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The purpose of this literature review is to summarize current methods and models of personal and professional development to identify a common theoretical foundation upon which empirical studies can be conducted. Included in the literature review is a proposed research study which will not be performed that is designed to assess the efficiency of development. The purpose of the proposed research study is to induct theoretical frame work approach to the Continuous process of personal and professional Development.
Statement of Problem
The problem facing by the Personal and professional development is the lack of its effectiveness in long terms, the purported benefits of human development remains mostly testimonial in nature and the majority of studies done to date are based on phenomenological research. According to (Berg & Walter, 2005) them Personal and Professional Development is the most important factor of any person's life as his knowledge experience and character leads to a successful career, so in this research literature the researcher will try to put most effective theories and methodologies to support the argument of Continuous Personal and Professional Development 4p's and its practical implementation. This theoretical frame work is used to cover the loop hole of time period in the development process.
Human Development and its Background
Human Development (Bronfenbrenner, 1979) is also known as Psychological Development; it is the study of systematic psychological changes that occurs in human being during a course of time, it starts from the childhood to entire span of life. Learning by experience and developing more skills cannot be overlooked because today is the most important factor which plays vital role in personal and professional development.
Personal and professional development cannot be over looked in any way or in any sense, as it is directly related to the growth of human being. According to (Berg & Walter, 2005) Personal and Professional Development is the most important factor of any person's life as his knowledge experience and character leads to a successful career. It is human nature that they learns from the environment and experience it doesn't matter wherever they are, whatever they do, whatever they have; it gives them knowledge and experience which somehow polish there level of intelligence which leads them to development.
The very first idea elaborated concerning human development involved what is still the most basic issue in development today: the nature-nature issue (Lerner, 2002) This issue pertains to the source of human behaviour and Development. Which certainly means that once human behaviour and development source is known then the rest of it will go on with development environment, indeed which is provided with the nature to develop and persist and grow, which later gives a psychological factor to the human development which leads to personal and professional development of human.
According to (Lerner, 2002) human development pertains to whether behaviour and development drive from nature which is heredity, maturation or genes or at other extreme which are modern term which is environment experience, or Learning. The development according to (Megginson, Whitaker, 2006) is a process by which individuals take control of their own learning and development, by engaging in an on-going process and action. This process is very much alive today as it is being followed by millions of people and thousand of organisation which are generally known as learning organisations (Karash, 2001) is one in which people at all levels, individuals and collectively, are continually increasing their capacity to produce results they really care about.
While ( Kent, Lyon, 2004) in its broadest sense it is about development and change through learning: about how what and where individual learn and about what describe as encouraging people to develop and grow from dependency to independency to interdependency; it is quite broader sense and directly linked to the continuous personal and professional development, this is what shows the link between developing through needs and wants.
The process most probably leads to fine development in human which irrespectively shows through behaviour either in general or organisational level (Megginson, Whitaker, 2006) this process is to empowering and exciting which stimulate people to achieve their aspirations and move towards their dreams.
It shows how stimulating it is to learn through experience or by learning or respectively both of them together, which results in better understanding and growth of person's Personal and Professional Development (Pedler, Burgoyne, Boydell, 2001) in this world dealing with live problem, rather than being taught, is the major source of significant learning, which shows that the most significant way of development of human is through learning or by environment.
However by the end of twentieth century (Lerner, 2002) most of research starting to believe that learning by experience is more advantageous rather than to taught, the most important thing by today is to create a learning environment for the human to learn, develop and grow; however is very much identical to what researcher perceive in twentieth century but the major difference is the implementation process which is used in conjunction with the learning and development tools, but ( Kent, Lyon, 2004) Stated the development starts from dependency to independency to interdependency, which somehow links to the basics of the development of human. Personal and Professional development plays vital role in growth of a human and the organisation (Megginson, Whitaker, 2006) states that the firm conviction that Continuing development works for individual and makes complete sense to engage with the process of organisation.
Theories and methodologies Implementation
Many of the researchers links personal development to the need and wants of the human which later leads towards the professional development either is for individual or organisation, (Maslow, 1943) defined it as the desire to become more and more what one is, to become everything that one is capable of becoming, but this can be possible through learning and experience with the motivational factors which depends on human need. According to (Megginson, Whitaker, 2006) the continuing Professional development plays a vital role they derive it through a formula which is
Professional Performance= Ability * Motivation
This somehow links both the personal and professional development to one line as its shows by the (Maslow, 1943) Hierarchy of Need and the theory of self Motivation and with the formula derived by (Megginson, Whitaker, 2006) them. Because the hierarchy of need shows that once the need is fulfilled individual automatically goes through development for the next stage while the need is the motivational factor, which somehow linked both the theories together. Maslow explains that if the needs of the individual are fulfilled they started to grow and develop their skills, as it is the best way to development of any human being it shows the hierarchy of need which is
Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Need Fig.
This shows clearly that if the initial needs are fulfilled which is for physical survival then human automatically is in shape to learn and grow, once the individual is in this faze then they stated to grow automatically which might result most of the time in Personal and professional Development.
Psychological motivational factors also play a very important part in one's life. He (Maslow, 1943) explains that human beings are motivated by unsatisfied needs, and that certain lowerÂ factors need to be satisfied before higher needs can be satisfied. According to him (Maslow, 1943) there are general types of needs (physiological, survival, safety, love, and esteem) that must be satisfied before a person can act unselfishly. He called these needs "deficiency needs." As long as people are motivated to satisfy these cravings, they are moving towards growth and Personal and Professional development leads toward self-actualization. Satisfying needs is healthy, while preventing gratification makes people dissatisfied, and discouraged. Fulfilling the needs results performance and development which is interlinked with the theory given by (Megginson, Whitaker, 2006) them performance is equal to the level of motivation and ability to do the things. Ability here refers to knowledge and experience individual have to deal with the things which results in good performance and better development if there is a motivation to do things up to the certain merit.
This somehow shows what level of achievement or development is there if two major things put together to make a stronger bind this is much better linking with hierarchy of need and Maslow's theory of motivation. It all goes through systematically if there a need then to act otherwise there other systems to deal with.
There are so many approaches are in place for development which certainly links in different direction which later might give direct way to development (Lerner, 2002) there are four different approaches to development which are defined as
Continuity- Discontinuity and stability- Instability
The main focus to use the different approaches is to discover how people became sorted into subgroups over the course of development, while putting the things together shows the link between the researches which has been done previously over the decade. How the groups are made, how they go through the process of development, what are the factors which are involved in this process, what are the outcome. Dividing the groups in to individual is the question what will happen? Is it going to result in good way or not? What might be after affects of this? These might be the certain question which will be asked through this process of Personal and Professional Development. But outcome is good because individual are still following the systematic approach which they have learn through their environment, they are growing but not well enough. Still there is hole which need to be covered to improve performance which refers to the formula derived by (Megginson, Whitaker, 2006) them Performance= Ability*Motivation.
The most important things which always learning organisation is need are good individual having good experience, ability, intelligence and power to learn and improve, which results in their personal and professional development skills to grow more quickly and efficiently. This helps the organisation to create stronger bond continuous process of Personal and Professional Development. While some organisations are still not improving in a good way because of the adopted development procedure is not good enough to handle the pressure of today's world, which results in lacking of Good Personal and professional skills to be develop.
It's always very important for both the individual and the organisation to develop and grow through their previous experience and skills they have gain through process of development. Many people and organisations have refused to take total control in their own Personal and Professional Development.
They do not clearly define their values, vision and strategy; (William E. A., 2009) states in his blog that they are trapped in chains called as 3D's, Discouraged, Dissatisfied and Distressed. This all happen when the individual or organisation are not stable or more less they are lean towards instability because of the development they have in previous years. Learn from the experience is the way to improves has suggested by the top scholars and researchers, because they believe that professional development can be more stable or lean towards stability if the right factors are involved in it.
There are different levels of understanding and development (Bloom, 1956) which keep on going with the age of a person account for a broader range of human potential in children and adults. It clearly defines different level of learning and developing which changes from time to time with place to place. Developed by group of professionals headed by Benjamin Bloom The blooms taxonomy is all about the levels of learning through which the person come across in his life. Bloom branded six level within the cognitive field, from the simple recall or recognition of facts, as the lowest level, through increasingly more complex and abstract mental levels, to the peak order which is classified as evaluation. Taxonomy means as classification of learning, what are the different levels of learning and what are the factors which are involved in it these are
Knowledge is the initial level of learning and development as it refers directly with stability and general information about the things which make to person to react and act, if it is linked with psychological needs (Maslow, 1943) then it is the basis to gather the knowledge, or other way round Nature (Lerner, 2002) is the source to get knowledge which helps to gain personal and professional Development. The basic source of human development is the knowledge and for using that knowledge there are multiple intelligence (Gardner, 2006) which links them together to make better knowledge and experience it improves and develop personal and professional skills. The process sometime continuous and stable but if the bond is not strong behind this whole process then it cannot be effective. The Second process of cognitive domain is to comprehend the knowledge into various forms by using them in multiple ways, this process need experience and the most importantly talent both together help the individual to develop better personal and professional skills to make good use of it.
Things are not right always, or Nither the things which people see are always correct, there is always second picture of it which need comprehension. These skills can be developed by the use of multiple intelligence skills; this will help to develop better personal and professional skills.
The third and most important step to learn is to put the theories and practises together to make improved procedure of personal and professional development, (Megginson, Whitaker, 2006) it is continuous process of development for human being learn by experience. After that the most important factor by which individual can learn and develop better personal and professional skills is through checking the compatibility and stability with the process and general life. This will help to find out of there are any difference their which need either improvement or change in total. By doing that all the basic requirements are fulfilled linking it the hierarchy of need (Maslow, 1943) self actualization come in to play where individual can develop and draw better lines for improved and continuous Personal and Professional Development.
Synthesis is the process of developing new techniques through previous experience learning, better understanding of the previous put individual ahead of development. The last process is know is to evaluate the performance either the development is continuous or stable (Lerner, 2002) or not. Whether it's lean towards stability and continuity or it's lean towards discontinuity and instability. Findings will result in better use of the development tools to make Personal and Professional Development Continuous.
Development and intelligence (Gardner, 2006) both goes together, most of the time refers to what level of growth individual or organisation have done through there learning stages. Intelligence level of human being play very important role. Nowadays ("Howard Gardner, multiple intelligences and education," 2006) an increasing number of researchers believe precisely the opposite; that there exists a multitude of intelligences, quite independent of each other; that each intelligence has its own strengths and constraints; that the mind is far from unencumbered at birth; and that it is unexpectedly difficult to teach things that go against early 'naive' theories of that challenge the natural lines of force within an intelligence and its matching domains. He explains that there are eight different type of intelligence are working along with the individual, which most of the time help to learn , grow indeed refers to Personal and professional Development these are.
While new researchers (West, 2001) divided the personal and professional Development into different parts, personal growth and development efforts should generally fall into four categories, these are Knowledge, Leadership, Responsibility and Advocacy. She find out that these all factors working together plays a vital role in continuous personal and professional development, because for human development the most important things is the knowledge which individual gain through his experience and knowledge so that factor is more important across all sorts of development. Is has been seen in previous researches that mainly the focus is the force which leads the knowledge and experience towards the continuous personal and professional development. It can be a motivation or it can be talent but both of them linking together to make strong bond for Personal and professional Development.
Moreover the leadership always have sort of motivation in achieving the goals which leads towards the charter of life for growth and development. What she investigate through her theory that responsibility always plays its importance when it come to development, basically it is a human nature learn through environment and surrounding. Or it might be the current situation of the individual which leads to development ahead of any other individual or organisation. The fourth important factor is the advocacy which is the motivational force which helps the individual to develop permoted and grow in continuous process of personal and professional development. According to Maslow theory (Maslow, 1943) of motivation there are certain factors which involved in to motivating the individual learn, perform, and development. He (Herzberg, 1987) gave a dual factor theory which depends on two factors which are Motivational Factor and Hygiene Factors. But the main factor involved with the continuous process of development is a Motivational Factor
He shows that the individual or company can better grow and develop if they have goals to achieve which gives them a factor of being motivated. Through this process they will learn and develop new skills to achieve their goals, this process is entirely based on the Personal and Professional Development they will get. Many organisations are using this theories to develop better way to increase their growth and make it continues. The Second most important factor is his theory is the recognition of the growth and skills they have gain; it gives individual a motivation to make this Personal and Professional development Continuous.
When the individual starting to feel that his working is getting recognition then it is quite easy to motivate, this will increase his will power he will come up with new idea and its implementation plan through the process which help him to learn and grow more quickly. Individual will feel the responsibility and will try to do the things in top format, which is good for the company. If the company starting to feel that the personal has all the ingredients which is needed to make good mangers then the individual can be permoted to next level. Through this up to the mark selection and working procedure the company will automatically on the way of better development, this is really very good for both the company and staff for their continuous process of development and growth.
On the other hand researcher refers Professional Development (Megginson, Whitaker, 2006) is a continuous process that applies throughout a practitioners working life. Which somehow refers to a growth through learning environment (Lerner, 2002) is the best source of personal and professional development; learning environment and learning organisation are the two best ways of individual development. Indeed the development through both ways helps the individual to learn and grow.
The first hand experience and learning by living in various cultures, helps to bring a multidimensional perspective on business, success and a life in general. Many people have refused to take total control in their own Personal and Professional Development. They do not clearly define their values, vision and strategy; (William, 2009) in his blog that they are trapped in chains called as 3D's, Discouraged, Dissatisfied and Distressed.
The Personal and Professional development (S. Ventegodt & Andersen, 2003) most of the time refers to the awareness of the personality, self knowledge, potential and talent. The development of personal and Professional qualities plays a crucial role in managing the life. However in today's word there are several techniques to improve, develop and manage these skills which are helping the Personal and Professional life of the personal which are directly or indirectly affecting their day to day habitat.
The most important tool used today for Personal and professional development is the attitude towards the development (Megginson, Whitaker, 2006) "If You believe you can, or believe you can't, You're right" some time people are trying to understand their learning environment but still are not getting enough out of it, so one can believe that it's just because of the attitude. Attitude, skills, intelligence, learning environment, all plays very critical role in human development, as these are just basic of any development, now in this Literature the researcher will try to put the things together, compare and find out what the development really means in sense of Personal and Professional development. This literature review gives a basic idea of how the researchers previously tide the things together for better human development and if there are any gaps how can they covered through Personal and professional development framework or implementation plan which provides the fast way of implementing them.
The most basic issue in development today: the nature-nature issue (Lerner, 2002) this issue pertains to the source of human behaviour and Development, while (Megginson, Whitaker, 2006) refers human development to learning from experience and surroundings. The Major relation between both these theories define by researchers are somehow link with each in the deepest sense; where development is through experience and learning is the second part of the Nature - Nature theory or (Zukav, Lerner, 2002) Nature Mechanistic theory of Development. In which they certainly agreed at one point which is the learning environment which leads to human development in both ways either its Personal Development or Professional Development.
That development is known as Continuous Development as it goes on with the time until a big change comes across it, this doesn't matter either it's finish result is positive or negative. It has been noted in previous researches that surrounding and environment leaves an affects on the development and growth while the process is entirely based on the impact of this whole development. There are different things get involved in here; which are intelligence, learning levels and its scenarios, motivational factors all these bits together makes the human to grow and develop according to the needs and wants of either human or organisation, (Ogilvy, 2003) defines its as when there's a will There's a Way for a development.
Nature - Nature Issue and Personal and Professional Development
Nature - Nature issue is convenient (Lerner, 2002) to take as heredity and environment in human development, previously some scientist believe that people behaviour and development all depend on genetic predisposition. They believe that all human growth and development entirely depend on their genetic, it is true according to research done by other scientist and researchers because they believe that there are different other factor which also play vital role in the growth and development which generally know as human development. These factors are
The second issue which can also goes in same way is dependence to Independence and interdependence, where people depending on other for their personal & Professional development and growth according to them it is not in their hands to grow and develop in the way they want it to be. Their development has no continuity as they have no general agenda to live their lives. They refer it to the nature that they are not intelligent enough to take their development and growth as they want, But researcher are not agree with this statement what they think of development is (Megginson, Whitaker, 2006) in Learner Control, because personal and professional development starts from the dream individual or organisation have. It's all depend on the level of development is needed according to wants; it comes through motivation and knowledge they have. Through this process they get involved in continuous process of development by purposing performing and they get permoted to next development level.
The second stage which is also know is dependent which refers to get what is needed or required through skills knowledge and motivation. This process starts from learning environment where the individual learns the thing according to the goal they want to achieve; in this level the motivation is the level which they want to achieve through knowledge. They use their intelligence and get there self going towards the goal they want to achieve, and they get involved which is known as the continuous process of development. It can be personal or professional development. According to what (Pedler, Burgoyne, Boydell, 2001)
they have explained is that individual learns through experience which they gain to achieve their goals which results in better Personal and professional Development. The best way to development is to learn and get experience from live problems rather than depending on other or other sources.
The third stage which definitely links to the Nature - Nature issue ( Kent, Lyon, 2004) is Interdependence where learn, grow and development all links together to make better personal and professional development. While new researchers (West, 2001) divided the personal and professional Development links into different parts, personal growth and development efforts should generally fall into four categories, these are Knowledge, Leadership, Responsibility and Advocacy. Where Interdependence comes into play leadership plays a vital role to tell who is responsible and for what; through knowledge and experience they get involved in the process of achieving and accumulate the things in order to achieve the results, this process leads them to grow and develop their personal and professional skills.
Kolb's give his learning and development model or matrix which shows that learning and development based on the experience from that experience he can involved in the process of continuous Personal and Professional Development. This matrix provides a learning cycle that involves four processes that must be present for learning to occur. Note that this part of Kolb's model is more useful in that rather than trying to pinpoint a learning style, he provides a model learning program, called this Experiential Learning since experience is the source of learning and development (Kolb, 1984). Each ends of the continuums provide a step in the learning process:
Kolb's Experiential Learning Cycle
Kolb's Learning and Development Fig.
Concrete experience (feeling): Learning from specific experiences and relating to people. Sensitive to other's feelings.
Reflective observation (watching): Observing before making a judgement by viewing the environment from different perspectives. Looks for the meaning of things.
Abstract conceptualization (thinking): Logical analysis of ideas and acting on intellectual understanding of a situation.
Active experimentation (doing): Ability to get things done by influencing people and events through action. Includes risk-taking.
The most important factor in Personal and Professional Development is to take knowledge, Learning and intelligence together to make better and appropriate method to develop the skills in individual, so that the individual can perform the task and grow in multidirectional way. The process can be easily continuous if they have multiple options to perform the task which is very much suitable according to the today requirement. The most effective method of evaluation used to gauge the development is (Kirkpatrick, 1994) Model for evaluation, this can help to measure the development.
Development plan Explanation
The main purpose of engaging in this literature review is to provide the basis for the previous research which has been done on the field human development before. The main aim of this research is to find out the easiest source of personal and professional development which remains continuous in terms of development and growth.
The theories related to this research which are providing the base for this research are from Megginson and Whitaker theory of continuous development and Empowering, Lerner's Nature- Nature theory, Kent and Lyon theory of learning and development, Professor Howard Gardner theory of Intelligence, Peter Ducker theory, Abraham Maslow theory of self actualization and motivation, the blooms taxonomy, Hertzberg Dual theory of motivation, theory by Dr. S Ventegodt of development and the Kolb's learning and development style.
These all research material together providing the basis of the research which has four main parts, which starts from learning and development and the source is from the ability and the previous knowledge which helps to purpose the idea or development which well be discussed in hypothesis.
The second part is related to intelligence and ability of presenting and using it. While the third part which generally used to perform the task depends on 3four factors which are, ability, intelligence , previous experience from learning environment and the motivational factors. The fourth part and the final is about the evaluation and giving new motivation to make the process continuous In terms of its practise and performance the method which will be used for this evolution will be Kolb's learning and evaluation model.
This is the theory for this research while its implementation plan and the evaluation will be followed in the next chapters which will in-depth knowledge and implementation plan for the 4P's frame work. This table will provide the basis of how this research will be used in to cover any loop holes or the differences they have in previous research.
The Learning and Development Cycle
The Continuous Learning and Development Cycle Fig.
Diagram by: Muhammad Muddasser Arif
Academic Research 2009
The Continuinous Learning and development Cycle
The Learning and Development Cycle Description and Characteristics
What is Measured
Description and Characteristics
Tools and Methods
Relevance and Practice compared with previous research
Ability of Learning, Previous Knowledge and Experience, Motivation for Goal
Vision and Strategy, use of intelligence, Motivation of Achievement
Megginson & Whitaker theory, Nature- Nature Development, Peter Drucker and Abraham Maslow
Learning by Experience will help for Continuous Development
Knowledge, Potential, use of intelligence and motivation
Ability to increase the knowledge of the Performers
Megginson & Whitaker theory and Howard's Gardner
control in their own Personal and Professional Development
Experience and Motivation for Achievement
Knowledge, Leadership, Responsibility and Advocacy
West and Lyon theory of development
knowledge and experience leads towards CLDC
Motivation to Increase in Knowledge, Ability to perform, more
Benjamin Bloom's Kolb's theory of Evaluation
Evaluation and Feedback for performance lead to motivation of Individual
There is a deficiency of empirically based literature on the relationship between theory and practice in Personal and Professional Development, the time period that is required for this process to practically implemented take ages for effective Personal and Professional Development. The main aim of this research is to provide short way of using the skills ability, intelligence and learning to make effective Development in short span of time. It is possible through empowering the individual to take control of his/her development through the theoretical implementation 4P's.
In this literature the researcher tried to find out how this evaluation model will help to evaluate the level of development which is either Personal or Professional. This model will help to evaluate the process that has been used for personal and professional development by implementing the CLDC 4P's frame work.
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