Providing Justification Of Paradigm Education Essay

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This section aims at providing an overview for the research paradigm of the study and also providing justification of the chosen paradigm with regard to the ontological, epistemological, methodological, and axiological perspective. The research design will then be discussed.

This study adopts a constructivist paradigm and a qualitative approach investigating the current practices of quality assurance in selected universities in Vietnam used as case studies as well as exploring the potential challenges and enablers for a genuine quality culture from the perspectives of academic leaders, tertiary teachers and quality assurance staff. This approach will allow the researcher collect rich and in depth meaning for the following research questions:

Main question: How can structure and culture inform quality assurance/improvement in the context of Vietnamese higher education institutions?


What is the current quality culture of HEIs in Vietnamese context?

How is quality assurance developed and managed in HEIs in Vietnam?

How do academic leaders, tertiary teachers and quality assurance staff respond to quality management?

What are the views of tertiary teachers, academic leaders (university rectors, faculty deans), and quality assurance staff about enabling factors and potential challenges to be overcome for a successful quality culture, i.e. for genuine quality improvement?

Research paradigm:

Paradigm or worldview is defined by Guba (1990) as 'a basic set of beliefs that guide action' (p.17). Guba and Lincoln (1994) clarify it as "the basic belief system on worldview that guides the investigator, not only in choice of method, but in ontologically and epistemologically fundamental ways" (p.105).

That basic set of beliefs can be clearly viewed basing on responses to four conceptual and interrelated questions:

The ethical question: How will I be as a moral person in the world?

The epistemological question: What is the relationship between the inquirer and the known?

The ontological question: What is nature of reality, and nature of the human being in the world?

The methodological question: What are the best means of gaining knowledge about the world? (Denzin & Lincoln, 2000, p.157)

This study will apply a constructivist paradigm, which adopts "a relativist ontology, a subjectivist epistemology, and a naturalistic set of methodological procedures" (Denzin & Lincoln, 2000, p.21).


This study will focus on the reality constructed by the participants under investigation. The reality of an ontological question is relativist as it applies to the phenomena of quality assurance in selected tertiary institutions in Vietnam. The study will focus on the different interpretations of quality assurance mechanisms by academic leaders, tertiary teachers and quality assurance staff and their perceptions of a successful quality culture in these institutions. There will be multiple realities involved in the research. A constructivist ontology is appropriate for this study to investigate meanings the participants construct as they engage with the world they are interpreting, based on their historical and social perspectives. The meanings, therefore, are always social, arising in and out of interaction with a human community (Crotty, 1998).


"What is the relationship between the researcher and that being researched?"

(Creswell, 2007, p.17)

is the epistemological question of any study.

This study will describe and explore the phenomena of quality assurance in higher education in Vietnam. The researcher will interact with academic leaders, tertiary teachers and quality assurance staff through semi-structured, in-depth interviews. The study will be interpretive in nature in describing and exploring the phenomena of quality assurance as perceived by these various groups of participants.


Taken the aforementioned ontological and epistemological perspective into consideration, the study will apply a qualitative methodology and an inductive logic. This approach will allow categorising meaning emerging from the participants' perceptions and different interpretations of quality assurance in Vietnamese tertiary education. This will provide "rich 'context bound' information leading to patterns or theories that help explain a phenomenon" (Creswell, 1994, p.7).


Axiology is related to values (Creswell, 2007), or ethics (Denzin & Lincoln, 2000, p. 157). It is impossible to do social research and not be concerned about values. Howe (2009) states that "just as social research is theory-laden; it is also value-laden…" (p.430). The research will adhere to the New Zealand Association for Research in Education Ethical Guidelines (NZARE, 2010) as Lincoln and Guba (2000) assert that axiology is "a part of the basic foundational philosophical dimensions of paradigm proposal" (p. 169).

Qualitative research:

This study adopts an inductive inquiry, with context bound information emerging to help explain the phenomena of quality assurance practices in higher education. This inductive nature is appropriate for exploring how people interpret and respond to quality assurance mechanism in higher education and the ways they form their behaviours towards quality assurance. Data collected from literature review, documentation, interviews and direct observations will be analysed for patterns and themes, which will allow the researcher develop concepts, insights and understandings of quality assurance practices in selected universities.

Research design

The research is designed so as to describe the quality assurance systems in tertiary education in Vietnam and explore how academic leaders, tertiary teachers and quality assurance staff respond to quality assurance and also their perceptions for a successful quality culture. Figure 5 (adapted from Saunders, Lewis, & Thornhill, 2007) below shows different approaches available for a research and the study framework applied in this research.









Mono method

Case study




Mixed method

Cross-sectional or longitudinal


Time horizon

Multi method






Radical humanist

Radical structuralist

Figure 5: The research paradigm (adapted from Saunders et al., 2007, p.132)


The element of research paradigm in this study is summarized as following:

Epistemology Constructivism

Theoretical perspective Interpretivism

Research approach Inductive

Literature review




Research methodology Qualitative multiple case study

Data collection

The case study approach

The US General Accounting Office (1990) defines a case study as "a method for learning about a complex instance, based on a comprehensive understanding of that instance obtained by extensive descriptions and analysis of that instance taken as a whole and in its context" (p.15). Although there are debates whether it is a method or a research design, Mertens (2005) considers case studies as one option in quality research strategy choice.

Yin (2003) suggests that the case study is "the method of choice when the phenomenon under study is not readily distinguishable from its context" (p.4) and also for Yin (2009) "the distintive need for case studies arises out of the design to undertand complex social phenomena" and "allows investigators to retain the holistic and meaningful characteristics of real-life events" (p.4). The research will cover current practices of assuring quality in different tertiary institutions in Vietnam. The case study approach, therefore, will be suitable because of the contextual nature of the phenomenon under investigation. Furthermore, a multiple case study approach will be chosen to allow for cross-comparision of contexts and to capture a wide enough spectrum of factors influencing quality assurance within various institutions. This enables the researcher to understand the complex real-life activities of academic leaders, tertiary teachers and quality assurance staff for quality delivery and assurance in different contexts. The research will investigate the different ways of conducting quality assurance activities in the selected institutions in order to explore how quality assurance systems are developed and operated in their contexts. Each case study is supposed to contain different variables of interest resulting from the unique context shaping its own quality assurance system.

Using a multiple case study approach: (a) allows in-depth analysis of the complex relationship amongst different systems of quality assurance and how different players perceived them together with deep insights into how different contexts affect their practices in assuring quality; (b) allows the reseacher to identify particularity of each system in relation to particular contextual factors for different institutional identities as stated by Anderson (1993) that case studies concern how and why things happen, allowing the investigation of contextual realities and the differences between what was planned and what actually occurred; and (c) allows the researcher to make comparisons amongst cases.

The choice for multiple cases is appropriate given that Yin (2009) argues multiple case studies should follow a replication, not sampling logic. Three tertiary institutions will be chosen to form multiple case studies in this research, which allows the replication (a literal replication) or producing contrasting results but for predictable reasons from one phenomenon (a theoretical replication) (Yin, 2009). However, the study does not aim at generalisation of the findings nor seeking a desirable outcome as Lincoln and Cuba (1985) argue "...the existence of local conditions makes it impossible to generalise" (p.124). Additionally, Stake (2000) warns readers not to lose the uniqueness of this case in an attempt to find similarities with other cases. The primary concern is to gain deep understanding of influential factors informing quality assurance practices and explanation of experiences in these varied contextual cases from the perspectives of the participants under investigation.

The purpose of using multiple case study in this research is not only to obtain the transferability through thick description, i.e. "extensive and careful description of the time, place, context and culture" (Mertens, 2005, p.256), but also respect the particularity of each case. Though some authors (Yin, 2009, Merriam, 1988) view case study as a method for scientific generalizations, Stake (2000) emphasizes the importance of the intrinsic interest in each case, which is of vital importance for this study.

Selections of cases:

Within a qualitative paradigm, the major technique of sampling is purposive, as opposed to probability sampling in a quantitative study. Purposive sampling strategies are deigned "to enhance understandings of selected individuals or groups' experience(s) or for developing theories and concepts" (Devers & Frankel, 2000, p.264). Purposive sampling seeks information rich cases which can be studied in-depth (Patton, 1990). They can be "individuals, groups, organisations, or behaviours that provide the greatest insight into the research question" (Devers & Frankel, 2000, p.264).

In explaining how to define the case or the unit of analysis, Merriam (1988) suggests 'the case can be an individual, a program, an institution, a group, an event, a concept' (p.44) and the key issue in determining the case is to decide "what it is you want to be able to say something about at the end of the study" (Patton, 1980, p.100). Thus, the case in this study will be a holistic, intensive, rich description and analysis of policies and practices to assure quality of Business English undergraduate programme. A multiple case study aims at examining "how the program or phenomenon performs in different environments" (Stake, 2006, p.23). The practices of assuring quality in Business English programmes will be investigated at three tertiary institutions.

The strategies for cases in this study are subject to Patton's (2002) categories. First of all, homogeneous samples will be used for the researcher's selection of cases to enable her to describe "some particular subgroup in depth" (Patton, 2002, p.235) or to describe "the experiences of subgroups of people who share similar characteristics" (Mertens, 2005, p.318) or Goetz and LeCompte (1984) define it as comparable-case selection. In this study, three different tertiary institutions which deliver the same undergraduate specialized/professional program, Business English will be selected as cases for any similarities or contrasting results in conducting quality assurance activities from top-down policies to bottom-up implementation. Business English undergraduate programme, rather than other discipline is chosen because of what Patton (2002) calls "convenience sampling", accessible to the researcher in terms of her major.

In addition, stratified purposeful sampling will be chosen to select three different institutions in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. This selection will be based on specified criteria, and a sample of cases will be then selected within those strata. Three tertiary institutions in Ho Chi Minh City- University of Finance and Marketing, Ho Chi Minh City Open University, Ho Chi Minh City University of Pedagogy will be chosen basing on the varied nature of the institutions which Hopkin (2004) refers to "frame factors" which help categorise institutions as "mature", "evolving" and "embryonic". Although his categories are applied broadly in the world including "the traditional elaborate higher education systems of developed states" as mature systems, "younger higher education systems" as evolving systems and "higher education systems that are at the early stage of development" (pp.191-192) as embryonic one, he suggests the most meaningful implication of this categorisation can be inferred to the stage of higher education systems in itself as a frame factor. University of Finance and Marketing is classified as embryonic, Ho Chi Minh City Open University as evolving and Ho Chi Minh City University of Pedagogy as mature in terms of collective whole rather than its components (Hopkin, 2004). These three cases will be perceived as different in terms of a wide variety of frame factors both internally and externally influencing an institution: levels of development, institutional size, resource availability, quantity and quality of personnel, their general contextual environment and their unique historical characteristics. These varied cases, which formulate the basis of purposeful sampling of these cases under investigation, allow the researcher to collect rich information on the fullest possible range of factors that inform policies in assuring and improving quality in the developing context of tertiary education in Vietnam.

Selections of participants:

In this study the goal is to gain deep understanding of quality assurance practices and experiences from the perspectives of academic leaders, tertiary teachers and quality assurance staff, which therefore will form the three main groups of stakeholder. Different groups of stakeholders are believed to provide various conceptualisations on how quality is assured and committed in a complex and integrated system as a whole, i.e. an undergraduate programme. Academic leaders will be selected because they are both practitioners and managers of quality assurance from the top including rector or vice rector of institutions, dean of the department and Business English programme if applicable given the contextual factors of each institution. The minimum number of academic leaders will be two for each case and up to three.

Quality assurance staff will also be informants as their positions place them in a position likely to provide rich sources of information on how quality is managed and assured at programmatic level. The number of invited quality assurance staff will depend on the available staff working at both institutional and programmatic levels to ensure 'the maximum variation sampling' (Patton, 2002), up to three participants.

The same strategy will be applied for the selection of teacher participants in consideration of teachers' genders, age and experience, full time and part-time teachers. Eight teachers from each case will be invited to take part in interviews, a mixture of male and female teachers to ensure gender voice balance, both young and old teachers in terms of not only age but their experience in teaching and a balance of fulltime and part-time teachers. The numbers of full time and part time teachers can be varied due to the contextual environment of each institution.

Table 1: Three groups of participants in the study

Case study 1

Case study 2

Case study 3

Academic leaders

Rector 1

Rector 2

Rector 3

Dean 1

Dean 2

Dean 3

*Head 1 of Business English programme

Head 1 of Business English programme

Head 1 of Business English programme

Quality assurance staff

3 participants

3 participants

3 participants

Tertiary teachers

8 participants

8 participants

8 participants

(*) It can be noted that the dean of faculty and head of Business English programme can be one person dependent on the arrangements of each institution.

Data collection:

To study a case, Stake (2000) recommends data collection of the following types of information:

The nature of the case

The historical background

The physical setting

Other contexts, such as economic, political, legal, and aesthetic

Other cases through which this case is recognized

Those informants through whom the case can be known.

In terms of data collection, "the case study method requires the use of multiple source of evidence", which helps address the issue of construct validity because "the multiple sources of evidence should provide multiple measures of the same construct" (Gray, 2009, p.252), also enhances data credibility (Patton, 2002; Yin, 2009) and triangulation of evidence (Yin, 2009).

The findings of the study will be mainly drawn from three primary sources of evidence: the review of literature, document analysis and field work including observation and interviews. Instead of handling data from these multiple sources individually, they are converged in the analysis process contributing to the researcher's understanding of the whole phenomenon (Baxter & Jack, 2008). "No single source has a complete advantage over the others; rather, they might be complementary and could be used in tandem" (Tellis, 1997, p.83). Similarly, Patton (1990) suggests that "using a combination of data types increases validity as the strengths of one approach can compensate for the weaknesses of another approach" (p.224).

Yin (2009) advocates the use of as many sources as possible.

The following table (Table 2) outlines the strengths and weaknesses of each source of evidence used in the study from Yin (2009):

Table 2. Strengths and weaknesses of some sources of evidence by Yin (2009)

Source of evidence




Stable - can be reviewed repeatedly

Unobtrusive - not created as a result of the case study

Exact - contains exact names, references, and details of an event.

Broad coverage - long span of time, many events and many settings

Retrievability - can be difficult to find

Biased selectivity, if collection is incomplete

Reporting bias - reflects (unknown) bias of author

Access - may be deliberately withheld


Targeted - focuses directly on case study topics

Insightful - provides perceived causal inferences and explanations

Bias due to poorly articulated questions

Response bias

Inaccuracies due to poor recall

Reflexivity - interviewee gives what interviewer wants to hear

Direct Observation

Reality - covers events in real time

Contextual - covers context of 'case'


Selectivity - broad coverage difficult without a team of observers

Reflexivity - event may proceed differently because it is being observed

Cost - hours needed by human observers

(Excerpt from Yin, 2009, p. 102)

The literature in quality assurance will be reviewed and discussed first in order to shed light on the development of quality assurance, together with current debates, concern, practices and trends in the world as well as in the Vietnamese context. The contestable nature of both quality and quality assurance in tertiary institutions is not only common in developing countries but also developed countries in terms of whose responsibility it is to assure quality: the government, or university alone or being shared amongst academics and other groups of stakeholders. The second theme arising in the literature review is the power relationship between academics and other stakeholders which may impede or enhance quality assurance processes. Furthermore, a review of literature advocates the complicated phenomenon of quality assurance processes including multiple stakeholders' perspectives and very awkward to balance. Another issue refers to quality management and commitment tensions amongst different stakeholders. The literature review of this study will serve two purposes. It helps develop theoretical propositions to guide questions during interviews, data collection and analysis. Concepts and themes from data collected will be compared to those from the literature for data triangulation. It also serves as a secondary source of data to either confirm the findings or disconfirm the information in the literature.

The second source of evidence will be documentation. Documents to be reviewed will include Education Law, national directives, decisions, letters, memoranda, agendas, quality handbook, curriculum, self-study reports, or any items that could add to the database of quality assurance practices and activities including institutional mission, programmatic objectives, strategic plans, curriculum design, policies, and procedures in assuring quality. These documents allow the researcher to identify quality assurance frameworks within each case study. The most important angle of document analysis is the examination of congruence between the policy in paper and practices in reality. Yin (2009) cautions researchers about over-reliance on document as evidence in case studies, so the uses of documents are of importance to corroborate and augment evidence from other sources because of probable mistakes may be assumed by the casual investigator about the unmitigated truth of all kinds of documents. Yin (2009) stats that documents in a case study 'reflect a communication among other parties in an attempt to achieve some other objectives' (p.105), a researcher as a vicarious observer, therefore, needs to identify these objectives to avoid being misled by these kinds of evidence and critically interpret such evidence contents.

Whilst document analysis can help verify the correct spellings or names of organizations, and provide a picture of policies in assuring quality from the governmental to departmental levels, it cannot explain why the participants perceived and practiced these policies in reality. Interviews, therefore, will be used to 'set out to explain and account for the descriptive information (Gray, 2009, p.36)' and can provide important insights into human affairs and behavioural events (Yin, 2009). Gray (2009) defines an interview as "a conversation between people in which one person has the role of researcher" (p.369). Whether it is structured, semi-structured or unstructured, "well-conducted interview is a powerful tool for eliciting rich data on people's views, attitudes, and the meanings that underpin their lives and behaviours" (Gray, 2009, p.370). In this study, semi-structured interviews will be used as a means of gathering information about a person's knowledge, values, preferences and attitudes (Gray, 2009). Patton (1990) also clarifies the purpose of interviewing is "not to put things in someone's mind but to access the perspective of person being interviewed" (p.278). Also, open-ended interviews are considered appropriate in the qualitative research because of its nature, to get the perceptions of different groups of stakeholders on how quality assurance is developed and implemented in their institutions. Moreover, the interviews allow probing views and opinions in line with the research objectives, research questions and the information gained from literature review so as to obtain the validity of the interviews, which may become problematic in unstructured interviews. They also provide space for respondents to expand on their answer (Gray, 2009). When conducting an interview, Mhlanga (2009) suggests that the researcher is responsible for creating "the right interview climate" (p.81), which means establishing and maintaining a positive interviewing climate, as concurrent with Maykut and Morehouse's (1994) arguments.

All interviews will be audio or video recorded, dependent on instruments' availability and interviewees' preferences. Recording interviews is advantageous in allowing the interviewer maximum concentration on asking questions and issues for richest information while capturing every word uttered by the respondents. The recording allows detailed and accurate transcription of data that cannot obtain from memory or note-taking. However, for those respondents who refuse permission to use a recording device or seem uncomfortable in its presence, taking notes will be used. After the interviews, interviewees will listen to the recording and check the transcript to verify its accuracy. The interviews will be conducted in Vietnamese; therefore, after being transcribed they will be all translated into English. you will listen to the interview recording and read the transcript to verify its accuracy

Observations in this study will be direct ones, but very limited. The purpose of observation is mainly to maximise the time spent during the visits to selected institutions including but not limited to, library, computer and network system, laboratories, staff offices, and classroom in order to examine the climate, environment and impoverishment of the selected sites.

Figure 6 below summarizes the process of multiple case study applied in this research.

Phase II

Phase I

Conduct third case study

Conduct second case study

Conduct first case study

Select cases

Document analysis

Document analysis


Data analysis


Data analysis

Document analysis

Data analysis



Develop theory



Design data collection tools and protocol

Write third case study report

Write second case study report

Write first case study report

Comparing and contrasting

Comparing and contrasting

Draw cross case conclusions

Phase III

Figure 6: A case study process (adapted from Yin, 2009)

Modify theory

Develop policy implications

Write cross-case report

Data analysis:

The researcher will apply three strategies proposed by Yin (2009) for data analysis. Initially, the research will rely on theoretical propositions. The propositions will be developed from the review of literature and allow the researcher to shape a similar data collection plan for selected tertiary universities. The second strategy is developing a case description in order to achieve a comprehensive understanding of quality assurance activities and practices in each case, then patterns or themes will be recognized through a coding process. Pattern-recognition will not aim at generalisation beyond the case; rather, it is for understanding the complexity of quality assurance in each case identified as instrumental case study by Stake (1995) (Figure 7). Last but not least strategy, i.e. examining rival explanations will be applied to analyse the data for any contracting and emerging themes during cross-case analysis. These strategies will underpin the following analytic techniques used in the research: pattern matching, explanation building, and cross-case synthesis (Yin, 2009). The data from the first case study will be organized and analysed into conceptual categories and emerging themes, then descriptions and explanations of various patterns will be made. Similar processes will be applied to the remaining cases, in which dominant variables in the first case will be paid more attention and any new variables will be noted to identify the uniqueness of each case. Moreover, the study will also apply the integrated strategies for cross-case analysis: case-oriented and variable-oriented as proposed by Miles and Huberman (1994). Case-oriented strategy allows deep understanding of how quality assurance is developed and exercised in each case individually whilst variable-oriented helps capture the wide range of contextual factors for cross-case comparisons on variables and patterns regarding quality assurance practices. n.1. The property of reacting.2. The process of reacting.

n the degree to which a being responds to a stimulus. .

The main approach to data analysis will involve detailed content analysis of the interviews. The transcript of each interview will be reviewed and coded for themes, then compared with each others for confirming or disconfirming evidence in order to reanalyse in the light of new themes emerging. During the pattern-matching process, the data collected will be organized to support plausible explanations about the nature of quality assurance and practices amongst academic leaders, tertiary teachers and quality assurance staff. Any rival explanations will also be identified during the explanation-building process. In this case, the collected data will be reviewed so as to discover contextual conditions, if any, for specific differences. The data will be then analysed and compared across cases using integrated strategies suggested by Miles and Huberman (1994): case-oriented and variable-oriented.

Individual case study analysis:

Literature review

Direct observations

First case analysis


Document analysis

First case study

Interview 2

Interview 1

Raw analysis of first interview

Remaining interviews




Figure 7. Individual case study analysis

The above figure (Figure 7) shows stage-by-stage analysis. It is very beneficial for collecting data to gain a meaningful insight into what really happened in reality before understanding deeply why this happened. The data collection in this study will be planned in such a way that the analysis of previous source of evidence will guide the subsequent processes of data collection. It is worthwhile checking the previous interview before sitting for the next one in order to identify any weaknesses and then plans for improvements. This data analysis method will enable the researcher to match emergent themes and patterns upon one another as new data will be continually compared to previously-analysed data.

Also, proper data management will help to ensure research validity and rigour. All data from different sources of evidence will then be managed with the help of computer-assisted qualitative data analysis, Nvivo programme. It will serve as 'an able assistant and reliable tool' (Yin, 2009, p.128) to allow data to be coded and categorized. Once a case study database has been created, each case study will be analysed individually followed by cross-case analyses.

The following procedures will also be used for data analysis as suggested by Creswell (2009). Though he confirms that this is a linear, hierarchical approach, it is an interactive in practice with various interrelated stages.

Interpreting the meaning of themes/ descriptions

Integrating themes / description using case-oriented strategy

Validating the accuracy of the information



Case 2

Case 3

Case 1

Coding the data (computer)

Cross-case analysis using variable-oriented strategy

Reading intensively through all data

Organizing and preparing data for analysis with the help of Nvivo

Raw data from documents, interviews, fieldnotes, observations

Figure 8. Data analysis procedures (adapted from Creswell, 2009)

Reliability, validity and generalizability:

Qualitative validity means that the researcher checks for the accuracy of the findings by employing certain procedures to ensure validity (see Figure 8). Data triangulation, rich, thick description, researcher-bias clarification, negative and discrepant information, and sufficient time in the fields suggested by Creswell (2009) are multi strategies will be used to check the accuracy of the findings.

In order to determine whether approaches in qualitative research are consistent and reliable, Yin (2003) suggests the procedures of case studies be documented as detailed as possible. Gibbs (2007) proposes several reliability procedures from checking transcripts for any obvious mistakes and to mitigate against drift in code definition (i.e., shift in meaning of codes).

Generalisation is not the purpose of this study. Though designed as multiple case study (Yin, 2009, Merriam, 1988, Miles & Huberman, 1994), the research aims at "particular description and themes in context of a specific site", "particularity rather than generalizability" is the hallmark of quality research' (Creswell, 2009, p. 193) in alignment with Denzin's (1983) and Guba and Lincoln's (1981) argument that generalisability is inappropriate for qualitative studies.

Ethical considerations

In qualitative research, Merriam (2001) cautions that as the primary instrument for gathering and analysing data, the researcher must be aware of the potential personal biases. The concepts of relationships and power between researchers and participants will be embedded in qualitative research. Therefore, the quality of social interactions between researchers and participants may facilitate or inhibit access to information. The purpose of this study is to describe a phenomenon of quality assurance and improvement from the participants' viewpoints through interviews. They will be recognised as autonomous people sharing information willingly. The informants of this study include academic leaders, tertiary teachers and quality assurance staff while the role of the researcher is a tertiary teacher at one of the research sites. Hence, the researcher will be aware of sensitive issues and potential conflicts of interest with academic leaders who are in higher position and quality assurance staff whose responsibility is to oversee the quality management and assurance activities. The participants will be provided a commitment to protect their anonymity. Prior to interviews, commitments to confidentiality, informed consent, sharing of secrets and privacy will be made.

Ethical issues in Data Collection by Creswell (2009):

"Researchers need to respect the participants and the sites for research" (Creswell, 2009, p.89). An informed consent form is developed (see Appendix A) for participants to sign before the study.

Also, gaining the written agreement of individuals in authority (i.e. gate keepers) is needed to access participants and research sites. Not only do researchers respect the participants but also research sites in terms of disturbance. Creswell (2009) also notes that if there is no reciprocity between the researcher and the participants, an ethical issue will arise. As a result, both researcher and participants should benefit from the research.

In addition to attention to ethical issues, the researcher must anticipate these issues during data analysis and interpretation including how to protect the anonymity of individuals, roles and incidents, a reasonable time to keep the analysed data and who owns these data, ensuring an accurate account of information (Creswell, 2009). Furthermore, writing and disseminating the research also require focus on ethical issues, mainly the language use in the research, trying to avoid gender, sexual orientation, radical or ethnic group, disability or age. Other potential issues compose suppressing, falsifying or inventing findings. Additionally, exploiting the labour of colleagues is considered unethical. Finally, with respect to research dissemination, release of research details is important.

All ethical considerations and concerns for this study will be approved through the Human Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Education at Victoria University of Wellington.

Proposed Timelines

Following is the proposed timeline for the research:

Table 4: Proposed timeline for the research




Estimated duration


Full proposal and approval

August 2010 - April 2011

9 months


Ethics approval

May & June 2011

2 months


Data collection of first case

July 2011 - August 2011

2 months


Data analysis of first case

September - November 2011

3 months


Data collection of second and third cases

December 2011 - February 2012

3 months


Data analysis of second and third cases

March - June 2012

4 months


Cross-case analysis and thesis writing

July 2012 - January 2013

7 months


Completion of draft thesis

February 2013 - September 2013

8 months


Finalising thesis

October- November 2013

2 months


Submitting thesis

December 2013 - January 2014

2 months

Total period of time

42 months