Relationship between sources of efficacy and teachers efficacy

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The aim of the study is to determine the level of teachers' sense of efficacy, the level of the four sources of teacher efficacy, and to investigate the relationship between sources of efficacy and teachers' sense of efficacy for teaching. Besides that, this study also attempts to identify the factors that contribute to the variations in level of teachers' sense of efficacy. Data obtained were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS 11.0 for Windows) programme through descriptive statistics, Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA), and inferential statistics. Henceforth, this chapter reports the tables, figures and description of results using APA format (Green & Salkind, 2005).

Descriptive Analysis

Descriptive statistic includes the description of respondents' demographic characteristics. The descriptions of frequency and percentage for the distribution of categorical variables such as nationality, sex, parents' Education, occupation and income were reported. This is followed by the reporting of range, mean and standard deviation for academic achievement.

In this study, 160 subjects were chosen using random cluster sampling. Results showed that there were 31 male teachers (19.38%) and 129 female teachers (80.62%) (Table 4.1).

Table 4.1: Frequency and Percentage Distribution by Gender.

Gender Frequency Percentage (%)

Male 31 19.38

Female 129 80.62

Total 160 100

Most of the subjects were Malays (81.25%), followed by Chinese (13.75%) and Indians (5.00%) (Table 4.2).

Table 4.2: Frequency and Percentage Distribution by Ethnic Groups.

Ethnic Group Frequency Percentage (%)

Malays 130 81.25

Chinese 22 13.75

Indians 8 5.00

Total 160 100

On the other hand, majority of teachers teach either the major or minor subjects that they learnt in university (84.38%) and only 15.62% of the teachers were teaching the subjects that they were not trained in university (Table 4.3).

Table 4.3: Frequency and Percentage Distribution by Subject Matter.

Subject Matter Frequency Percentage (%)

1. Major or Minor subject 135 84.38

2. Not the subject learnt 25 15.62

Total 160 100

For continuous variables such as the teachers' sense of efficacy, efficacy for instructional strategies, efficacy for classroom management, efficacy for student engagement, mastery experience, vicarious experience, social persuasion, and emotional and physiological arousal, the output generated using SPSS were summarized and presented in Table 4.4, Table 4.5 and Table 4.6.

Table 4.4: Range, Means and Standard Deviations for Variables in Teachers' Sense of Efficacy

Variables Minimum Maximum Mean Standard

Deviations

Teachers' Sense 2.83 4.92 3.85 0.38

Of Efficacy

Efficacy for 2.63 4.88 3.75 0.42

Student Engagement

Efficacy for 3.13 5.00 3.98 0.37

Instructional Strategies

Efficacy for 2.75 4.88 3.83 0.45

Classroom Management

Teachers rated their efficacy for instructional strategies the highest (M=3.98, SD=0.37), followed by efficacy for classroom management (M=3.83, SD=0.45). Efficacy for student engagement were the lowest (M=3.75, SD=0.42). The mean of overall level of teaching efficacy scores 3.85 (SD=0.38), with the range from 2.83 to 4.92. Based on Table 4.4, it can also be seen that the means for all the variables were above the midpoint on the 5-point scale. Teachers had positive judgment on their capabilities in teaching and they perceived themselves as having a moderate level of efficacy in teaching.

Table 4.5: Frequency and Percentage on Level of Teachers' Sense of Efficacy

Level of Teachers' Sense Frequency Percentage (%)

Of Efficacy

Low 2 1.25

Moderate 107 66.87

High 51 31.88

Total 160 100

Based on Table 4.5, it is found that only 2 novice teachers (1.25%) from the sample of study are categorized into the group of low level of teachers' sense of efficacy. Majority of 107 novice teachers (66.87%) fall into the category of teachers perceiving themselves of having a moderate level of teachers' sense of efficacy. Only 51 novice teachers (31.88%) are having high level of teachers' sense of efficacy.

Table 4.6: Range, Means and Standard Deviations for Variables in Sources of Efficacy

Variables Minimum Maximum Mean Standard

Deviations

Mastery Experience 2.71 4.47 3.58 0.33

Vicarious Experience 2.12 4.71 3.82 0.32

Social Persuasion 2.81 4.75 3.85 0.32

Physiological or 2.06 4.50 3.61 0.38

Emotional Arousal

With respect to the sources of teaching efficacy, social persuasion scores the highest mean 3.85 (SD=0.32) with the range from 2.81 to the 4.75. The second highest source of teaching efficacy was from vicarious experience, scoring mean 3.82 (SD=0.32), followed by physiological or emotional arousal (M=3.61, SD=0.38) and mastery experience the lowest (M=3.58, SD=0.33). Based on Table 4.6, results indicated that the majority teachers gained their efficacy in teaching via feedback from superiors, students, colleagues, lectures in university, and social talk among teachers in the staffroom to apply Educational Psychology for better quality of instructions. Minority teachers less agreed that they gained their efficacy of applying Educational Psychology through mastery experience.

Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA)

Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA) is an exploration of fulfillment of general assumptions prior to inferential analysis (Pallant, 2001). The evaluation of general assumption on normality of the dependent variable, one of the most common EDA exploration is reported. The normality of the distribution of score for teachers' sense of efficacy is assessed using skewness and kurtosis values (Table 4.7). This information is needed to fulfill the assumption for tests used in parametric statistical techniques.

Table 4.7: The Skewness and Kurtosis Values for the Dependent Variable.

Dependent variable Skewness Kurtosis

Teacher's Sense of Efficacy 0.41 0.65

The skewness value of the overall teachers' sense of efficacy in this study was 0.41, which means that it has a slightly positively skewed distribution where most score of teacher efficacy was clustered below the mean value of 3.85. The kurtosis value of the level of teacher efficacy in this study was 0.65. This positive value of kurtosis reflects that the distribution of teachers' efficacy was not a perfectly normal distribution.

However, according to Pallant (2001), although the skewness and kurtosis values of the dependent variable is not equivalent to zero, with a large sample, slight skewness will not make a substantive difference in the analysis and the risk of underestimating the variance (the kurtosis) is also reduced. The actual shape of the distribution of this study can be seen in the histogram provided in Appendix H1. Scores appear to be normally distributed.

Normality of the distribution was also supported by an inspection of the normal probability plot. The observed value for each score was plotted against the expected value from the normal distribution which was shown in Appendix H2. A straight line suggested a normal distribution (Pallant, 2001).

Besides the general assumption reported in Chapter 3 and assessment of normality performed above, different statistical test requires other specific assumptions testing such as, the homogeneity in t-test and ANOVA, linearity and homoscedasticity in Pearson product-moment correlation, and the multicollinearity, outliers, as well as normality, linearity, homoscedasticity and independence of residuals for multiple regression. These specific assumptions depend on the interactions among the variables involved in every testing of hypothesis. Hence, in the following writing, the specific assumptions will be reported prior to the hypothetical statistic tests.

Levene's test was used to test the homogeneity of variance in t-test and ANOVA. Independent sample t-test was used to administer Hypothesis 1 and 3 while ANOVA was used to test Hypothesis 2. The Levene's test showed no significant differences (p>0.05) between the variance of the males and females groups (testing for Hypothesis 1), different subject matter knowledge (testing for Hypothesis 3) and different ethnic groups teachers (testing for Hypothesis 2). No violation of homogeneity of variance and the equal variance estimates were being used. Table of summary on the homogeneity test was presented in Appendix H3.

The relationship between level of teachers' sense of efficacy and variables namely teachers' mastery experience, vicarious experience, social persuasion, physiological or emotional arousal were measured using Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficient in Hypothesis 4, 5, 6, and 7 respectively. Preliminary analyses were performed to ensure no violation of the assumptions of normality, linearity and homoscedasticity (Appendix H4). Generally, there were no serious violation from the assumptions on normality, linearity and homoscedasticity.

Before an examination of Hypothesis 8 using multiple regression, the multicollinearity, outliers, as well as normality, linearity, homoscedasticity and independence of residuals were tested prior to the analysis. The observation on the correlations between all independent variables with the dependent variable (Appendix H5) showed that only the three subscales of sources of efficacy (namely mastery experiences, vicarious experiences, and social persuasion) that were correlated substantially with teachers' sense of efficacy (0.710, 0.329 and 0.457 respectively). Moreover, the checking of the correlation among these three independent variables showed that all the correlation coefficient is not too high, where all were less than 0.7 (Pallant, 2001). Hence, all three subscales of the sources of efficacy will be retained in the model.

In the collinearity diagnostics, the column of 'Tolerance' under the column headed by 'Collinearity Statistics' which was calculated using formula 1-R2 (Appendix H5) showed that all values are not zero. Therefore, the assumption of Multicollinearity was not violated. If the value was zero, it means that the multiple correlation with other variables was high, suggesting the possibility of Multicollinearity (Pallant, 2001).

Assumptions of outliers, normality, linearity, homoscedasticity, and independence of residuals were interpreted by inspecting the residual scatterplot and the normal probability plot of the regression standardized residuals in the SPSS (Pallant, 2001). Referring to Appendix H5, the normal probability plot showed that there was a straight diagonal line from bottom left to right. Interpretation on the scatterplot also showed that the residuals were distributed in a rough rectangularly shape, with most of the scores concentrated in the centre (along the 0 point). These two observations have suggested that there was no violation on the assumption of normality (Tabachnick & Fidell, 1996). The presence of outliers on the other hand were detected from the scatterplot and also the Mahalanobis Distance value. As displayed in a scatterplot, none of the cases lied beyond the value of 3.3 or -3.3 (Tabachnick and Fidell, 1996). With critical value of 27.88, it was found that there were only two outlying cases where the Mahalanobis Distance value were greater than the critical value (ID number 93, with a value of 49.68 and ID number 39, with a value of 39.88). However, it was not uncommon to observe a number of outlying residuals in a large sample (Pallant, 2001). Henceforth, it was concluded that the assumption on the outliers, normality, linearity, homoscedasticity, and independence of residuals were not violated in this study.

Inferential Analysis

Inferential analysis namely t-test, ANOVA, Pearson product-moment correlation and multiple regression were used in the study to examine the relationship between the demographic variables and teachers' sense of efficacy; the relationship between sources of teacher efficacy and teachers' sense of efficacy; and to identify factors influencing the teachers' sense of efficacy among novice teachers.

Differences in Teachers' Sense of Efficacy Based on Gender

An independent-samples t-test was conducted to compare the level of teachers' sense of efficacy for male and female teachers. The teachers' sense of efficacy based on gender was tested in the first hypothesis as follow:

H1 There is a significant difference in the novice teachers' sense of efficacy

based on gender.

Table 4.8: Table of Results for Independent Sample T-Test on Examining

the Differences in Teachers' Sense of Efficacy Based on Gender.

Gender

N

Mean

Std.

Deviation

t

df

p

η2

Teachers' Sense of Efficacy

Male

31

3.90

.42

.73*

158*

.47*

.003

Female

129

3.84

.37

Efficacy for Student Engagement

Male

31

3.76

.47

.13*

158*

.90*

.000

Female

129

3.75

.41

Efficacy for Instructional Strategy

Male

31

3.99

.44

.13**

40**

.89**

.000

Female

129

3.98

.36

Efficacy for Classroom Management

Male

31

3.94

.46

1.60*

158*

.11*

.016

Female

129

3.80

.45

Note: * The reported values were based on equal variance estimates

** The reported values were based on unequal variance estimates

There was no significant difference in overall teachers' sense of efficacy scores for males (M=3.90, SD=0.43), and females (M=3.84, SD=0.37; t(158)=0.73, p>0.05). The magnitude of differences in the means was very small where only 0.3% of the variance in the overall teachers' sense of efficacy was explained by teachers' gender. There were also no significant differences in all the three subscales of teachers' sense of efficacy based on gender. Male and female novice teachers were not significantly different in their efficacy for student engagement, instructional strategy and classroom management. Hypothesis H1 which stated that there is a significant difference in the novice teachers' sense of efficacy based on gender was rejected.

Differences in Teachers' Sense of Efficacy Based on Ethnic

Groups

A one-way between-groups analysis of variance was conducted to explore the impact of different ethnic groups on teachers' sense of efficacy, as measured by the TSES. Subjects were divided into three groups according to their ethnic groups (Group 1: Malay; Group 2: Chinese; Group 3: Indian). The teachers' sense of efficacy based on ethnic groups is tested in the second hypothesis as follow:

H2 There is a significant difference in the novice teachers' sense of efficacy

based on ethnic groups.

Table 4.9: Table of Results for One-Way ANOVA test on Examining the

Differences in Teachers' Sense of Efficacy Based on Ethnic Groups.

Sum of Squares

df

F

Sig.

Teachers' Sense of Efficacy

Between Groups

.12

2

.42

.66

Within Groups

22.88

157

Total

23.00

159

Efficacy for Student Engagement

Between Groups

.18

2

.51

.60

Within Groups

28.25

157

Total

28.44

159

Efficacy for Instructional Strategy

Between Groups

.16

2

.56

.57

Within Groups

22.05

157

Total

22.20

159

Efficacy for Classroom Management

Between Groups

.17

2

.41

.66

Within Groups

32.39

157

Total

32.56

159

There was no statistical significant difference on the overall teachers' sense of efficacy for the three ethnic groups [F(2,157)=0.42, p>0.05]. The three ethnic groups also did not carry any significant difference in their efficacy for student engagement [F(2,157)=0.51, p>0.05], efficacy for instructional strategy [F(2,157)=0.56, p>0.05], and efficacy for classroom management [F(2,157)=0.41, p>0.05]. Hypothesis H2 which stated that there is a significant difference in the novice teachers' sense of efficacy based on ethnic groups was rejected.

Differences in Teachers' Sense of Efficacy Based on Subject

Matter Knowledge

An independent-samples t-test was conducted to compare the level of teachers' sense of efficacy for novice teachers teaching their major or minor subjects and teachers not teaching their major or minor subjects. The teachers' sense of efficacy which was based on subject matter knowledge was tested in the third hypothesis as follow:

H3 There is a significant difference in the novice teachers' sense of efficacy

based on subject matter knowledge.

Table 4.10: Table of Results for Independent Sample T-Test on Examining

the Differences in Teachers' Sense of Efficacy Based on Subject Matter Knowledge.

Subject Matter

Knowledge

N

Mean

Std. Deviation

t

df

p

η2

Teachers' Sense of Efficacy

Teaching Major or Minor Subjects

135

3.86

.38

.56*

158*

.57*

.002

Not Teaching Major or Minor Subjects

25

3.82

.38

Efficacy for Student Engagement

Teaching Major or Minor Subjects

135

3.75

.41

.04*

158*

.97*

.000

Not Teaching Major or Minor Subjects

25

3.75

.49

Efficacy for Instructional Strategy

Teaching Major or Minor Subjects

135

3.99

.38

.33*

158*

.74*

.000

Not Teaching Major or Minor Subjects

25

3.96

.33

Efficacy for Classroom Management

Teaching Major or Minor Subjects

135

3.84

.46

1.11*

158*

.27*

.008

Not Teaching Major or Minor Subjects

25

3.74

.42

Note: * The reported values were based on equal variance estimates

There was no significant difference in overall teachers' sense of efficacy scores for teachers who teach their major or minor subjects (M=3.86, SD=0.38), and for teachers not teaching their major or minor subjects (M=3.82, SD=0.38; t(158)=0.56, p>0.05). The magnitude of differences in the means was very small where only 0.2% of the variance in the overall teachers' sense of efficacy was explained by teachers' subjects matter knowledge. There were also no significant differences in all the three subscales of teachers' sense of efficacy based on subject matter knowledge. The subject matter knowledge that novice teachers had did not significantly cause a difference in their efficacy for student engagement, instructional strategy and classroom management. Hypothesis H3 which stated that there is a significant difference in the novice teachers' sense of efficacy based on subject matter knowledge was rejected.

Relationship Between Teachers' Mastery Experience and

Teachers' Sense of Efficacy

The relationship between novice teachers' mastery experience of application of Educational Psychology in teaching and the level of teachers' sense of efficacy (as measured by the TSES) was investigated using Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient. The relationship was tested in the forth hypothesis as follow:

H4 There is a significant relationship between novice teachers' mastery experience of application of Educational Psychology in teaching and their sense of efficacy.

Table 4.11: Relationship Between Teachers' Mastery Experience and

Teachers' Sense of Efficacy.

Teachers' Sense of Efficacy

Efficacy for Student Engagement

Efficacy for Instructional Strategy

Efficacy for Classroom Management

Mastery Experience

.71(**)

.70(**)

.59(**)

.65(**)

Note: ** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (1-tailed).

n = 160

There was a strong and significant positive correlation between the teachers' sense of efficacy and teachers' mastery experience of application of Educational Psychology in teaching [r = 0.71, n = 160, p < 0.01], with high levels of teachers' sense of efficacy associated with high level in teachers' mastery experience. The coefficient of determination was 0.50 indicating 50% of shared variance between the two variables. Hypotheses H4 which stated that there is a significant relationship between novice teachers' mastery experience of application of Educational Psychology in teaching and their sense of efficacy was accepted.

Among the three subscales of teachers' sense of efficacy measured in TSES, the teachers' efficacy in students' engagement showed the highest and significant relationship with teachers' mastery experience [r = 0.70, n = 160, p < 0.01]. In other words, teachers' mastery experience of application of Educational Psychology in teaching is highly correlated to the teachers' efficacy in student engagement. However, there was also a positive and moderate significant correlation between teachers' efficacy in classroom management and teachers' mastery experience [r = 0.65, n = 160, p < 0.01], as well a positive and moderate significant correlation between teachers' efficacy in instructional strategy and teachers' mastery experience in Educational Psychology [r = 0.59, n = 160, p < 0.01].

Relationship Between Teachers' Vicarious Experience and

Teachers' Sense of Efficacy

The relationship between novice teachers' vicarious experience of application of Educational Psychology in teaching and the level of teachers' sense of efficacy was investigated using Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient. The relationship was tested in the fifth hypothesis as follow:

H5 There is a significant relationship between novice teacher's vicarious experience of application of Educational Psychology in teaching and their sense of efficacy.

Table 4.12: Relationship Between Teachers' Vicarious Experience and

Teachers' Sense of Efficacy.

Teachers' Sense of Efficacy

Efficacy for Student Engagement

Efficacy for Instructional Strategy

Efficacy for Classroom Management

Vicarious

Experience

.33(**)

.34(**)

.33(**)

.24(**)

Note: ** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (1-tailed).

n = 160

There was a moderately low and significant positive correlation between the teachers' sense of efficacy and teachers' vicarious experience of application of Educational Psychology in teaching [r =0.33, n = 160, p<0.01], with high levels of teachers' sense of efficacy associated with high level in teacher's vicarious experience. The coefficient of determination was 0.11 indicated an 11% of shared variance between the two variables. Hypotheses H5 which stated that there is a significant relationship between novice teachers' vicarious experience of application of Educational Psychology in teaching and their sense of efficacy was accepted.

Of the three subscales of teachers' sense of efficacy measured in TSES, the teachers' efficacy in classroom management showed the lowest but significant positive correlational relationship with teachers' vicarious experience [r = 0.24, n = 160, p < 0.01]. In other words, teachers' vicarious experience of application of Educational Psychology in teaching is less correlated to the teachers' efficacy in classroom management. However, for the subscales of teachers' efficacy in student engagement and instructional strategy, the strength of the relationship was slightly stronger. There was a positive and moderately low significant correlation between teachers' efficacy in student engagement and teachers' vicarious experience [r = 0.34, n = 160, p < 0.01], as well a positive and moderately low significant correlation between teachers' efficacy in instructional strategy and teachers' vicarious experience in Educational Psychology [r = 0.33, n = 160, p < 0.01].

Relationship Between Teachers' Social Persuasion and

Teachers' Sense of Efficacy

The relationship between novice teachers' social persuasion to apply Educational Psychology in teaching and the level of teachers' sense of efficacy was investigated using Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient. The relationship was tested in the sixth hypothesis as follow:

H6 There is a significant relationship between novice teachers' social persuasion to apply Educational Psychology in teaching and their sense of efficacy.

Table 4.13: Relationship Between Teachers' Social Persuasion and

Teachers' Sense of Efficacy.

Teachers' Sense of Efficacy

Efficacy for Student Engagement

Efficacy for Instructional Strategy

Efficacy for Classroom Management

Social Persuasion

.46(**)

.46(**)

.43(**)

.37(**)

Note: ** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (1-tailed).

n = 160

There was a moderately strong and significant positive correlation between the teachers' sense of efficacy and teachers' social persuasion to apply Educational Psychology in teaching [r =0.46, n = 160, p<0.01], with high levels of teachers' sense of efficacy associated with high level in teacher's social persuasion. The coefficient of determination was 0.21 indicating a 21% of shared variance between the two variables. Hypotheses H6 which stated that there is a significant relationship between novice teachers' social persuasion to apply Educational Psychology in teaching and their sense of efficacy was accepted.

The subscale of teachers' efficacy in classroom management showed low but significant positive relationship with teachers' social persuasion [r = 0.37, n = 160, p < 0.01]. In other words, teachers' social persuasion to apply Educational Psychology in teaching is less correlated to the teachers' efficacy in classroom management. However, there was a positive and moderate strong significant correlation between teachers' efficacy in student engagement and teachers' social persuasion [r = 0.46, n = 160, p < 0.01], as well a positive and moderate strong significant correlation between teachers' efficacy in instructional strategy and teachers' social persuasion to apply Educational Psychology in teaching [r = 0.43, n = 160, p < 0.01].

Relationship Between Teachers' Physiological or Emotional

Arousal and Teachers' Sense of Efficacy

The relationship between novice teachers' physiological or emotional arousal in applying Educational Psychology in teaching and the level of teachers' sense of efficacy was measured using the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient. The relationship was tested in the seventh hypothesis as follow:

H7 There is a significant relationship between novice teachers' physiological or emotional arousal in applying Educational Psychology in teaching and their sense of efficacy.

Table 4.14: Relationship Between Teachers' Physiological or Emotional

Arousal and Teachers' Sense of Efficacy.

Teachers' Sense of Efficacy

Efficacy for Student Engagement

Efficacy for Instructional Strategy

Efficacy for Classroom Management

Physiological or Emotional Arousal

-.17(*)

-.16(*)

-.11

-.18(*)

Note: ** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (1-tailed).

* Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (1-tailed).

n = 160

The relationship between teachers' sense of efficacy and teachers' physiological or emotional arousal was negative. There was a weak but significant negative correlation between the two variables [r = -0.17, n = 160, p<0.05], with low levels of teacher efficacy associated with high level in teacher's physiological or emotional arousal. In this case, only 3% of shared variance between the two variables was observed. All the other three subscales measured in TSES indicated the same negative weak relationships with teachers' sense of efficacy. Hypotheses H7 which stated that there is a significant relationship between novice teachers' physiological or emotional arousal in applying Educational Psychology in teaching and their sense of efficacy was accepted.

Model for Predicting Teachers' Sense of Efficacy

One of the objectives in this study was to identify the factors that contribute to the variations in level of teachers' sense of efficacy. Therefore, multiple regression was utilized to assess the amount of variance of teachers' sense of efficacy accounted for by teachers' mastery experience, vicarious experience, and social persuasion in relation to the application of knowledge in Educational Psychology. This model was depicted in the eighth hypothesis as follow:

H8 Factors such as novice teacher's mastery experience, vicarious experience, and social persuasion in applying Educational Psychology in teaching will significantly predict the variance in teachers' sense of efficacy.

Table 4.15: Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Between Predictor

Variables and Teachers' Sense of Efficacy.

Predictor Variable

r

Mastery Experience

.71(**)

Vicarious Experience

.33(**)

Social Persuasion

.46(**)

Note: ** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level.

n = 160

The correlation between each predictor and teachers' sense of efficacy was displayed in Table 4.15 above. Novice teachers' mastery experience of application of Educational Psychology in teaching has the highest correlation (r = 0.71), followed by social persuasion (r = 0.46) and vicarious experience (r = 0.33).

Table 4.16: The Model Summary.

Model

R

R Square

Adjusted R Square

Std. Error of the Estimate

1

.71

.51

.50

.27

Dependent variable: Teachers' Sense of Efficacy

As shown in Table 4.16, the adjusted R square for the model was 0.50. This implied that the three factors (mastery experience, vicarious experience and social persuasion) explained about 50% of the variance in teachers' sense of efficacy.

Table 4.17: ANOVA Table.

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

Regression

11.63

3

3.88

53.16

.000

Residual

11.37

156

.07

Total

23.00

159

Predictors: (Constant), Mastery Experience, Vicarious Experience, Social Persuasion

Dependent Variable: Teachers' Sense of Efficacy

The ANOVA table showed that the slope of the estimated linear regression model line was not equal to zero. This indicated that there was a linear relationship between the dependent variable (teachers' sense of efficacy) and the predictor variables (mastery experience, vicarious experience and social persuasion). The linear combination of the three sources of teacher efficacy was significantly related to the teachers' sense of efficacy, F(3, 155) = 53.16, p<0.01.

Table 4.18: The Estimates of Model Coefficients.

Unstandardized Coefficients

Standardized Coefficients

T

Sig.

B

Std. Error

Beta

Constant

.88

.29

3.01

.003

Mastery Experience

.80

.08

.69

9.64

.000

Vicarious Experience

-.06

.11

-.05

-.54

.589

Social Persuasion

.09

.12

.07

.72

.472

Dependent Variable: Teachers' Sense of Efficacy

According to Pallant (2001), the standardized coefficient (column labeled Beta) is used when comparing the variables. This is because the values of different variables are converted into the same scale for comparison purposes. On the other hand, if the interest lies in constructing a regression equation, the unstandardized coefficient values listed as B are utilized.

In comparing the contribution of each predictor, beta values are used. The largest beta coefficient is 0.69 which is for mastery experience. This means that this variable makes the strongest unique contribution to explaining the dependent variable, the teachers' sense of efficacy, when the variance explained by all other variables in the model is controlled for. The beta value for the other variable namely vicarious experience (0.05) and social persuasion (0.07) were less indicating that they made less of a contribution to teachers' sense of efficacy. For predictor mastery experience, the significant value was less than 0.05. This indicated that only mastery experience had made a unique, and statistically significant contribution to the prediction of teachers' sense of efficacy.

In other words, there was a suppressor effect observed. Although vicarious experience and social persuasion were initially correlated to teachers' sense of efficacy, a very interesting finding emerged in the regression analysis. Both variables were not found to be significant predictors of teachers' sense of efficacy. This is normally called the suppressor effect (Conger, 1974) where the effects of some variables are suppressed by the other variables. Noting the high and significant correlation between the vicarious experience and social persuasion with mastery experience (r = 0.47, p<0.05 and r = 0.61, p<0.05) respectively (Appendix H5), it could be postulated that mastery experience is the moderator for the relationship between vicarious experience and social persuasion. This means that without mastery experience, vicarious experience and social persuasion will not have an effect on teacher efficacy. Novice teachers who have high vicarious experience of application of Educational Psychology in teaching and social persuasion to apply Educational Psychology in teaching will not have high efficacy for applying Educational Psychology in their teaching unless they themselves have experienced success in applying Educational Psychology in the classroom (their mastery experience).

In terms of constructing the equation for the multiple regression model, as shown in Table 4.18, the estimates of the model coefficients for constant was 0.88, mastery experience was 0.80, vicarious experience was -0.06 and social persuasion was 0.09. The equation for the multiple linear regression model was as follows:

Y' = 0.88 + 0.80X1 + (-0.06)X2 + 0.09X3

where Y' = Teachers' Sense of Efficacy

X1 = Mastery Experience

X2 = Vicarious Experience

X3 = Social Persuasion

Hence, the estimated model via the standard multiple regression method is as follows:

Teachers' Sense of Efficacy = 0.88 + 0.80 Mastery Experience +

(-0.06) Vicarious Experience +

0.09 Social Persuasion

Summary of results

The analyses of the data in this study showed a variety of results based on the acceptance of the suggested hypotheses. There were no statistically significant difference on overall teachers' sense of efficacy based on gender, ethnic groups, and teachers' subject matter knowledge. This study has found positive correlation between overall teachers' sense of efficacy and teachers' mastery experience, vicarious experience and social persuasion. In line with the model of teacher efficacy developed by Tschannen-Moran et al. (1998) and social cognitive theory by Bandura (1986), multiple regression analysis revealed that the three sources of teacher efficacy (mastery experience, vicarious experience and social persuasion) were significantly related to the teachers' sense of efficacy. The following table summarized the overall findings of the analyses.

Table 4.19: Summary for Inferential Analysis.

Hypotheses

Findings

H1:

There is a significant difference in the novice teachers' sense of efficacy based on gender

Hypothesis was rejected.

There was no significant difference in overall teachers' sense of efficacy scores for male and female novice teachers.

Hypotheses

Findings

H2:

There is a significant difference in the novice teachers' sense of efficacy based on ethnic groups.

Hypothesis was rejected.

There was no statistically significant difference in level of overall teachers' sense of efficacy for the three ethnic groups.

H3:

There is a significant difference in the novice teachers' sense of efficacy based on subject matter knowledge.

Hypothesis was rejected.

There was no significant difference in overall teachers' sense of efficacy scores for teachers who teach their major or minor subjects, and for teachers not teaching their major or minor subjects.

H4:

There is a significant relationship between novice teachers' mastery experience of application of Educational Psychology in teaching and their sense of efficacy.

Hypothesis was accepted.

There was a significant correlation between the teachers' sense of efficacy and teachers' mastery experience.

H5:

There is a significant relationship between novice teachers' vicarious experience of application of Educational Psychology in teaching and their sense of efficacy.

Hypothesis was accepted.

There was a significant correlation between the teachers' sense of efficacy and teachers' vicarious experience.

Hypotheses

Findings

H6:

There is a significant relationship between novice teachers' social persuasion to apply Educational Psychology in teaching and their sense of efficacy.

Hypothesis was accepted.

There was a significant correlation between the teachers' sense of efficacy and teachers' social persuasion.

H7:

There is a significant relationship between novice teachers' physiological or emotional arousal in applying Educational Psychology in teaching and their sense of efficacy.

Hypothesis was accepted.

There was a significant correlation between teachers' sense of efficacy and teachers' physiological or emotional arousal.

H8:

Factors such as novice teacher's mastery experience, vicarious experience, and social persuasion, in applying Educational Psychology in teaching will significantly predict the variance in teachers' sense of efficacy.

The linear combination of the three sources of teacher efficacy (mastery experience, vicarious experience and social persuasion) were significantly related to the teachers' sense of efficacy.

The estimated model is as follows:

Teachers' Sense of Efficacy

= 0.88 + 0.80 Mastery Experience +

(-0.06) Vicarious Experience +

0.09 Social Persuasion

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