The authors are from the Departments of Kinesiology and Epidemiology of Michigan State University and Tarleton State University. The purpose of this study was to determine if being enrolled in a physical education class or participation in sports have an effect on the academic success in children. The studies revealed that vigorous activity during physical education classes and vigorous activity outside of the classroom were associated with increased academic achievement. Low-level activity in these areas did not seem to have an effect on test scores. In addition to higher test scores, students who participated in a high level of physical activity or sports had higher self-esteem. The authors' conclusion was that just being enrolled in Physical Education class did not increase scores, but those students who participated at the Healthy Student 2010 levels of activity achieved higher test results than those that did not. This review was concise and easy to understand. The authors' conclusion was consistent with the purpose of their study.
Fox, C. K., Barr-Anderson, D., Neumark-Sztainer, D., & Wall, M. (2010). Physical activity and
sports team participation: Associations with academic outcomes in middle school and high
school students.[Electronic Format]. Journal of School Health, v80 n1 p31-37 Jan 2010.
(EJ874094), 31-37., 31-37.
http://web.ebscohost.com.libnet.swosu.edu/ehost/detail?hid=14&sid=7135f7f6-48c2-436f-9ff7-e597737bba70%40sessionmgr15&vid=3&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZSZzY29wZT1zaXRl - db=ehh&AN=47051046
The authors of this study are comprised of a doctor of pediatrics and three professors all of which are from the University of Minnesota. The purpose of this study is to determine whether physical activity and sports team participation have an effect on middle school and high school student's academic achievements. The study examined data collected from 4746 middle school and high school students in Minneapolis/St Paul metropolitan area of Minnesota, using Project EAT (Eating Among Teens) survey. The study showed that sports participation from middle schoolboys, high school girls, and high school boys positively impacted student achievement. The study also showed that "moderate to vigorous physical activity" or "MVPA", without sports participation, had a positive effect on high school girl's academic achievement. The researchers concluded that physical activity involved with, or without, sports participation helps to promote student achievement. Although this study shows that there is a direct relationship between physical activity and academic achievement, more research with respect to other variables, such as levels of activity, school policies, and coach's expectations, would provide a more informative outcome.
Hunt, H. D. (2005) The Effect of Extracurricular Activities in the Educational Process:
Influence on Academic Outcomes? [Electronic Version]. Sociological Spectrum. 25: 417-
H. David Hunt is a professor in the Department of Anthropology and Sociology at the University of Southern Mississippi. The purpose of this study was to further research the relationship between extracurricular activities and academic performance, specifically between sophomore and senior years in high school. Previous studies had tested whether extracurricular activities influence academics, but not whether role of academics influence the participation in extracurricular activities. Earlier researchers had pointed to multiple role theory to be a plausible explanation of the relationship between the two. Previous results were mixed due to the control, design, and time frame of the data collected. In order to not taint his conclusions, Professor Hunt used the same data that earlier studies had used. This study showed that the level of academic outcomes is directly related to the students' involvement in extracurricular activities. There was a lot of data presented, in which I found to be overwhelming for a novice like me. However, the author, in conclusion, did meet the purpose of his study and presented some interesting observations.
Sallis, J. F., McKenzie, T. L., Kolody, B., Lewis, M., Marshall, S., & Rosengard, P. (1999). Effects of health-related physical education on academic achievement: Project SPARK[Electronic Version]. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 70, 127-134. http://www.sparkpe.org/resultsSallis.pdf
This study was conducted by four professors, from numerous fields, at San Diego State University. The purpose of this study was to find a correlation between specialized physical education and standardized test achievement from fourth through sixth grade students. The study uses research from seven different schools in the same district. All participating schools received a different form of physical education, two of the schools were assigned a SPARK certified physical education teacher, two schools were given a regular classroom teacher that was trained in the SPARK program, and the control group was given physical education by their regular classroom teachers. This study found that students receiving a specialized SPARK education scored higher in four out of eight subject areas covered in the Metropolitan Achievement Test (MAT). The students receiving certified physical education also experienced less declines in achievement during a three-year span. The control group only showed an advantage in one out of eight subject areas. This study contains a great amount of statistics that are very difficult to comprehend.
Tremarche, P.V., Robinson, E.M., & Graham, L.B. (2007). Physical education and its effect
on elementary testing results.[Electronic Version].Physical Educator, 64 (2), 58-64.
The authors are from Bridgewater State College, where Pamela Tremarche used this work as her master's thesis, and Drs. Ellyn Robinson and Louise Graham are associate professors. The authors' purpose in doing this study was to show the importance of physical education in raising state testing results. The authors focused on fourth graders taking the Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System (MCAS) standardized test in their home state. The study found that increased physical education time led to an increase in scores in the English and Language Arts portion of the MCAS test. The study also found an increase in the Math portion of the MCAS test, but a small enough increase that the results were not conclusive. I found this article interesting because it showed a clear link between time spent in physical education and an increase in standardized test results. I think it is important the authors used a state testing measure in their study because these tests can be used to point out the importance of physical education time to administrators. I found this study to be easy to read and comprehend, while also having clear hypotheses the authors proved.