The purpose of this study is to investigate the barriers of acquisition of a second language for Kurdish refugees and immigrants who arrived to Sweden and also to analyze the language learning of literacy and theories of motivation. It is compulsory for adult refugees and immigrants to pass Swedish language examination in order to get a job. The report here discusses and critically analyses the importance of the article associated with the interest area and how this contributes to the aims and objectives of the research topic. Due analysis has been done of the article to know about its associated concepts.
The study intends to explore language learning theories and theories of motivations for adult learning refugees and immigrants; discusses barriers that refugees face when integrating into a new society, and the experience of refugees in learning new languages. The literature review will outline these areas, consider key aspects and conclude how this can inform the study conducted hereon for evaluation purpose.
The author interviewed 22 participants, half of whom belong to the basic adult education group (BAE) and half from SFI (Swedish for Immigrants). As the first group constitute illiterate ones, while the second group constitute the literate group the two contrast each other; but the focus of the study remained on the first group who were from same place for a better understanding. To gain a better picture of the camp, the author combined an interview with a 30 years old maleâ€™s statements, who spoke fluent Swedish according to the brochures from the Swedish Immigration Board (Statens and Invandrarverk, 1986). All the interviewees were from Basic Adult Education (BAE) and were illiterate and spoke Sorani as well as Persian as they fled from Iran with the help of the UN and lived in the camp for 15 -20 years. None of them had a Swedish partner. Several of the interviewees have many children; one of the males had 13 children, but there were a few younger ones without any child.
Apparently, the author carefully chose the sample which matched as a number from both groups to enable them to contrast each other. However, the access to participant and the camp by the author seems to be of concern as the BAE group were illiterate and seems that the author heavily relied on an individual of 30 years of age who spoke fluent Swedish.
Interviews were used as a method of collecting data which lasted 10 - 45 minutes and held in the vicinity of the teaching premises. They regarded on topics such as living conditions, school attendance, occupations, motivation, contact with Speakers of Swedish, language acquisition, earlier language skills, language learning strategies, awareness of their own language abilities.
The BAE group interviews were conducted via an interpreter, while those with the
SFI group were without an interpreter. This was done after consultation with the principal and with study advisers and supervisors at SFI. They outlined the language levels of the persons concerned and I decided that I could conduct a meaningful interview with the members of the SFI group without the help of an interpreter, which proved to be the case. All the interviews were taped, and after transcription the material was analysed and compared with current literature in this field. The participantsâ€™ anonymity has been safeguarded by the deletion of all particulars which could direct attention to any individual.
The quotations from the BAE group are the interpreterâ€™s translations into Swedish. The interviews were more in the nature of conversations and were unstructured, but based upon the questions listed above. They were held in the vicinity of the teaching premises and varied in length from 10 to 45 minutes.
3 Evaluation of the research findings
The author has placed the findings in terms of the results obtained from his research to evaluate the responses collected from 22 interviews conducted. 11 of them were illiterate group of refugees belonging to refugee camp of Kurdish while the rest half were immigrants and had experience of learning for minimum 6 years in schools (Elmeroth, 2003). Therefore, half of them were illiterate and the other halves of them were literate group of respondents. The author has used a good interpretive approach to explore the results further. The case study approach used by the author has helped in clearly describing associated concepts. This formulated better outcomes for the topic at hand.
A thorough analysis is the theme aim for any evaluation purpose. Using primary data helps one in getting more practical results. Same was the case here as author has used primary data through interviews in his article. It was noted that stress is the main cause affecting the performance of an individual. Due to communication gap between individuals, it becomes tough situation for people who want to get to know about the situation at hand. Non awareness of local language acts as the problem for refugees because they are in need at one or the other instance to communicate with locals for their daily life.
However, communication gap results in making them reluctant to talk with others (Coleman, 2002). They fell uneasy talking with others due to communication gap. This also affects performance of individuals due to non awareness of surrounding situation. This creates pressure mentally on individuals and they further try to avoid communicating with people knowing other language. These all factors primarily cause the problem conditions for individuals. Therefore, there should be proper ways to make one learn how to speak and listen language of local place not only to make them aware of surrounding environment, but also to make them self confident for facing various situations.
4 Critical evaluation of the conclusions
For any research, it becomes quite crucial to properly evaluate the results. For this instance, it becomes important here to evaluate the conclusions drawn from the study conducted. As per the conclusion of article, it was noted that the study mainly was conducted for drawing out the measures to increase the level of motivation. This became quite important for researcher to have better relations and contact with speakers of target language.
Several theories had been discussed related to language learning and the language in general (Elmeroth, 2003). Due emphasis was laid over various motivation theories and the literacy theory. It was noted that interviewees who were taken as sample, had lived too tough lives during their refugee camping. These conditions are not as easy to be lived by an individual. Due to the reason that refugees in Sweden became isolated, and there was no communication between them and Swedes, it became too tough to provide social needs. The refugees felt it tough to communicate with target languageâ€™s speakers. However, it was too crucial to have communication with target language speakers, for the refugees. Because of this reason, they were not able to learn the local language. They were not able to communicate with them and therefore the life became too tough due to language as communication gap acting against them. Therefore, it was noted that there is no communication and integration in between the society of Swedish and them, resulting in marginalization of them.
Motivation has always been an important player to get the tasks done in a timely manner with optimal results. However, lack of motivation can result in downfall of performance of an individual. Thus, proper use of learning methods shall be undertaken followed by regular motivational sessions to make the individuals learn language at a greater pace. This would help them in communicating with locals in a better manner without any constraint (Oliver, 2004). It could be a good practice to get in contact with target segment of speakers for learning language.
The two groups used for research had been a good step by the author. This helped in collection of wide range of data related to research topic. Therefore, the outcomes are expected to be better with due focus on aims and objectives of the research. Interview usage helped in clarifying the concepts associated with research. The outcomes expressed that though the data (or more precisely primary data) was collected, this was not enough.
Stress and fluency in target language are inversely proportional to each other on adjustment with majority of cultures as per Elmeroth (2003) and Yeh and Inose (2003). This adjustment suggests foreign people involved in the interview process as not being aware of local language, resulting in finding it tough to communicate with locals. The daily work activities were affected due to this reason and there left the room of improvement for the individuals who were involved in the interview process.
5 Implications for my intended dissertation research project
There are overarching facts in between the article and my intended dissertation research project: both researches regard learners learning a second language. Also the method of data collection will be same. However, the sample size will vary: the sample size of the study is 22 participants while mine will be 4 participants. Also method of data access will vary as part of the study an interpreter is used. No interpreter will be needed for my research to collect the data.
I would make use of secondary data collection in a thorough manner. This would be followed by collection of primary data. For this purpose, questionnaire would be designed. This questionnaire would be of unstructured nature. Depth interviews would be taken as a choice for collection of primary data (Cresswell, 2005). The interviews would last for 15-20 minutes for each of the respondent. Based on the data collected, various findings and analysis would be obtained to reach to the outcomes.
Case study would be used as the research methodology (Bell, 1999). Furthermore, I would make use of descriptive research approach. Therefore, the suggested strategies would confirm for the attainment of objectives for researcher. Thereafter, the collected primary data, along with secondary data would help me in making an effort to reach to important findings for the research. This would be expected to result in more focused approach with due importance laid on the topic.