretical framework but the approach of the author seems to okay and properly executed. The reviewer has confidence in the articles result because the objective is well address. The ideas gathered are not all that new; it could be looked upon at the old idea with different presentation.
In my opinion, the author discusses virtually everything promised in the introduction part of the study. The shortcoming of the article is that it silent on the capacity building of the teachers, therefore some of the important aspect of the topic area is missing out. The article would have contributed to knowledge in the area of capacity building but did not.
The author of this article made appropriate comparisons to similar cases in all; the author could be giving past mark for the previous studies he mentioned are thoroughly touched, yet there are some lapses in providing adequate information for the intended audience but, appropriate examples and illustration were cited in study.
The issues recognized by the reviewer of this article are:
1. Is there provision for capacity building of the teacher?
2. Is there enabling environment to pave way for teacher retention?
3. How is the teacher-student relationship look like?
4. Is there any correlation between parents-teachers relationship?
5. How efficient are the teachers?
These issues are important because they are the component variables that are pertinent to this study. These studies have no much of discussion on them. Finally, my suggestion is that all these mentioned variables could be re-visited and further studies could be carried out as to resolve those aforementioned issues