Recreational Spaces For Bullied Children In Malaysian Schools Education Essay

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This book gives a practical and clear understanding of bullying within schools. It describes in detail the types of violence and aggressions which take place within the gates of schools, in their different types; this could be from infant school as one of the contributors describes, middle school or the change from junior school to high school. Different listings of professional individuals have contributed to the book, bringing forth a broader perspective to the topic at hand. James Hammond wrote the foreword for this book and highlights that most of the bullying conducted within school grounds goes undetected, as the victims may be too terrified to report due to fear of the bully. Children who go through the bullying experience tend to not want to come to school therefore making them fall back on the academics. Parents and teachers play an important role in creating a safe and friendly environment for bullied children and bullies themselves. This book talks about finding the source of the problem which could be a deep-seated psychological problem as one contributor says, as that would help further understanding the main issue at hand. Early detection of conductors of bullying may help children in the future to be less aggressive. This book sets out ideas of actually implementing a different curriculum for children who bully others as they require "special needs" for them to change their attitude towards others. Some students bully others because they are bored, therefore initiatives such as the Technical and Vocational Educational Initiative (TVEI) have been proven to be successful in providing ways children can voice out how they really feel about situations in their lives.

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Rigby,K. 2007. Bulliyng in schools:and what to go about it.Victoria: ACER Press Australian Council for Educational Research Ltd. http://books.google.com.my/books?id=KEUeLn09668C&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false (accessed May 1, 2011).

The author notes that bullying is an undesirable form of behaviour. He points out that it can be reduced if not entirely eliminated if all parties concerned work together to make it possible; teachers, parents and the pupils. This book is based on Australian schools and how Ken has conducted research to understanding bullying in schools. The main purpose of this book is to provide a clearer understanding of bullying in schools grounds and how and what can be done to reduce or totally eliminated it. It points out how it is not so easy to just use a manual or a guide book to make the situation go away. The book is divided into two parts; the first being the core understanding of bullying to see it as a necessary foundation to make tackling the problem more reasonable and the second part of the book, being the "what can be done" part of it. This book is very vital for my research as it touches major areas of my thesis research. The various chapters bring to light major issues relating to the topic. He looks at the effects of bullying on children's psychological and physical health and some of the more long term effects which might rise up as the child further develops to adulthood. It furthermore talks about the roles of parents and teachers and how they can reduce bullying in schools. The book helps them with advice and how to look for the signs that a child is being bullied and the best ways to deal with situations of the sort. Bystanders are taught how to stand up and stop situations of bullying and speak out about what they have seen. Empowering children from a younger age can promote better personalities as the progress in their lives.

Gallo, L. L., and A. Milsom. 2006. : Bullying in Middle Schools: Prevention and Intervention. Middle school journal 37(3): 12-19 . NMSA. http://www.nmsa.org/publications/middleschooljournal/articles/january2006/article2/tabid/693/default.aspx.

This journal is about understanding bullying in middle schools and the forms of preventions and interventions which could be conducted to reduce or eliminate bullying among peers. It is basically an overview of bullying in middle schools in the United States and various ways parents, teachers and schools want to help in solving the problem. Studies conducted show that bullying starts to peak during the late childhood/ early adolescence stage making it even harder to prevent or intervene. Surveys where carried out in this journal and half of the studies conducted shone a light on the fact that most bullying is/was conducted to teach one a lesson. The studies also show that the kids with the poor academic achievements were the ones who usually bully other children. Most kids also pointed out that the most frequent type of bullying was either verbal or physical or racial for African American students in a white school. 14% reported forms of name calling, kicking and threats. Prevention and intervention strategies had been thought of such as effective programs for targeted students in schools. Assessing school climate, (places children can be trapped by others) is very important; therefore older pupils can help in patrolling schools grounds during recess or lunch breaks to reduce bullying with the school. Schools could also have firm rules and laws about bullying within school ground and the harsh results of being a bully within schools. This could also help in the reduction of violence within school. Anti-bullying programs can also be provided for staff and teachers to help them understand and prevent situations of violence among students in classes.

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Iltus, S., and R. Hart. N.d. Participatory planning and design of recreational spaces with children. Arch. & Comfort./ Arch. & Behav., 10(4): 361- 370. http://web.gc.cuny.edu/che/cerg/documents/Participatory_Planning_%26_Design_Recreational_Spaces.pdf

This journal is about participatory planning and design of recreational spaces with children. Mainly, this article highlights the importance of involving children in the design process of spaces which will be used by them. The authors indicate that it is no longer advisable to observe a child to get an idea of a type of space they need; one must listen to them. Therefore this article describes some of the concepts The Children's Environments Research Group takes into consideration when designing of children's recreational spaces. The paper argues the importance of collaborating adults with the children in communities so everyone can be happy and safe. In the article, United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, 1990 states that there is a growing recognition of the values of enabling children to participate in society and especially in "all matters affecting the child". The type of participation which is being discussed is commonly the consultation through drawings and conceptualizing their ideas. Even though they will not have the final say, children get to be part of the play design project which will further make it more successful with the help of their parents. Adults need to be informed of the importance of the involvement of children who will use the space. Stages of participation in the project help children to see the significant product and how their various ideas brought the project together. It also enables those who had taken part to understanding children more and to see the fruits of their works come to life.

Olweus bullying prevention program. 2011. http://www.olweus.org/public/bullying.page (accessed May 1, 2011).

This site is created by Dan Olweus, who came up with the Olweus Bullying Prevention Programs which can be seen from his book Bullying at School: What We Know and What We Can Do. The website is very insightful as it describes bullying, the various types of it, the impact it has on the bully and the victim and the bullying circle. It is a United States of America based website and has features of the state and federal laws and information about bullying in the country as a whole. It is very important to see and understand how other countries are trying to eradicate this issue. United States of America for example has Federal Anti- Bullying laws which promote Safe and drug-free schools for all schools in the country. The Olweus Bullying Prevention Program is a whole school program which aims at preventing or reducing bullying throughout the school setting. It is designed to improve the relationship between peers and make school safer and more positive for children to learn more and develop. The program is divided into various components so that everyone takes part in reducing bullying. These components are: the school-level, Individual-level, classroom-level and the community level. It is designed for children in elementary, middle and junior high schools as it offers a wide range of benefits for schools as well as a sense of belonging for children of most ages. The website also provides materials used to support the program in making it more efficient. Positive outcomes of the program can be seen on the site as great benefits are noted for schools and other institutions as well. Testimonial videos can show the effects of the program on children and the positive ways the attitudes towards each other have been improved by the program.

Davis ,S. 2009. Stop Bullying Now. http://www.stopbullyingnow.com/index.html (accessed May 1, 2011).

Stop Bullying Now! This site presents practical research-based strategies aimed at reducing bullying in schools. This site is put together by Stan Davis who has worked for human rights in many different ways. But since the mid-1990's he has put much energy into helping schools in preventing bullying. His site highlights various areas of interest and has key questions which helped in the conducting of his research. Stop bullying now helps understand what works and what doesn't, and the trainings and materials required in trying stopping it. Stan believes that bullying can be prevented when teachers, administrators, parents and peers starting with creating peaceful environments from home, to the classroom, to the staff and to the playground. For example, parents of bullied children can build a support structure for them. Building a positive staff-student relationship can make it easier for students to report forms of bullying and not have fear to tell. Understanding the background of a bully is very essential in trying to find the root of the problem. Some children do not come from warm backgrounds and find it easier to bully others because they for one are jealous, therefore, teachers and parents meetings are promoted so that teachers learn more about their students direct from the parents. The site promotes empowering bystanders to play their role in eradicating violence within school grounds. Helping them see that their silence indirectly empowers the aggressive student to continue can encourage them to come forth and speak out if they had witnessed any form of bullying.

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Smith, P.K. 1999. The nature of school bullying: a cross-natural perspective. London: Routledge. http://books.google.com.my/books?id=Fj6i8AHNT5AC&pg=PA367&dq=bullying+malaysian+schools&hl=en&ei=vf_#v=onepage&q=bullying%20malaysian%20schools&f=false (accessed May 8, 2011).

This book is a cross-national perspective on the nature of bullying throughout various countries around the world. Malaysia has fallen prey to the great issue of bullying and this book touches a bit on bullying in Malaysian schools. Malaysia is a multi-ethnic nation consisting of three main groups: being the Malays, the Chinese and Indians with several other indigenous groups. The national language is Bahasa and the country's official religion is Islam. According to this book, bullying and violence within the Malaysian school setting increased in the 1980's and 1990's. Since then schools have been required to submit to the District Education Office reports. The Malay word dera is used to mean bullying. This book shows the statistics of criminal violence in schools since 1993. Different pupil have different understanding on the types of bullying, therefore statistics change due to reductions or additions to the types of bullying. The reports sent to the DEO indicate that most form of violence cases predominate in the urban poor and work-class neighbourhoods. And surveys carried out indicate that school and class absenteeism is highest among students with disciplinary problems. Therefore, students lack a form of structure such as parental guidance but greatly have peer influence. This book indicates that in Malaysia particularly, it is believed that responsibility of disciplinary problems lies in the parents and family. Family structure, values and morals are very important in a Malaysian household. Schools are now working with out- of- school agencies such as police, welfare departments; NGO's and parents in dealing with the criminal problems in Malaysian schools.

Wan, G. 2008. The education of diverse student population: a global perspective. Ohio: Springer Science + Business Media B.V. (accessed May 8, 2011).

This part of the book examines the ways in which Malaysian state policies and globalisation are played within the Malaysian schooling and education system in relation to the 3 main types of people of the country: Malay-Muslim, Chinese and Indians. It talks about politics of ethnic identification, but I will focus more on the different types of schools and how they came about. It also points out that Malaysian education caters for the multi-ethnic population in variety of ways through the different types of elementary, primary and secondary schooling systems. There are mixed schools, and schools which only cater for one specific ethnic group. I chose this book so to furthermore understand on the types of ethnic groups and the schools systems and percentage of students who go there. The different schools have different curriculums which can be followed, therefore making the schooling experience different according to the school you are going to. Students get exposed to different cultures and religions in mixed schools and therefore problems of bullying may arise due to this. It is very difficult for a group of children from one ethnic group to try and blend in with others especially if that particular school is dominated by another ethnic group. Teachers therefore have to play their part to make sure that equality is being maintained from the playground to the cafeterias. The author believes that social inequalities are generated by practices of the sort, as children grow up dividing each other by ethnic group which could also be hindering the increasing in bullying at school.

Arseneault, L., E. Walsh, K. Trzesniewski, R. Newcombe, A. Caspi and T.E. Moffitt. 2006. Bullying Victimization Uniquely Contributes to Adjustment Problems in Young Children: Nationally Representative Cohort Study. American Academy of Paediatrics118 (1): 130-138. http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/reprint/118/1/130 (accessed May 9, 2011).

This study examines how bullying at a young age can totally change the mental growth of a child. This study was conducted between 1994-1995 with 2232 children between ages of 5-7 years. It separates the groups of children into the pure victim and the bully's themselves. Reports from parent and staff were used to further rectify the study for a deeper understanding. It highlights that bullying has become a great problem in schools nowadays as children resort to committing suicide or have physical wounds due to this. As its main concern is finding out if bullying victimization actually causes adjustment problems, the article takes a lot of effects into considerations. Studies have indicated that students and children with forms of low self-regard, depression, emotional problems and poor social skills can have a form of bullying in their background.it is very important to take into account different changes a child may have, for example knowing the characteristics of children who may later become pure victims or pure bullies. This article breaks done the methods in which they used to analysis their case; asking whether the groups of bullied children showed any signs of adjustment by age 7 years, checking if pure victims had pre-existing behavioural and school changes at age 5. Therefore comparing the difference between age 5 and age 7, the article shows how some of the children showed sign of adjustments in their behaviour from being a pure victim to being a pure bully. It shows that children who were bullied show significantly more internalized problems whereas children who do the bullying have a more outward external form of behaviour. It has carried out an extensive study in understanding and proving the changes children may go through having been exposed to types of bullying.

Uba, I. , S.N Yaacob, R. Juhari and M.A. Talib. 2010. Effect of Self- Esteem on the Relationship between Depression and Bullying among Teenagers in Malaysia. Asian Social Science 6(12): 77-85. http:// www.ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/ass/article/download/6759/6252 (accessed May 9, 2011).

This article examines the effects of self- esteem between teenagers who are exposed to forms of depression and bullying. It is a based in Selangor, Malaysia focusing on secondary schools. This study brings forth an understanding of some of the issues which can affect students with school grounds. Poor achievements, pro-social skills and psychological well-being can be seen from children going through depression. Studies here have also indicated that bullied teenagers may also not be sleeping well, feeling sad all the time or have forms of stomach and headaches. It highlights various inputs made by scholars and some of the theories they have used in trying to understand these cases. Attached are some of the previous research based in Malaysia, some arguing how bullies have high self-esteem and others arguing otherwise. It also focuses on how self-esteem and depression if not dealt with could lead to adulthood problems. Various hypotheses were carried out to test the main topic of the article. It took into consideration the methodological approach in order to get good and efficient results from the students. Samples of the procedures carried out reveal no elements of being bias. For the study, two schools were chosen at random in a rural area and three from an urban area. It was to help understand how situations are in the city and in rural settlements. This article provides an excellent illustration of how cases of bullying and depression can be thoroughly researched and results obtained. It therefore proves that there is a link between depressions and bullying among teenagers.

Teach Safe Schools.Org .n.d. http://www.teachsafeschools.org/index.html (accessed May 10, 2011).

Teach safe schools is a website which is set on helping school personnel develop safe and inviting environments where students can be fruitful and have supportive ways on learning. It provides techniques which can assist teachers and staff in preventing violence in school. The Melissa Institute for Violence Prevention and Treatment helps in bringing results to research in violence prevention and treatment to educators who work closely with students on a daily basis. The website for one provides information on how to work to improve school safety as it assesses the safety of the school and ways to implement the intervention strategies. It provides useful information for teachers to use in implementing a school and classroom free of bullying and violence. Checklists and steps are provided for use of educators in the school. Various policies and peer warning programs help make the structure of the schooling system stronger and for the students to feel much safer. It also speaks of ways to nurture an inviting school environment which could be through improving parent involvement and mentoring just to name a few. It also helps in fostering effective instructional strategies in order to get pupils reading from an earlier age to improve their skills and get ahead in school. This site basically focuses on developing and helping teachers mould students into nonsense free people in order to concentrate on their school and not get involved in violent acts. Working together with teachers and the community will help improve the quality of life for students through this site.