Prospective Teaching Behaviours with ICT Integration

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Teachers' attitudes and their influence on behaviour can be a significant step in determining the psychosocial factors affecting teachers' use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in teaching. This study attempted to provide an insight of behaviours of teachers towards the use of ICT. A behavior is explained as a consequence of subjective norms, attitude towards the behaviour and perceived behavioural control. Using a survey questionnaire, data were collected from a total of 240 secondary school teachers in six schools of the Mahatma Gandhi Institute (MGI) by adopting convenience sampling as sampling strategy. The SPSS 14.0 software was employed as the major statistical analytic technique for a series of data analyses such as Cross tabulations with Chi- Square test and Exploratory Factor Analysis. The findings revealed that in MGI the integration of ICT in the teaching and learning process is dependent on gender of the teacher. In addition, the results showed reluctance behaviour from senior teachers to embrace technology in their teaching practices.

Introduction

The purpose of this paper is to share with the readers the findings of a study to investigate the prospective teaching behaviours with ICT integration at secondary level. This study seeks to investigate the likely attitudes of teachers towards the use of ICT for educational purposes if equal access is given to them. ICT is expected to boost the classroom output but given that human beings generally show resistance to change, it is imperative to focus on teacher's motivation and readiness to use ICT in teaching.

Technology is claimed to be a universal language and is regarded as one of the influential agents of globalisation. On the global front, ICT is already creating innovative, open learning environments and in the local context, the present government has announced in the latest budget, that classrooms will be equipped with ICT support and that teachers will be expected to use innovative teaching strategies, more precisely ICT for teaching. Furthermore, during the recent years, the government has embraced the vision of metamorphosing Mauritius from an agricultural island to a cyber island.

In line with this vision, teachers are expected to play a catalysing role in this transformation process. According to Murray (2007), the use of technology in education is an emerging field of study as it involves the introduction of new instructional possibilities. Consequently, the aim of this study has been to focus on the factors which encourage the uptake of ICT by teachers as well as the barriers which prevent teachers from making full use of ICT in teaching. In developing countries, education is seen as the hope of the future and massive investment is done in this sector as it is expected to bring economic progress while simultaneously ensuring sustainable development.

Theoretical Background

The use of ICT in Teaching

According to a UNESCO handbook in 2005, researchers claim that to "be effective, especially in developing countries, ICT should be combined with more traditional technologies such as books and radios and be more extensively applied to the training of teachers." Consequently, the International Education Studies journal, May 2010 highlighted that teachers' attitudes levels towards the use of ICT had a direct relation with the use of ICT for educational purposes and similar findings were reported by Albirini (2004) and Isleem (2003).

Perraton et al. (2001) identified two sets of activities or roles which should be considered to integrate ICT in education which are the need for the training of teachers to learn about ICT and its use in teaching and the need to provide teacher education. Thus, in many countries, ICT is now at the center of education reforms that involve (i) its use in coordination with changes in curriculum, (ii) teacher training, (iii) assessment and (iv) pedagogy.

In the local context, Mauritius is also following the same trend since ICT is playing a central role in its education reform efforts. There are expectations that there will be much ICT investment in the education sector.

Attitudes towards the use of ICT

Many factors influence the use of ICT in teaching and one of these factors is teachers' attitudes towards the use of ICT in the teaching and learning process. Huang and Liaw (2005) stated that teachers' attitudes are important factors which support the use of computers in teaching. Much literature review focuses on attitudes of teachers as central to the integration or consequent rejection of ICT in teaching. Consequently, a number of studies have been carried out to investigate teachers' attitudes towards computer use. Albirini (2004) investigated the attitudes of teachers in Syrian high schools regarding the use of ICT in teaching and he found out that in general teachers had positive attitudes toward technology use in education. However, given the ambivalent nature of human behaviour, teachers' attitudes can help to determine their reaction in some situations. Fishbein (1967) defined attitude as a learned tendency which makes us react to an object or class of objects in a positive or hostile way. Similar claims were made by Ajzen in 1988.

Cuban (1993) classified teachers as (i) technophile; those who are enthusiastic about new technology, (ii) preservationist; those who hold traditional views regarding the use of ICT and (iii) cautious optimist; namely teachers who exhibit slow, steady movement towards fundamental changes in teaching.

Evans-Andris (1995) used corresponding classifications of teachers as showing (i) technical specialisation; those who embrace computers and view technology as a challenge, (ii) avoidance; teachers who distance themselves from computers and (iii) integration; those who embrace computers in teaching. Teo (2006) put forward the argument that there is a direct link between the attitudes of teachers and their keenness to use the technology with the improvement in students' learning with ICT as support.

Van Braak (2001) also highlighted the strong correlation between computer associated attitudes and the use of ICT in teaching. Van Braak, Tondeur, & Valcke, (2004) mentioned that positive computer attitudes are likely to promote computer incorporation in the classroom. Akbaba & Kurubacak (1998); Clark, (2001) further mentioned that attitudes toward computers influence teachers' recognition of the effectiveness of technology, and also determine whether teachers integrate ICT into their classroom.

According to Teo (2008), a survey of relevant literature shows that it cannot be concluded whether gender influences the use of ICT in teaching. However, some authors such as Brosnan & Davidson (1996) have claimed that the use of ICT is a typically male sphere. In 1986, Loyd & Gressard mentioned that male teachers show more assurance in using ICT s compared to female teachers. Therefore, it is worth noting that there might be a correlation between a teacher's gender and his willingness to use ICT in teaching.

Positive Teacher's Behaviour

Integration of information and communication technology (ICT) tools has been at the forefront of the education sector and has had a profound effect on the way on teachers and learners. The Success of student learning with the help ICT will depend largely on the attitudes of educators and their personal will power to use technology(Teo, 2006). Teachers are the central forces in tapping the learning opportunities with the aid information communication technology.

Technology enables teachers to individualise instruction, allows students to learn and develop at their own pace (Peck and Domcott, 1994). ICT can improve learning outcomes, even in traditional rote learning exercises and innovative in the development of pedagogy-ICT integration. Changes may be introduced in both teaching-learning methods. Students can enjoy learning actively, such as by bringing the outside world into the classroom or by interacting with peers, experts and online aids. Furthermore, the students will have the opportunity to learn new skills, such as locating appropriate information, making informed choices by learning to recognise the authenticity of sources, and collaborating with other learners.

Five important reasons for teachers to use technology in education: motivation, distinctive instructional abilities, higher productivity of teachers, essential skills for the information age, support for new teaching techniques (Roblyer and Edwards, 2000). Moreover it promotes to social and economic interests, such as reducing the costs of education and preparing students for work and for living in a society permeated with technology. Many countries make use of computer technology in schools by implementing computer laboratories and embedding actual classrooms with digital technologies to assist and support current classroom learning.

One of these factors is teachers' attitudes towards the use of technology in teaching and learning process. Research shows that the success of technology use in the educational settings largely depends on teachers attitudes toward technology use (Albirini, 2006, Baylor & Ritchie, 2002). Teachers' attitudes are considered as a major predictor of the use of new technologies in the educational field (Albirini, 2006). Thus, their attitudes toward computer can play an important role in the acceptance of computers. Thus, an attitude plays an important role in determining people reactions to situations. A review of the psychological literature reveals diverse definitions of attitudes. Much of the research on barriers also considers what factors enable or encourage people to use ICT. It is important to recognise that a number of factors have been identified which encourage and enable teachers to integrate ICT into their teaching.

ICT can offer teachers, whatever their context is: scaffolding tools to support their own construction and understanding of new academic and professional knowledge; environments and contexts for learning, enabling teachers to experience new situations, activities, problems and solutions; communicative tools facilitating unique social participation structures between teachers; meta -cognitive tools enabling teachers to reflect on the learning process itself, both at individual and group individual (Leech, Moon & Power, 2002).Thus, it can be concluded that the attitude related to the usage frequency of technology and usage amount of the technology.

Barriers for teachers` ICT integration

There are many elements identified as obstacles in the way of introducing ICT in schools. Pelgrum (2001) presents a list of ten such issues that educational practitioners perceive as serious impediments for realising their ICT related goals. The three major ones: (1) insufficient number of computers, (2) teachers' lack of knowledge/skills, and (3) difficult to integrate in instruction.

2.4.1 External and Internal barriers

Many authors categorise barriers as external (first order) or internal (second order). First-order barriers include lack of equipment, unreliability, lack of technical support; second-order barriers include both school-level factors such as organisational culture and teacher-level factors such as beliefs about teaching and technology, and openness to change (Snoeyink & Ertmer, 2001). A lack of equipment is the highest rated barrier internationally (Pelgrum, 2001), often cited even in well-resourced countries. Indeed, one study (Guha, 2000) found that teachers who used technology most were more likely to complain about a lack of equipment. It would appear therefore this is less a barrier to the introduction of technology than to its use in creative and innovative ways. Older teachers seem to be reluctant towards the incorporation of ICT in schools, while student teachers and some newly qualified teachers are the most confident users of ICT ( Galanouli & McNair 2001). Underlying these anxieties are fear of embarrassment when using computers (Russell & Bradley, 1997) and fear of losing professional status through a downgrading of traditional pedagogical skills (Fabry & Higgs, 1997). It seems that teachers' attitudes regarding ICT use in schools not only pose difficulties in the use of technology but also cancel the learning benefits expected to spring from the instructional reform. Teachers are characterised as being 'technophobic' about using ICT (Rosen & Weil, 2002)

The ICT sector in Mauritius

The first telephone line in Mauritius was set up in October 1883 between the Colony Governor's residence in Reduit and the Government House in Port Louis. This took place only seven years after telephone was invented. In the late twentieth century, there was a dramatic explosive growth in telecommunications due to "technology push". The telecommunications revolution has been characterised by competition, technological changes, the setting up of new companies and the merging of global service providers around the world. This has also been the trend in Mauritius. ICT indeed holds great promises for small island economies like Mauritius.

It is believed that this sector will not only be the most dynamic industry in the world and will also account as one of the most powerful tools needed to open new avenues of sustainable development.

[The ICT Sector in Mauritius-An overview, 2004]

ICT Policies in Mauritius

According to Isaacs (2007), the Government of Mauritius has actively promoted ICT since 1989. Since then it also proposed a national ICT policy modeled on the Singaporean experience. The Mauritius strategy involved creating instruments to support liberalisation of its telecommunication sector, creating a workforce which is ICT literate, enhancing the potential of public institutions to optimise ICTs, and making Mauritius a vital catalyst in ICTs by creating the conducive environment equipped with up-to-date infrastructure.

In 1989 the government set up four institutions: the National Computer Board (NCB), the Central Informatics Bureau (CIS), the State Informatics Limited (SIL), and the State Informatics Training Centre Limited (SITCL). The government vision is to make Mauritius a "cyber island" with ICT becoming the fifth pillar of the economy after, textile, sugar, financial services and tourism as well as a regional hub.

2.7 ICT in schools

The Mauritius Ministry of Education has been involved in the introduction of ICTs in schools since 1991.

School IT project-The national ICT policy states that IT will be a school subject that will be integrated into teaching across both the primary and secondary schools' curriculum. However promoting connectivity in schools as well as setting up of network for sharing and exchanging of information in the education sector remains a challenge.

ICT competition- With the aim of promoting ICT use as an education tool, the NCB organises ICT competitions at secondary and tertiary level- the School IT Competition and the ICT Project Competition. NCB has revised the School IT Competition thus allowing students to participate in an international Web site competition, ThinkQuest.

NEPAD eSchools Mauritius- The New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD) eSchools aims at:

providing ICT know-how to children in the primary and secondary schools of Africa.

enhancing education in schools through ICT applications as well as usage of Internet.

ICT is playing a vital role in the education sector. For instance, ICT courses were made compulsory in secondary schools in 1995 and students are expected to be ICT conversant after the third year. As from 2006, ICT was used as a pedagogical tool across the curriculum. It was noted by that much research in the area of technology integration in education has been conducted in technologically advanced countries, but little in the developing countries (Jhuree, 2005).

2.8 Research in ICT Education in Mauritius

From a survey conducted by Ramessur-Seenarain (2007), it was revealed that ICT is only a learning tool which helps in delivery and access. Moreover the researcher found that:

it will take time before ICT becomes a tool of creative knowledge enabling students at the secondary level to overcome the difficulties of globalisation and ensuring sustained economic growth.

ICT as an educational tool is limited at the secondary level in the island. Hence there is urgency for ministries to initiate appropriate actions so as to help teachers effectively integrate ICT into their pedagogy of teaching and learning.

The case study carried out by Jhuree et al, (2007) has shed light into an important aspect of primary school teachers' mental state and their attitudes towards ICT and their readiness in integrating it in their profession. The study concluded that prospective Oriental language teachers had a positive attitude towards ICT and its use in their schools.

However, the study also revealed that ICT integration at school depends on the:

availability of ICT resources in the schools,

political commitment,

planning for integration and

monitoring, training and funds (Jhurree, 2005)

Purpose of the study

Most previous studies have centered on Technology integration in countries that are technologically advanced than in developing countries. ICT sector is very dynamic in our fast moving cyber island and is contributing to the economy of Mauritius. In fact, the pervasiveness of ICT has brought remarkable change in various fields and sectors, in particular in education. The relevance of a teacher, in the 21st century, is determined by the will to develop professionally and be technologically skillful.

Concerning the use of ICT, Brown et al (1996) mentioned in the electronic journal of sociology that most of the projects carried out on interactive situations with computers, lay emphasis on the constructs of anxiety and of stress and in the light of this statement the question to be put forward is whether this apply equally to Mauritian teachers? In fact, there has been one case carried out on primary oriental teacher's attitudes towards computer (Jhuree et al, 2007) according to which the attitudes of oriental language teachers are positive towards ICT and there is subsequent use of ICT while teaching in schools. Therefore, there has been no study on attitudes of educators of secondary schools concerning the use of ICT. So, the main objective of the present study is to gather the technology level, the behaviors and attitudes of teachers working particularly in the schools falling under the aegis of MGI, in relation to integration of ICT in their profession.

These guiding research questions can be stated as follows:

1. What is the technology level of the educators in MGSSs?

2. How do the educators perceive integration of ICT in their subjects?

3. Why are the educators willing or unwilling to use ICT?

4. Which factors motivate or hinder them to use ICT?

5. What are the possibilities to integrate ICT based teaching practices?

6. If facilities and training be provided, will the educators show readiness to develop ICT skills?

Methodology

This study employed a survey research method that has been very often used in research on ICT and computer use. A survey research method is particularly useful for generating quantitative data that can be used to establish the basis for wider generalisation.

4.1 Research Design and Tool

Our study aimed to provide an understanding of teachers` behavior of use of ICT by considering Ajzen's theory of planned behaviour (TPB) (Ajzen, 1985, 1988, 1991) which is a psychosocial theory applied in modeling behaviours.TPB explains behaviour as a consequence of attitude towards the "behaviour, subjective norms, and perceived behavioural control". This theory has been chosen as the reference model on which a research model of the use of ICT by teachers, the Information and Communication Technology Use Model (ICTUM) was finally used for this study. In fact for this study, the TPB was modified by incorporating external variables - age group, gender, subjects taught, years of teaching experience. Hence, the questionnaire administered in the current study was used to test the statistical relationships among the constructs of the TPB and the modified TPB model that is the ICT Use Model (ICTUM) that support this research study namely: attitude towards use of ICT, subjective norms, intention of use of ICT, perceived behavioural control and use of ICT.

A structured questionnaire was used as the research tool in our study. Because the research constructs of this study (that is, attitudes, perceptions, and beliefs) are variables which cannot be observable, the use of multiple item scales is advantageous as it guarantees greater variability and strengthen reliability of measures because the errors of each item tend to cancel each other out (DeVellis, 1991). The questionnaire was based namely on ICT Level of Use developed by Isleem (2003) and Teacher Attitudes towards ICT Scale developed by Albirini (2006).It included 32 items used to measure teachers' level of ICT use for educational purposes. A five Likert scale format was used to assessing teachers' level of ICT use for educational purposes (1=never use, 2=rarely use, 3=sometimes use, 4=often use, 5=very often use).It also consisted of 32 other items on Teacher Attitudes towards ICT designed again as 5-point Likert's scale, where 1=strongly disagree to the concept, 2=disagree to the concept, 3=undecided to the concept, 4=agree to the concept, and 5=strongly strongly favorable to the concept). This made that all the questions were closed- ended making analysis easier since responses would be classified.

4.2 Pilot Testing

A few test questionnaires were distributed to teachers on a pilot basis. The teachers used for the pre-testing exercise were not used in the sample for the survey afterwards. The responses revealed that certain terms, or the order of question was not clear. Then the questionnaire was reviewed with the test takers and confusing points that were discussed were solved.

4.3 Sample Characteristics.

The survey was carried out at the end of the third semester, school year 2010. Convenience sampling was used as sampling strategy for this research. A total number of 210 respondents, representing a response rate of 93.3%, completed the survey. Participants were Educators working in the six Secondary Schools of the Mahatma Gandhi Institute (MGI).

4.4 Data Analysis

The data collected was processed by using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) program version 14.0. It was used to analyze data as follows:

1). The descriptive statistics was used in summing the data into cross tabulations and using the Chi-Square test together with the Phi and Cramer's V symmetric measures.

2). The use of Exploratory Factor analysis (EFA) to attempt identifying variables, or factors, that explain the pattern of correlations within a set of observed variables was adopted. Indeed (EFA) is a useful technical way for identifying items which belong to a factor in a multi-factor structure. Firstly, all of the items for measuring the research construct are correctly entered in, SPSS, for the analysis. Subsequently, SPSS extracts the number of factors and their associated items, and then it reports the factor loading of each item on the respective factors.

Results

Profile of respondents

Looking at the gender characteristics of the sample, two third of the respondents were female. This mirrors the predominance of the female Educators from the population of Educators in the six Secondary Schools under the aegis of MGI. Consequently, we have to study the gender variable on our object of study: ICT integration.

Table 1 shows a frequency table on the respondent profiles with respect to gender.

Respondents` Profile

Male in %

Age Group

Between 18 and 25

31.7

Between 26 and 30

30.2

Between 31 and 35

19.1

Between 36 and 40

9.5

Between 41 and 45

1.6

Above 46

7.9

Years of Experience

Between 0 and 1

22.2

Between 2 and 5

49.2

Between 6 and 10

11.2

Between 11 and 15

9.5

Above 15

7.9

Category of Subjects Taught

Languages and Social Studies

19.3

Science

24.6

Mathematics and computer

14.1

Art & Music

15.7

Technical subjects

19.3

Economics/Accounts/Business studies

7.0

Table

5.2 Cluster bar chart (Figure 1) showing the distribution of the gender with the 14 subjects taught obtained from the respondents

Figure 1

Results of Senior Teachers and attitude towards use of ICT

Galanouli & Mc Nair (2001) found that senior teachers have a reluctant behavior towards the use of ICT in schools, while some newly appointed teachers are the most confident users of ICT.

Results of Years of Experience and Outcome of using ICT to be time consuming.

The question from the questionnaire asked: What are the likely outcomes that can occur when you use ICT in your teaching? One of the options was Using ICT in my teaching will b time consuming. Commenting on the results obtained (Table 2) we found that, the skewness of the distribution of years of experience with the outcome to use ICT to be time consuming becomes more and more negative as the years of experiences increases. This means that the distribution becomes more negatively skewed. What can be inferred from this is most of the Educators having 11 years of experience or more believed that it is likely or very likely that using ICT in class is time consuming. The kurtosis of the distributions gave a more or less a normal peak around the mean though it is worth to see that for the 15 or more years of experience, the quite high negative value of kurtosis showed that the opinion that using ICT is time consuming is widely spread from a neutral opinion to a very likely to happen opinion.

Years of Experience

Skewness

Kurtosis

Outcome - Time consuming

0 - 1

0.1

-0.9

2 - 5

-0.3

-0.7

6 - 10

-0.6

-1.3

11 - 15

-0.9

0.1

More than 15

-1.0

-1.7

Table

Results of Age group and Use of ICT last year.

The question from the questionnaire asked: How often did you use ICT in your teaching last year? Doing a similar exercise as above, we found that, the skewness of the distribution of age group with the frequency of usage of ICT last year becomes more and more positive as the age group increases. This means that the distribution becomes more positively skewed. It is worth to note that most of the Educators in the age groups of 36 - 40, 41 - 45 and more than 46 years, have never or rarely used ICT in their teaching last year. This is shown in the box plot in figure 2.

These two results support the findings of Galanouli & Mc Nair (2001) that senior most teachers do present reluctance for using ICT in their teaching practices while newly appointed teachers do embrace the use of ICT with more confidence.

Figure 2

Results of Gender and using ICT for Students` Learning.

Loyd and Gressard (1986) found that male teachers are more confident toward computers compared to their female colleagues. Similar findings- males showed more positive attitudes toward computers than females - were obtained by the study undertaken by Blackmore et al., (1992).

The question from the questionnaire asked: With respect to your future use, please indicate the number that best represents the likelihood of your using ICT in teaching during the next six months. One of the options was I will instruct students to use ICT for learning

Cross tabulation for Gender Versus Using ICT for learning by students

USING OF ICT FOR LEARNING

 

 

GENDER

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

M

 

 

 

 

 

VERY UNLIKELY

UNLIKELY

NEUTRAL

LIKELY

VERY LIKELY

Count

4

12

11

10

25

Expected Count

8.3

10.6

14.6

13.9

14.6

% within GENDER

6.5

19.4

17.7

16.1

40.3

% within USING OF ICT FOR LEARNING

16

37.5

25

23.8

56.8

% of Total

2.1

6.4

5.9

5.3

13.4

F

 

 

 

 

Count

21

20

33

32

19

Expected Count

16.7

21.4

29.4

28.1

29.4

% within GENDER

16.8

16

26.4

25.6

15.2

% within USING OF ICT FOR LEARNING

84

62.5

75

76.2

43.2

% of Total

11.2

10.7

17.6

17.1

10.2

Table

Referring to Table 3 we observe that 6.5% of the male Educators were very unlikely to use ICT for their students` learning while for the female Educators it was 16.8%. 17.7% of the male respondents and 26.4% of the female respondents were neutral about the idea of using ICT for this purpose. While only 15.2% of the female respondents were very likely to use ICT for learning to take place, 40.3% of the males were very likely to use ICT for the students` learning. Formulating the Null Hypothesis and the Alternative Hypothesis we have: H0: Using ICT for students` learning and Gender are independent and H1: Using ICT for students` learning depends on Gender. The results show that at 5% level of significance, there is an association between using ICT for students` learning and Gender of the Educator (χ2 = 17.7,df = 4, p < 5%). So we reject H0. The strength of the association is quite strong (Cramer`s V = 0.702).

Again the findings are in line with those of Loyd and Gressard (1986) and Blackmore et al (1992) when it comes to use of ICT for the students` learning and this variable might depend on gender of the Educator.

5.4 Results of Subjects taught with using ICT for Presentation.

The case study carried out by Jhuree et al. (2007) on Primary Oriental Teachers Attitudes towards Computer according to which "oriental language teachers have positive attitudes towards ICT and there is subsequent use of ICT in schools.

The question from the questionnaire asked: With respect to your future use, please indicate the number that best represents the likelihood of your using ICT in teaching during the next six months. One of the options was I will use ICT in presenting my lessons.

For this current study, by doing a similar Cross tabulation as above for Subjects taught versus using ICT for Presentation, it was noted that 40% of the Science Educators were very likely to use ICT for presentation in their teaching.33% of Mathematics Educators were very likely to use ICT in class for presentations while for Economics and Technical subjects it was less than 14%. It is worth noting that 29% of the language teachers were very likely of using ICT for their presentations.

Formulating the Null Hypothesis and the Alternative Hypothesis as: H0: Subjects taught and Using ICT for presentation is independent.H1: Using ICT for presentation is independent depends on Subjects Taught. The results obtained showed that at 5% level of significance, there is an association between Subjects taught and using ICT for Presentation (χ2 = 57.0,df = 9, p < 5%). So we reject H0. However, the strength of this association cannot be really described (Cramer`s V = 0.538).

Hence, we found that though the relationship cannot be certified in terms of strength, there might be an association of the subjects taught with the use of ICT for presentation. It can be an extrapolation of the findings of Jhuree et al.(2007) for the secondary teachers and for other subjects taught besides oriental language.

5.5 Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA)

EFA was used to confirm that the factor structure of the observed variables was the same as that in the proposed measurement model. Using SPSS 14.0 software, a 5-factor extraction was requested on the measurement model for 20 observed variables for the five latent variables namely: Attitude towards ICT use in teaching, Subjective norms, Perceived behavioural control which according to Ajzen (1988) is a person`s perception of performing the behaviour with respect to ease or difficulty, Intentions to use ICT and Use of ICT in teaching. As recommended for exploratory analysis, a factor loading of 0.4 was used as a lower cut-off value as recommended for exploratory analysis (Pallant, 2001).

The determinant of the R - matrix is vital for testing multicollinearity and it should be greater than 0.00001.For the data selected it was 0.000059. Therefore multicollinearity was not a problem for these data.

KMO and Bartlett's Test

Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy.

Bartlett's Test of Sphericity

Approx. Chi-Square

df

Sig.

Table

From table 4, the value of the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy gave 0.814 which is greater than 0.5.So it was confident that factor analysis was appropriate for these data.

Moreover, for these data, Barlett`s test is highly significant (p<0.001) and therefore factor analysis was appropriate for these data.

The table 5 shows the rotated component matrix. Before rotation, most variables loaded highly onto the first factor and the remaining factors did not really get a look in. However, the rotation of the factor structure has clarified things considerably. There are five factors and variables load very highly onto only one factor. (Except for one item)

Component

1

2

3

4

LIKE TEACHING USING ICT

.869

COMFORTABLE WITH ICT

.853

I AM CAPABLE OF USING ICT SUCCESSFULLY

.756

I HAVE RESOURCES, KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS TO USE ICT

.737

USING ICT IS A GOOD IDEA

.691

I AM CERTAINLY ABLE TO USE ICT

.661

OUTCOME - LESSONS ARE MORE DIVERSE

.541

USING OF ICT FOR LEARNING

.530

IMPACT - DEVELOP STUDENTS' LEARNING SKILLS

.428

.421

FACTORS ENABLING USE OF ICT: SUPPORT FROM SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS

.856

FACTORS ENABLING USE OF ICT: TECHNICAL SUPPORT

.822

FACTORS ENABLING USE OF ICT : PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT

.810

FACTORS ENABLING USE OF ICT: RESOURCES

.794

FACTORS LIKELY TO OCCUR: SUPPORT FROM SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS

.846

FACTORS LIKELY TO OCCUR: TECHNICAL SUPPORT

.836

FACTORS LIKELY TO OCCUR: PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT

.768

OUTCOME - TIME CONSUMING

.801

I CANNOT CONTROL THINGS WHEN USING ICT

.745

SUBJECTS

YEARS OF EXPERIENCE

Table

Albiri (2004) and Isleem (2003) had similar findings in their respective study concluding that teachers' attitudes levels towards the use of ICT had a direct relation with the use of ICT for educational purposes. Evans-Andris (1995) classified teachers as showing (i) technical specialization (embracing technology) (ii) avoidance (fear of computers) (iii) integration (use of computers in teaching). Teo (2006) commented that the Success of student learning with ICT depends directly on the attitudes of teachers to use ICT. Pelgrum (2001) listed a few obstacles for teachers to realise their ICT related goals. One of them was that the teacher lack of knowledge/skills in using ICT. The case study carried out by Jhuree et al, (2007) found that the ICT integration in schools depends a lot on political commitment and training of staffs.

Referring to the table 5, we observed that the variables which load highly on factor 1 are in fact attitude of the teacher for ICT. Hence this factor could be seen as Attitude towards ICT use in teaching. Doing similar observations we found that factor 2, 3, 4 and 5 can be seen as Intentions to use ICT, The use of ICT for teaching, Perceived behavioural control and Subjective norms respectively.

These results confirms the findings of Albirini(2004) and Isleem(2003).Furthermore, from table 5, clearly the classification of Evans- Andris(1995) can be seen namely with respect to Factor 2 for Technical Specialisation, Factor 4 with Avoidance and Factor 1 for Integration.

However, from the heavy loading for factor 2 and 3, specially for the professional development opportunities on using ICT in teaching, we find that unlike Pelgrum(2001), teachers perceive that their training for ICT skills and Knowhow is very likely to occur and thus do not see this as an obstacle for meeting their ICT objectives and goals..

Conclusion and Discussion

The Mauritian government is already projecting to integrate ICT in teaching. However, as seen in the course of this study, the introduction of computers is not a means to an end. This explains the aim of this study which has intended to investigate the relationship between teachers' behaviours and the use of ICT in the Mauritian context. The findings have shown that teachers correspond to Evans- Andris classification of teachers as those who (i) embrace computers and view technology as a challenge, (ii) distance themselves from computers and (iii) embrace computers in teaching.

Our findings indicate that there is a strong link between variables such as gender and seniority which impact on teachers' motivation to use ICT. As years of experience increases, our evidence reflects the fact that senior teachers believe that the use of ICT is time consuming. On the other hand, junior teachers and those with an average teaching experience feel quite willing and comfortable to use ICT. However, since teachers in all age groups are expected to use innovative teaching strategies, the use of ICT remains a must. Therefore, there is the need to provide further training and support to teachers in this age group to meet this end.

The second finding has shown a correlation between teachers' gender and their willingness to use ICT. Indeed, males appear to show more enthusiasm to use ICT as compared to their female colleagues. This corresponds to the findings which were made by Loyd and Gressard (1986) who claimed that male teachers show more confidence and less unease to use ICT.

Some limitations can also be identified due to the use of convenience sampling, the findings cannot be extrapolated to all secondary schools in Mauritius. Further research needs to be carried out which can be supported by classroom observation and tailor made interviews of respondents.

This study has also opened new avenues for further research to investigate the factors which contribute to the relationship between gender and ICT which can either support or contradict our findings.

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