Reading Technique And Animated Language Learning Education Essay

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To study the effectiveness of Teaching English for the Differently Abled student learners based on the curriculum through Animated Movies.

1.2 OBJECTIVES

To assess the mean scores of Control Group and experimental Group in the pretest on Second language Acquisition using lip reading Technique and Animated Language Learning.

To determine the mean scores of Control Group in Pretest and Posttest on Language Acquisition using lip reading Technique and Animated Language Learning.

To determine the mean scores of Experimental Group in Pretest and Posttest on Language Acquisition using lip reading Technique and Animated Language Learning.

To determine the mean scores of Control Group and Experimental Group in the Posttest on Second language Acquisition using Animated Language Learning.

To analyse the mean scores of Experimental group in teaching poem and prose using Animated Language learning.

To analyse the mean scores of Control group in teaching poem and prose using Animated Language learning.

To implement Technology Assisted Language Learning as a tool for teaching the Differently Abled Learners

To integrate Animated Movies as a part of the curriculum to enhance the learners' ability to comprehend the lessons with ease.

1.3 HYPOTHESIS

Null Hypothesis (H0) There will be no significant difference in the mean scores of Control Group and Experimental Group in the pretest on Second language Acquisition using lip reading Technique and Animated Language Learning.

Alternative Hypothesis (H1) There will be significant difference in the mean scores of Control Group and Experimental Group in the pretest on Second language Acquisition using lip reading Technique and Animated Language Learning.

Null Hypothesis (H0) There will be no significant difference in the mean scores of Control Group in the pretest and Posttest on Second language Acquisition using lip reading Technique and Animated Language Learning.

Alternative Hypothesis (H1) There will be significant difference in the mean scores of Control Group in the pretest and Posttest on Second language Acquisition using lip reading Technique and Animated Language Learning.

Null Hypothesis (H0) There will be no significant difference in the mean scores of Experimental Group in the pretest and Posttest on Second language Acquisition using lip reading Technique and Animated Language Learning.

Alternative Hypothesis (H1) There will be significant difference in the mean scores of Experimental Group in the pretest and Posttest on Second language Acquisition using lip reading Technique and Animated Language Learning.

Null Hypothesis (H0) There will be no significant difference in the mean scores of Control Group and Experimental Group in the Posttest on Second language Acquisition using Animated Language Learning.

Alternative Hypothesis (H1) There will be significant difference in the mean scores of Control Group and Experimental Group in the Posttest on Second language Acquisition using Animated Language Learning.

Null Hypothesis (H0) There will be no significant difference in the mean scores of Experimental group in teaching poem and prose using Animated Language learning.

Alternative Hypothesis (H1) There will be significant difference in the mean scores of Experimental group in teaching poem and prose using Animated Language learning.

Null Hypothesis (H0) There will be no significant difference in the mean scores of Control group in teaching poem and prose using Animated Language learning.

Alternative Hypothesis (H1) There will be significant difference in the mean scores of Control group in teaching poem and prose using Animated Language learning.

1.4 ORIGIN OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM

Nowadays, the quantity of students coming to seek education has increased compromising the quality of education up to a certain extent. In such a great quantity of learners, the Differently Abled Learners are not given any special consideration. The importance of making the Differently Abled learn without stress intends to concentrate on teaching Language or Curriculum through animated movies. Language has been learnt through traditional methods, it is not necessary that the younger generation should follow the same traditional methods. Hence, the development of language teaching assisted by technology makes wonders in the field of learning a language.

1.5 SAMPLE OF THE STUDY

The Differently abled learners of class IX from Infant Jesus School are the subjects of the research. The differently abled learners of the sample study are Deaf and Dumb who are being taught with lip reading technique. The learners understand the lessons through lip reading than comprehending with the actions. Lip reading technique of teaching will allow the learners to mingle in the society as normal people.

1.6 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

The study is restricted to the Deaf and Dumb students of Infant Jesus School. The study has been limited to teach a Prose and a Poem. The sample was restricted to Ninth standard students and was taught using a laptop. The host school was not equipped with required technological enhancements. Among the Differently Abled Visually challenged cannot be implemented with the method of teaching Language through Animated movies. The visual element of the animated movies will not be experienced by the visually impaired learners. Hence teaching through animated movies cannot be incorporated for the visually impaired learners.

1.7 PROBLEM OF THE POPULATION

In Coimbatore there are very few schools for the differently abled learners. Tamil is the prescribed medium of these schools. The Differently abled learners are not exposed to English Language. The main problem of the learners as noted by the teachers of Differently abled learners is that they have low memory power. The Differently abled learners who are deaf and dumb possess more visual power and observe keenly than normal learners. The schools for the Differently abled learners are not equipped with technological enhancements which can efficiently enable their learning. Implementing Technology Assisted Language learning methods like Teaching through Animated Movies will have a better visual impact and increase their memory power efficiently.

1.8 BENEFITS OF THE RESEARCH

1.8.1 Theoretical Benefit

The results of the research can be used to initiate a new teaching pedagogy in teaching the differently abled learners.

The results can be used for those who want to research on teaching through Animated movies.

1.8.2 Practical Benefit

The study can recommend a better teaching tool for the differently abled learners for their upliftment in Education and Society.

Teaching through Animated movie will be a Motivation for the Differently Abled Learners to learn a Language with fun and ease.

1.9 ANIMATED LANGUAGE LEARNING

Animated Language Learning is a novel approach for Learning / Acquiring language. Teaching Language through Animation Movies is a new pedagogy which plays a vital role in the education of Children with learning disorders and the Differently Abled Learners. The disabled learners experience problems which are Receptive and Expressive in learning a language.

Fig 1.9.1

Teaching through technology arouses learner's curiosity and creates an inward interest among the language learners. A recent trend in language teaching has proven the fact that language can be taught effectively and efficiently using technological enhancements. Film is considered to be an important art form and a powerful method for learning a language.

Fig 1.9.2

The chart above represents the process of motivating the students towards technology assisted language learning. Motivation is a vital part in the process of learning a language. Raymond Wolkowski (1987) researched motivation in teaching. Earlier teachers were considered as the major source of motivation. But according to the research of Raymond Wolkowski watching animation movies which have audio and video components will serve as a better source of motivation among the learners. When the language is administered in the form of animated movies the learners immerse themselves in learning a foreign language.

The differently abled learners possess high visual impact when compared to normal learners. The Differently abled learners are introduced to Technology which serves as a greater source of motivation. Animated Language Learning enhances the learner's ability to understand the concept to be taught while experiencing fun through computer interface.

Fig 1.9.3

1.10 DIFFERENTLY ABLED

The 'Politically Correct' term for physically challenged is Differently Abled which was proposed first on 1980s to give a positive attitude and sever the discriminative behavior towards the Disabled people. The term has been changed but not their fate. The Differently Abled are not given equal importance in the society. Only few people are merely recognized by the society. In the Education Scenario, it is even getting worse. [1] An article published in "The Indian Express" titled Differently Abled Come out on Streets against Education Bill states that, Education bill passed on July 30th should be cancelled. It is because the Education bill promises to make primary education a right for children between 6 to 14 years but excludes children of 15 years and above which includes 20 million children with disabilities. Shampa Sengupta, Director of Sruti Disability Rights centre added that the Government gives false reason that it does not have resources to spend on Differently Abled children for their educational needs.

2The term Differently Abled has been defined by the Federal Government as "inability to engage in any substantial gainful activity by reason of any medically determinable physical or mental impairment which can be expected to last or has lasted for a continuous period of not less than 12 months." [3] The World Health Organization defines Disability as loss of function at the level of the whole person, which may include inability to communicate or to perform mobility, activities of daily living, or necessary vocational or a vocational activity.

1.11 TYPES OF DISABILITY

4The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) lists 13 different disability categories:

S.No

Type of Disability

Definition of the Terms by IDEA

1

Autism

A developmental disability significantly affecting verbal and nonverbal communication and social interaction

2

Deaf-Blindness

Concomitant hearing and

visual impairments, the combination of which

causes severe communication and other

developmental and educational needs

3

Deafness

Hearing impairment so severe that a child is impaired in processing linguistic information through hearing

4

Emotional Disturbance

(a) An inability to learn that cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory, or health factors.

(b) An inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers and teachers.

(c) Inappropriate types of behavior or feelings under normal circumstances.

(d) A general pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression.

(e) A tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with personal or school problems.

The term includes schizophrenia too

5

Hearing Impairment

An impairment in hearing, whether permanent or fluctuating, that adversely affects a child's educational performance but is not included under the definition of "deafness"

6

Intellectual Disability

Sub average general intellectual functioning, existing concurrently with deficits in adaptive behavior and manifested during the developmental period, that adversely affects a child's educational performance

7

Multiple Disabilities

Concomitant impairments (such as intellectual disability-blindness, intellectual disability-orthopedic impairment), the combination of which causes such severe educational needs that they cannot be accommodated in special education programs solely for one of the impairments. The term does not include deaf-blindness

8

Orthopedic Impairment

A severe orthopedic impairment

that adversely affects a child's educational

performance

9

Other Health Impairment

Having limited strength, vitality, or

alertness, including a heightened alertness to

environmental stimuli, that results in limited

alertness with respect to the educational

environment

10

Specific Learning Disability

A disorder in one or more of the basic

psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, that may manifest itself in the imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or to do mathematical calculations

11

Speech or Language Impairment

A communication disorder such as

stuttering, impaired articulation, a language

impairment, or a voice impairment that adversely affects a child's educational performance

12

Traumatic Brain Injury

An acquired injury to the brain caused by

an external physical force, resulting in total or

partial functional disability or psychosocial

impairment

13

Visual Impairment

(Including Blindness)

An impairment in vision that, even with

correction, adversely affects a child's educational performance

IDEA states that Differently Abled children under three years of age should be given attention, as it may result in problems of cognitive development, Physical development, Communication development, Social or emotional development and Adaptive development.

1.12 DIFFERENTLY ABLED POPULATION

There are about 2.1 crore Disabled People in India which constitutes 2.13 % of our total population according to the census taken in 2001. According to The National Sample Survey Organization, 5% of the population i.e., 102 crore persons are Differently Abled. [5] United Nations report states the number of disabled to be more than 10% of our total population. Tamil Nadu with 1.6 million disabled people has the fourth largest population of disabled in the country and higher populations of disabled are females than males.

1.13 EDUCATION AND EMPLOYMENT FOR THE DIFFERENTLY ABLED

The persons with Disability face serious problems in the Educational and Employment scenario. Disabled people were not exposed to proper education which results into deprivation. Many Differently Abled children are likely to become illiterate because of poverty. Persons with Disability who drops out of school are likely to be more these days says a report by Philip O'Keefe Social Protection Specialist, World Bank, November 2007 titled "People with Disabilities in India: From Commitments to Outcomes" [6] 

7'The Government needs to be more pro-active and look into various issues to allow Differently-Abled children a better education', says Swapna Mukherjee in her article published in the "The Times of India" titled "Enable the Differently-Abled".

Aamir Khan, spoke about the Rights of Differently Abled people during the sixth Episode of the television show 'Satyamev Jayate'. The anchor stated that Differently Abled people were not given any equal preference in the society. They were not even counted in the census until 2001. There is a prejudiced notion that being physically challenged is the result of bad deeds in their previous life. Following this, Amir Khan spoke to few Differently Abled on the show.

Sai Prasad, a Disabled person from Hyderabad said, "My Disability is not my problem. It's the Infrastructural Disability of our country that makes our life difficult. Other countries have brilliant facilities for the Disabled people. Why can't we have the same in India"? Following this Krishnakant, a Visually Impaired added, "Being Disabled doesn't make you inferior to anyone. Don't take the world for granted, this world is kind and cruel to everyone. Start taking your own responsibility. I would like to tell this to all the parents as well that put your child into a normal school and let him feel equal to other children". Aamir Khan interviewed few teachers during the show. They stated that, 'If Differently Abled children were admitted in their school, other parents would object to it'.

Every individual must have the basic rights which include political, economic, social and cultural aspects. These basic rights help an individual to attain a better position and lifestyle in the society. Priya Bansal, a student of National Law Institute University, Bhopal [8] in her article Right to Employment of Disables: A Law Merely on Paper states that, ". . . increasing consciousness of civil rights and the emergence of people with disabilities displaying skills and knowledge to improve their own lives, are some of the factors which have contributed to the new thinking that the disabled deserve a dignified status in society on the same terms as the non-disabled"

1.14 TECHNOLOGY ASSISTED LANGUAGE LEARNING

"Tell me and I'll forget; show me and I may remember; involve me and I'll understand"

(Chinese proverb)

"Technology in language teaching has improved its efficiency. Technology influences the way people work, play and communicate in the day to day life. The styles and strategies of language learning evolve with the ever increasing accessibility to technology that develops at a fast pace" (Erben et al, 2009).

Vygotsky's contribution of Sociocultural Theory of Mind has been segregated into many aspects like Theory of Cognition, Theory of Education etc. Differentiated Instruction (DI) is a pedagogical strategy which allows the learners to learn and work collaboratively, which has its origin from Vygotsky's Sociocultural Theory of Mind. Differentiated Instruction (DI) provides learners with variety of assignments as all the learners do not learn at same pace.

"Use Technology with me, I'll participate, I'll transfer, I'll employ and I'll create"

The Chinese proverb elaborated in Teaching English Language Learners through Technology (Erben et al, 2009). Vygotsky's Sociocultural Theory of Mind here refers Technology as the sociocultural element. Technology acts as a portal for the differently abled to interact among the society.

1.15 BLENDING TECHNOLOGY IN EDUCATION:

Blending Technology with Education is a process where the teachers should be aware of the learner's and Technology. The learners cannot learn Technology, English and Content at the same time; it involves a step by step process. [9] Creating Tasks as Instructional Technology should meet the requirements of Learners potential and the level of Computer proficiency. The tasks should be interesting and motivating for the Learners. Technology integrated classrooms will be Students Centered and the Role of a teacher shifts to be a Guide and Facilitator. "Technology-enhanced classrooms have been found to promote discovery learning, learner Autonomy and learner centeredness."(Erben et al) [10] 

1.16 COMPUTER ASSISTED LANGUAGE LEARNING:

Computer Assisted Language learning focuses on learning and not teaching. It is a courseware designed for a specific group of language learners. The Computer Assisted Language Instruction (CALI) was the predecessor of CALL, as teachers wanted a student's centered approach than Teacher-Centered approach. Theoretical basis for Computer Assisted Language Learning can be categorized under Constructivism, Whole Language Theory and Socio-Cultural Theory. Without Computer Assisted Language learning, learners cannot influence the linear progression of the class content but computers can adapt to the students i.e. the learners control the pace of the computer according to the pace of their learning. This attitude makes the learners competent in learning as it is a Learner centered environment. The effectiveness of Computer Assisted Language learning depends on the teacher's readiness to re-evaluate their methods in the light of computer's tremendous teaching potential. Nevertheless a teacher cannot be replaced by technology but will relieve them of tedious tasks.

1.17 INFORMATION COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY:

ICT (Information Communications Technology) is an umbrella term that includes any communication device or application, encompassing: radio, television, cellular phones, computer and network hardware and software, satellite systems and so on, as well as the various services and applications associated with them, such as videoconferencing and distance learning. ICTs are often spoken in a particular context, such as ICTs in education, health care, or libraries. The main purpose of ICT in Education is to implement ICT Equipments and Tools in Teaching-Learning process as a media and methodology. The purpose of ICT in education is generally to familiarize students with the use and workings of computers, and related social and ethical issues. ICT has also enabled learning through Multiple Intelligence. ICT has introduced learning through simulation games which enables active learning through all senses.

1.18 ICT IN TEACHING AND LEARNING:

11IT was limited only to the textual mode of transmission of information with ease and fast. But the information not only in textual form but in audio, video or any other media is also to be transmitted to the users. Thus, the ICT = IT + Other media. It has opened new avenues, like, Online learning, e-learning, Virtual University, e-coaching, e-education, e-journal, etc. Third Generation Mobiles are also part of ICT. Mobile is being used in imparting information fast and cost effective. The ICT brings more rich material in the classrooms and libraries for the teachers and students. It provides opportunity for the learner to use maximum senses to get the information. ICT has broken the monotony and provided variety in the teaching - learning situation. The ICT being latest, it can be used both at school and higher education levels in the following areas:

Teaching

Diagnostic Testing

Remedial Teaching

Evaluation

Psychological Testing

Development of Virtual Laboratory

Online Tutoring

Development of Reasoning & Thinking

Instructional Material Development

1.19 TECHNOLOGICAL ASSISTANCE FOR THE DIFFERENTLY ABLED

How many of us are familiar to Technological advancements when it comes to Differently Abled? Here are some of the technological inventions specially designed for the betterment of the Differently Abled.

12Tongue Drive - a wireless device used to control a computer powered Wheel chair by tongue movements attached with sensors to interact with their environments simply by moving their tongues.120220085656-large.jpg

"By moving the sensors inside the mouth, we have created a Tongue Drive System with increased mechanical stability and comfort that is nearly unnoticeable," said Maysam Ghovanloo, an associate professor in the School of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the Georgia Institute of Technology.

13Sighted Wheelchair - An electric wheel chair which can sense the environment and transmit the information to the visually impaired person.110512110851.jpg

14Control of a Wheelchair with a Steady Jaw and a Wink - for the people with severe physical disabilities, such as spinal cord injury, quadriplegia and amputation, current technology for controlling a wheelchair or mobility scooter will not be sufficient enough. An inexpensive webcam and a bio-signal sensing headband is used to control the steering and propulsion of an electric wheelchair from the user's forehead electromyography and visual signals to identify which of five winking and jaw clenching movements the user is making. The combination of a left and right Wink with and without a jaw clench and are mapped to six control commands for the wheelchair.

There are many scientific aids for Differently Abled Community for their upliftment in the society. The recent scientific trends in the field of Education like Technology Assisted Language Learning, Computer Assisted Language Learning, Mobile Assisted Language learning, etc play a vital role in learning a language. But the question is that does Technology assisted language learning help the Differently Abled Community? Why the Differently Abled Community has not shown proficiency in language learning or language acquisition?

15Communist party of India (Marxist) during the Lok Sabha Election 2009 came out with a campaign Folder entitled 'Differently Abled - Right to live with Dignity' stresses on the importance of differently abled population which states that, 'The numbers of the differently abled are underestimated because the census methodology depends purely on self-reporting. Recent estimates have the numbers at as much as 6 crore (6% of the population), 75% of persons with disabilities live in rural areas, compounding their misery further. Disabled women and girl children suffer from the added victimization of gender and are vulnerable to sexual exploitation. Disability is also a contributing factor for poverty, reduced access to education and health, exclusion and discrimination for both the persons with disabilities and their families'.

1.20 ADVANTAGES OF USING TECHNOLOGY IN CLASSROOM APPLICATIONS

Students feel enthusiastic while listening to technology- based teaching.

Using technology in language teaching helps save time.

Using visual aids is more effective and also it is easily reachable to the students.

CALL-Computer Assisted Language Learning provides a series of interaction among people.

Technology can be used in all subjects such as Science, Arts and computer.

1.21 ROLE OF MOVIES IN LANGUAGE LEARNING

Learning English through film represents a novel approach for some students. It will be a refreshing learning experience for students who need to take a break from learning of endless English vocabulary and drill practices and replace it with something realistic, a dimension that is missing in text book-oriented teaching. Movies can be used as a tool which may stimulate the students to learn any language aspects. After watching a movie the students can exploit the general viewing of a video. Learners can be encouraged to employ their skills by having group discussions, in or out of class, after watching a particular movie. In addition, generic worksheets may be developed to help those students who would like more focused attention when watching movies.

1.22 EVOLUTION OF FILMS:

The history of film spans over a hundred years, from the latter part of the 19th century to the present day. Motion pictures developed gradually from a carnival novelty to one of the most important tools of communication and entertainment, and mass media in the 20th century and into the 21st century. Motion picture films have had a substantial impact on the arts, technology, and language teaching.

In the beginning there was no editing and usually no camera movement, it was flat with stagey compositions. The novelty of realistically moving photographs was enough for a motion picture industry to mushroom in countries around the world. Thus, for the first thirty years of their history, movies were silent, although accompanied by live musicians. This evolving period was known as Silent Era. Gradually the evolution of the techniques in the film industry initiated the quality of better movies with advancements in visual and auditory effects.

1.23 ANIMATED FILMS:

Animated Films are individual drawings, paintings, or illustrations photographed frame by frame (stop-frame cinematography). Each frame differs slightly from the one preceding it, giving the illusion of movement when frames are projected in rapid succession at 24 frames per second. The earliest cinema animation was composed of frame-by-frame, hand-drawn images. When combined with movement, the illustrator's two-dimensional static art came into existence and created pure and imaginative cinematic images - animals and other inanimate objects could become evil villains or heroes. Animations are not a strictly-defined genre category. In an animated movie without any sounds or language only motion can be used to show expressions and convey messages.

1.24 By watching Movies one will:

Learn English vocabulary, as spoken by native speakers and phrases that are used in real-life situations

Practice and improve listening skills and comprehension skills

Learn/acquire proper pronunciation

Learn useful English language expressions as well as phrases for conversation

Feel that learning English can be fun!

1.25 INTERVIEW AND FOCUS GROUP

Interviewed Mr. K.M. Prabhu - Principal of Chikkanna Govt Arts College, Tirupur. He is an English Language teaching expert and a Differently Abled person who said that being Differently Abled was never a barrier from achieving his goal. Teaching language through animated movies would be favorable for the learners if implemented with proper guidance as technology has its own pitfalls.

Interviewed Mrs. Alli Rani - A Science Teacher of Infant Jesus Society for Training and Education who has been with the Differently Abled population said that, "Students are exposed to flash cards, perceptive pictures and some videos which provoke their enthusiasm in learning. Learners will enjoy learning their lessons when taught through Movies as it has a longer impact on the minds of the learners".

Interviewed Mrs. Jothi - Head Mistress of Vidya Vikashini School (Mentally Retarded Students) stated that Movies can control the minds of students and they observe a lot from movies. There are many movies which can teach Soft skills, Moral values, Language aspects, etc. Teaching language through animated movies can provoke the students learning and it is a novel approach to teach language.

Shahjan, Director of Ellora Animation, stated that any ones dream can be taken as an animated movie. Children love Fantasy (dream) which could be easily brought in reality through animated movies. Hence teaching a language through animation movie will help the learners to perceive the ideas efficiently.

Plays, dramas, and street plays are the precursors of films. Nowadays, movies are just a part of entertainment but in those days the purpose of the origin of plays was to educate and preach the people about religion and common issues related to the current scenario. So following the old tradition, learning a language through movies will motivate students to learn English, especially through listening to the dialogues of the movies. It also reinforces students' understanding of English with context bound expressions.

This chapter focuses on the problems faced by Differently Abled population in learning a language. It emphasizes on the implementation of Technology Assisted Language Learning to strengthen learners' confidence in their ability to use what they are learning in order to communicate with other people in realistic contexts. The benefits and challenges of language learning through animated movies are outlined in this chapter.

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