In this 21st century the world has to cope with disasters. It maybe that we are being punished because we have ignored the issue of protecting the natural resources, and each one of us must contribute to this common effort (Philander, 2008, V1, P.53, 96). Albert Gore is the former United States vice president and winner of the Nobel Peace Price with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change in 2006. His works had the purpose of advocacy and research; Gore later proves that the reasons for the previous Global Warming are not true (Philander, V.1, p.57). He blames the extinction (Philander, 2008, V.3, p921) of some animals and plant species on humans:
Global warming, along with the cutting and burning of forests and other critical habitats, is causing the loss of living species at a level comparable to the extinction event that wiped out the dinosaurs 65 million years ago. That event was believed to have been caused by a giant asteroid. This time it is not an asteroid colliding with the Earth and wreaking havoc: it is us. (Al Gore, May 26, 2006)
Although greenhouse gas directly provide gas CO2, CH4 and N2O occurs naturally in the atmosphere, human activities can change the focus of their atmospheric. The IPCC developed the Global Warming Potential (see table 1-2) to measure the number of greenhouse gas emissions in 100 years. The numbers in the table have concerned scientists for the future of our earth. (Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks, 1990-2007, p.26). Countries in the world also recognize that it is time for them to change these human mistakes, and together they have made a call. North America, South America, Africa, Europe, Asia, and Australia continue together to reduce power phenomena of the earth from warming up.
2. CURRENT INTERNATIONAL POLICY:
It is very difficult to make a decision for all countries. The United Nations is an organization includes all countries are members. This organization has decided to only make some laws because they do not have much authority. Members of the countries can only agree that the world must do something to limit the Warming of the globe, but to get them agree on the solution is not an easy task for authorities. The first evaluation report completed in 1990 was pedal to the birth of UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) by the UN General Assembly. The agency has the duty announced the news about the post-processing conversion on climate change and through the Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee and important policy have be en created. Implementations strategies and programs for reducing greenhouse gas emissions by considering their country's needs and responsibilities within the scope of international, regional, and local circumstances to determine what agenda items would be a priority and for setting of objectives. (Philander, 2008, V.3 p.801)
On February 16, 2005 the Kyoto Protocol became law that legally force countries which agree to join much comply with such agreement. In initial negotiations, the United States voluntarily accepted a more ambitious target, promising to reduce emissions to 7 percent below 1990 level; the European Union, which had wanted a much tougher treaty, committed to 8 percent; and Japan, to 6 percent. Since the adoption of the Kyoto Protocol, 175 parties have rarified it. The protocol ritual outlines the basic features of the mechanism of it and the way the system out, but does not explain the rules is very important how they operate (Philander, 2008, V.3 p.802)
3. NORTH AMERICA ON EMISSIONS REDUCTION:
The United State of America (US) is the world's largest industrialized country and emitter of carbon dioxide (see appendix A-5). It is therefore widely regarded as the most significant contributor to global warming and climate change. (Philander, 2008, V.3 p.1008)
The US and China responsible for 40 percent of the world green house emissions (see figure ES-1, ES-2, and ES-3), president Barack Obama is promising to set a cut of such emissions in the next three weeks(roughly around the week of 12/20/2009). According to Todd Stern, the state department climate change envoy, estimates that the target number of reduction in greenhouse gas emissions of 14-20% by 2020, compares with the 2005 level. Obama has been reaching a solid commitment to cutting America's emissions. During his trip in Beijing with China's Hu Jintao, Obama said America would come up a number for the emission reductions target as long as China came up with its specific target of its own. (Goldenberg, 2009).
The United State is issuing a large range of guideline to reduce the emission of green house gas. There are many programs the federal requires US citizen to follow and such programs to be operated by private sectors (see Appendix D for complete list programs). When still in office former US president Bush promised that the US will reduced it emissions in comparable to its economy size, and overall greenhouse gas intensity was to reduce by 18 person by the year 2017 (Long, 2004, p.5-6)
Three countries in North America are United States, Mexico, and Canada have launched a program that calls “North American Carbon Atlas.” The carbon emission will be measuring, and finding the potential storage space for the America by such a program (Calvin, 2008, p.29). Also, the three countries promise will continue to find a capture and storage solution by funding to the research and development and demonstration (RD&D). The over all effort will mean to made information available and place to exchange information, and also a place to dispose the emission:
Form a consensus on the methodology to be used in estimating the CO2 capacity of various types of CO2 storage systems in North America. This will be particularly relevant for cross-border storage to eliminate international "fault lines" and ensure compatible estimates of storage capacity in North America. Promote potential collaboration on RD&D related to carbon capture and storage. This includes sharing efforts to evaluate alternative uses of CCS technologies, such as Enhanced Oil or Coal-Bed Methane Recovery. (Fattahova,” 11/29/2007)
Although the US has tried to reduce the green house emissions matter, there are many more efforts have to be done in other to achieve or comply with the world commitment. Fortunately, the current president's commitment with the reduction efforts, the matter of greenhouse reduction will soon be resolve by President Barack Obama consistence to solve the problem of global warming.
4. SOUTH AMERICA:
its economy stands at 10th and its population is in the fifth in the world, Brazil places an important role in climate policy. Brazil's energy matrix is relatively “clean-80 percent of the generated electricity comes from hydropower, and 45 percent of the country's total energy consumptions come from renewable sources. Most of Brazil's CO2 emissions (see appendix A-5) come from biomass burning, as a result of deforestation. Deforestation is responsible for between 10 and 25 percent of the global human-included carbon emissions and 60 percent of all Brazil emissions. Although total fossil fuel CO2 emissions have increased steadily and reached 90 million metric tons in 2004, Brazil's per capita emission rate of 0.50 metric tons of CO2 per year remains well below global average rates. (Philander, 2008, V.2, p.136)
The bill on domestic and international climate is favorable for Brazil (an example is the design and pursuit of Clean Development Mechanisms, or CDMs). Brazil has been a leader in the Koto negotiations to introduce carbon-trading mechanisms such as CDMs, which allow for developed countries and businesses to count greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions generated by projects carried out in less developed countries (LDCs). Currently, Brazil is the country hosting the largest number of CDM projects (Philander, 2008, V.2, p.136).
The Brazilian government is paying attention to projects that relates the Amazon rainforest, and has been reluctant to endorse initiatives such as Avoided Deforestation, which is supported by a coalition of conversation interests and rainforest-rich countries.. This scheme would allow developing countries to participate in the Kyoto Protocol by electing to reduce their national emissions from deforestation. Forest-rich countries would be allowed to issue carbon certificates, similar to the Certified Emisssions Reductions (CERs) of the CDM that would be sold to governments or private investors (Philander, 2008, V.2, p.137).
Domestically, Brazil has invested substantially in an energy matrix reliant on renewable resources. Brazil's flagship biofuel program is based on sugarcane and dual-fuel car technology (car run on sugarcane alcohol and/or gasoline). The sugarcane biofuel program is worth over $8 billion a year and generates a million direct jobs. Brazil's bio-diesel program is based on oil seeds such as castor and sunflower crops that produce clean energy, absorb carbon monoxide, and are labor intensive. (Philander, 2008, V.2, p.137)
is a sub-Saharan African (SSA) country that has been combating global warming for many decades. Similar to other SSA countries, Sudan can expect an increase in temperature of 0.4 - 0.9 degrees F (0.2 - 0.5 degrees C) per decade, which may lead to the climate becoming drier. In Sudan, rainfall is predicted to decrease by 25 percent over 30 years, leading to desertification in a country that is already 50 percent desert. (Philander, 2008, V.3 p 931)
Since the 1930s, the desert in Sudan expanded between 31 and 124 mi. (50 and 200 km), which has led to severe water shortages. It has been predicted that 350 to 600 million people will face water shortages in Sudan by the middle of the 21st century. Water shortages, especially in western Sudan, have led many herders from northern Sudan to migrate to southern areas onto farmers' lands in search of water. This conflict over water, which is a precious resource in Sudan had led to violence and to 2.4 million people being displaced in 2003. (Kennedy, June 29, 2009)
Although Sudan is facing many challenges because of climate change, it hardly contributes to worldwide greenhouse gas emissions. For instance, in 1998, “Sudan's total carbon dioxide emissions was 3,597 thousand metric tons (tmt) compared with 515,001 tmt for SSA and 24,215,376 tmt for the world. Non-carbon dioxide emissions for Sudan in 1995 were 132 tmt compared with 5,345 tmt for SSA and 141,875 tmt for the world.” Even though Sudan hardly contributes to global warming, the government of Sudan intends to adapt the National Adaptation Plans for Action, which highlight several policy measures to adapt to climate change. These included increasing irrigation and low water crops, water management and conservation technology sustainable forest resource consumption, and reduction of livestock. The government of Sudan has also ratified the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. (Philander, 2008, V.3 p 934). In addition, Sudan and Brazil are teaming up with the same plan that to use sugarcane to make biofuel. The plant about 250 kilometre addressing from Khartoum capital, to construction in cooperation with Brasil Dedini corporation. It aims to produces 200 million ethanol liters of ethanol from sugar cane within the next two years. (Sawahel, June 24, 2009)
The largest among the nations of Western Europe, France boasts a long history of world leadership in the arts, sciences, and industrialization. The nation's moderate climate and its ample agricultural land have made it the European Union's largest agricultural producer, ranking second only to the United States in the world market. Like other wealthy Western nations, France has been confronted with the problems attending urbanization, industrialization, and the loss of the open space. The country joins with two-dozen international efforts to the Kyoto Protocol to solve the global warming matter on the regional and world levels. (Philander, 2008, V.2 p 432)
France places a great concern on the global warming issue because since 1950 the temperatures have increased nearly twice the average rate. The Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC) set up be the World Meteorological Organization and the United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP) to assess factors connected to climate change, estimates that sea levels by 2100 could rise at a rate three times that of the 20th century. France government has built artificial reefs in an effort to contain erosion, but experts do not believe such effort would help the country in the long run. (Philander, 2008, V.2 p 433)
The government makes theirs best effort to reduce the problems of Global Warming. Also the government plans of increase public awareness and solution to the problems of global warming. A high percentage of 80 percent public awareness in France claims to be successful. France also makes commitment to protecting the open spaces. Nearly 30 percent of the land (of) France today includes the forest and forest. Forest regeneration has become a common strategy to reduce CO2 emissions, but the French government is subsidizing forest regeneration since 1747, and it's marked private tens of millions of euro to the help communities and individuals Refresh Print Private Property forests 2000-10.
Energy production by wind power and biofuels have increased in France, but it is the 80 percent of its energy needs being met by nuclear power that gives France the cleanest air among industrialized nations. About 58 possession size nuclear power plant in a roughly ethnic Texas also account for 40 percent of sulfur dioxide nitrogen and emissions emission intrinsical France CO2 reduction and oxide 70 percent reductions. Greenhouse gas France emission is lowest among power EU, and they still decline.
Among the major Western European nations, France is closest to fulfilling is Kyoto Protocol responsibilities. President Nicolas Sarkozy, who was elected in May 2007, promised tax reforms that include a new tax on CO2 emissions and a tax on goods imported from countries that have not signed the Kyoto Protocol. France seems positioned not only to hit its own targets in the world's response to global warming, but also to influence nations that have elected not to comply.
an Island Nation with the world's 10th largest population, Japan is one of the most powerful economic centers of the globe. The United is the only country that has higher technology advanced than Japan. Unfortunately, Japan has ranged in the list of world's leader in its contribution to global warming. In 2004, the country ranked fourth, after the United States, China, and Rusia, in its carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Regardless of the country effort in reducing on CO2, Japan continues to produce nearly 5 percent of the world's CO2 (Philander, 2008, V.2, p.564)
Japan is a signatory to the Kyoto Protocol and is obligate by the agreement to reduce its greenhouse emissions by 6 percent of the 1990 level, but reports show that the country is far for the target. Pressure for more actions is increasing as the immediate effects of global warming are felt throughout the nation. The production of rice, Japan's most important crop domestically, is expected to increase in some regions of the country as temperatures warm. Researcher predicts that the rise in temperatures will decrease wheat production throughout the country. Concern about heavier weed growth, harmful insects, and changes in rainfall patterns that create drought in some areas and cause flash floods in others generate fear as well. (Philander, 2008, V.2, p.564)
Japan has actively responded to these challenges. It has become a world leader in the development and implementation of technologies to check contamination and energy initiative capacity. Revise energies save Law, accept in 1999, encourage both umbilical local government to bring friendly technologies environmentally such as solar energy, wind power and many fuels vehicles(Calvin, 2008, p.201). Japan, host to the conference (see picture” A harbor on an island”) that led to the Kyoto Protocol, has signed and ratified more than a dozen other international environmental agreements, including Biodiversity, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83,and Tropical Timber 94. (Philander, 2008, V.2, P.565)
Investment (of) Japan in resolving the environmental issues on a global level also includes real contribution to the Global Media Environment Facility (GEF), a major tributary of the many international funding mechanism established in 1991 to help developing countries in developing programs and projects that protect the Global Environment and the Sustainable. Japan contributed $84 million 1991-93, $415 million 1994-98, and $412 Million 1998-2002. In 2007, concerned that Asia's energy consumption had grown by 230 percent since 1977, and alarmed by predictions that would double again by 2030, Japan pledged $100 million in grants to the Asian Development Bank. (Philander, 2008, V.2, p.565). Ignoring prognosticators, Japan insists that the nation will meet its Kyoto target.
Australia is a wealthy country, the main transportation are electricity and cars. In the recent years more people are starting to use bicycles, bus, and train. However, Australia has high result in carbon dioxide emissions per capita: 7.5 metric tons in 1990, rising to 8.6 metric tons by 2003. Fortunately, the country maintains a very low electricity generation, only 28.4 percent of it comes from fossil fuels, with 68.6 percent from hydropower. As the result, the country produces extremely low rates of emissions of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide, and carbon monoxide. (Philander, 2008, V.1, p. 102)
The country is affected by global warming in the reason years including some melting of the Alpine glacier. The Great Barrier Reef off Australia is in extremely serious condition, and possibly in this 21st century according some experts that the world last coral reef dies (Calvin, 2008, p.175). The United Nations environmental report in 2003 claims that if global warming continues to raise, the temperature in Australia many ski resorts or ski runs will have no snow by 2030. The Australia government of Fred Sinowatz took part in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change signed in Rio de Janeiro in May 1992. They are also signed the official Amenities Kyoto framework to the UN Conventions on climate change on April 29, 1998, and this is in effect February 16, 2005 in an effort to reduce greenhouse emissions In the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change held on August 31, 2007 the purposes are to talk about the reduction in air and soil pollution from industrial chemicals, which also includes the banning of leaded gasoline. After the convention, the government issues policies that encourage the use of wind power and solar power, with tax credits to encourage citizens to install solar panels. (Philander, 2008, V.1, p. 102, 103)
Ten billion metric ton of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gasses are exhaled into atmosphere each year. A typical 124,000 -mile lifespan of an automobile, the Toyota Primus will emit 32 tons of carbon dioxide from its tailpipe versus a Ford Excursion spewing 134 tons (Philander, 2008, V.1, p.103-105). In this perspective the government encourages its people to buy hybrid or electric vehicles (see Table 1 for list of reflects the reduction in kilograms possible by using alternate forms of transportations). Another alternative is to increasing battery life which could help make hybrid cars more attractive to buyer because it is the main reason consumer are refusing or postpones buying such type of cars. (Philander, V.1, p.106).
Although countries in North America, South America, Africa, Europe, Asia, and Australia are together in their efforts to reduce the problems of global warming, there are still problems that need to be solved for each country. The United States need to reduce theirs greenhouse emission with more realistic percentage number and definitely down from its current held of 40 percent. The Brazil's government much tries its best efforts to reduce the Deforestation which is one of the reason lead to global warming. Although Sudan does not contribute much of the global warming matter, the country has to face with water shortage from the cause of global warming; Sudan's government need to find better solution to solve the water shortage matter. In France, the government has to deal with the temperature continue to heat up. The Japan's government is struggle with its promising of reducing greenhouse emissions by 6 percent. Similar to Japan, Australia has a high level of carbon dioxide emissions. Regardless of the problems, the process of helping the world will continue to be successful if countries in the world continue to team up to solve this 21st century problem that is global warming.
Contributing to solve this 21st century global warming issues countries of North America, South America, Africa, Europe, Asia, and Australia have come with each individual crusade. In America the president commitment to come up with a target number of 14-20% by the year 2020; also the country launched a program called “North American Carbon Atlas.” Such program use as a storage and capture function to greenhouse emissions.
In Brazil the government has been a leader in the Koto negotiations to introduce carbon-trading mechanisms (CDM), reductions generated by projects carried out in less developed countries (LDCs). Currently, Brazil is the country hosting the largest number of CDM projects. In Sudan, even though the country is hardly contributed to global warming, but the government intends to adapt the National Adaptation Plans for Action, which highlights several policy measures to adapt to climate change.
In France, the government is place number one country in the European to comply with the closet number requirement of the Kyoto Protocol. Also, the country promotes the public warmness program and about 80 percent of such program was successful. In Japan, although the country has been trying to reduce greenhouse emission, the target number has not yet reach despite the efforts. Japan has contributed financially to aid some third word country to fight global warming. In Australia, the government sign contract with Kyoto Protocol to reduce greenhouse emission. The Australia government has encourage it people to use hybrid car, or use public transportation to reduce the carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gasses are exhaled into atmosphere each year.