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Further Professional Practice and Creativity
o Session 1
* PDP 6 Teaching Log
o Session 2
* PDP 10 The Work Based Experience Report Form
o Session 3
* 10 Lessons taught ( lesson plans, resources, written reflections included)
- 1. 01/02/2010
- 2. 04/02/2010
- 3. 09/02/2010
- 4. 11/02/2010 (PDP 8 / 9)
- 5. 11/02/2010
- 6. 22/02/2010
- 7. 25/02/2010 (PDP 7 / 9)
- 8. 01/03/2010 (PDP 7 / 9)
- 9. 16/03/2010 (PDP 7 / 9)
- 10. 25/03/2010 (PDP 7 / 9)
Advancing your professional practice
(1) Advancing your professional practice (observing other teachers)
I observed one of the beauty lessons, City & Guild Beauty Therapy Level 3, on 01/02/2010. This was a medium group with 15 learners and the classroom layout was a normal U-shape setting where was displayed a range of dummies about Anatomy & Physiotherapy and also plenty of posters on the wall about Health & Safety and its legislations. This room usually is arranged for theory lesson and tutorial so that the four cupboards were full of workbooks related. There is a set of computer and projector which are mostly used for power point presentation. The tutor used power point presentation during the whole lesson, using the flipchart and white board occasionally if she asked the learners for drawing the pictures or adding the extra information.
The tutor did the registration on time but there was 2 late learners came after registration. The tutor did not take any further action on the late learners as I thought they might not really be too late at all. She was straight forward to recap the topic of the last lesson within the first 10 minutes after introducing aims and objectives with power point. I found she explained the aims and objectives were quite clear. Everyone knew what would happen during the 3 hours lesson. I also found the tutor was well prepared some handy notes for recapping. This was a good idea to tick the key points out. She moved each activity smoothly and asked the learners questions before moving on. When she gave the tasks for each learner, some of them showed lack of confidence. She encouraged them and explained how to do in addition to using the Q & A skills to motivate the learners to attempt. Reece, I and Walker, S (2007) explained that communication was the most important factor of teaching and learning. Developing effective communication skill was to consider how teachers select the teaching and learning strategies to the learners. Before ending the lesson, she recapped the key areas and set some questions with the power point presentation. Then she asked the learners one by one by using the giant microphone. She explained to me the giant microphone was a signal to answer and also gave everyone had a chance to express their idea, special for introvert learners. It was because some of extrovert learners would answer the questions frequently. I thought the ‘giant microphone' was another good tool for Q & A which providing an equal opportunity to everyone answer the questions as Hillier (2002 p.216) mentioned that we are not trying to treat people differently, or assess them differently; we are making sure that the conditions under which we set an assessment do not exclude someone.
This was a lesson of Lymphatic System; the learners were given a single question and prepare the answer within few minutes. Another two of them asked for drawing the pictures on the whiteboard. As Wilson (2009) described operating lessons in relation to providing learning inclusive, teachers will manifest in a variety of ways in general. But one learner resisted doing because she was absence in the last lesson. She did not know how to draw. Then the tutor showed her some pictures related and encouraged her to try. The questions were designed as a flow of lymphatic system taken place, from one place to another, so that the learners answered as like as the system works. On the other hand, the tutor would write down their answer on the flipchart as well. I found some of the learners really concentrated at task, just one or two were not, and then the tutor would come close to them and help individually. Most of them showed positive attitude, they used the textbook to find out the answers or discussed the questions with the peers next to them. I found some of them felt stressful when they answered the questions prepared because they passed the giant microphone to the next very fast, two or three learners passed it straight away because they could not find the answers by themselves or not sure the answers.
I also spotted they loved to hear when would be the break time or wait further notice about what they would do in the last hour of the lesson. I thought they wished to be off the lesson earlier.
According to the first 2 hours lesson, I found they were the same level learners because some of them might not answer the simple questions, even the questions might be ‘single word' answers. I also found the tutor gave different tasks to the learners which were good ideas; even two learners were absence in the last session who could review what went on as well. The tutor considered inclusive learning and made them occupied all the way.
I could not find any particular resource which the tutor used in the process of differentiation. However she used a lot of Q & A session to integrate the professional knowledge. I could not find any obstacle for the learners' participation and understanding. There were not a lot of learners to arise questions during the lesson because of different tasks occupied. I just noticed one learner asked the specific term of lymphatic system, and then the tutor asked her to search online. That was another good idea during the lesson to enhance the ICT skill or searching skill.
In conclusion, I found the tutor was well prepared, organized the lesson and very knowledgeable. She did not use big words, in contrast, using simple phases and explanations so that the learners would be easy to get the point. Wilson (2009) Practical Teaching stated that teachers need to classify the 3 basic types of questions: closed; open and linked, at different ability levels. Effective questioning requires teachers to consider the level of questioning in relation to the learners' abilities and prior learning, level of learning and the lesson objectives. I found she well used the questioning skill and also provided an appropriate example to explain what lymphatic fluid is, thus the learners would figure out what it is.
Alternatively, I thought if the tutor might use some pictures to show the system or more lively examples how and what the system works in our daily life or explained some examples in relevant to the work in beauty therapy. That might be more useful and adaptable to the learners.
(2) Advancing your professional practice (observing other teachers)
The lesson observed on 15/03 is Diploma level 1 Brick Build with 6 learners, the classroom is well organized and neat, practical and well allocated on the ground floor due to the hard-wearing resources such as bricks and metallic instruments. The classroom sets up with projector, whiteboard and some usual equipment related, and also the tutor desk put behind the classroom which is a good idea to avoid the barrier in between learners and tutor. On the other hand, the classroom is set next to another practical room so that there was a bit distractive and noisy during the lesson in progress.
The registration was done before the first half practical session; therefore the tutor started recapping the previous lesson with a lot of questions to reinforce their knowledge. He named the learners if they were passive or introvert. However, I could not find the clear explanation of aims and objectives before starting the theory session. When the tutor finished recapping, he moved on 20 to 25 minutes theory session. Following the demonstration how to use the measuring instrument, they split into two groups because two different types of measuring instrument were used. Tutor asked them to group in 3 and tried to practise on each instrument. During the practice, tutor asked them to set up the equipments step by step and commented which instrument was practical and accurate by comparing the reading, and then asking them to demonstrate how to put the mark on the wall, etc. I found one of the learners resisted to practise, the tutor checked his physical status first and allow him to get some fresh air for a short while. He also encouraged him to use the nearest instrument and identify the benefit of the instrument used infra red. According Motivation Theory, described by Abraham Maslow (1970), focuses on needs, arguing that basic needs must be met before a learner can enter a state of mind in which to learn. I found the tutor was well used his body language and patient to motivate this learner as well as showing his empathy. At the end of the lesson, he used some key words to enhance their memories. But I could not find the tutor said anything about next lesson. It might not be very clear.
The learners learnt from the demonstration of video clip, practising using the measuring instrument and doing the workbook. The tutor moved on the next session by using different clip shown on the screen, then some learners followed the same procedure, but some of them sat still and waited until the tutor asked them to work with each other. I realized that the learners were most active in practical session rather than theory session; I also spotted one of them showing his tired face all the way during the theory session. Wilson (2009) explained that appropriate teaching and learning methods depend on what teachers want to get out of the sessions; what materials and resources are available to the teachers. I found the tutor made use of video clips and asked the appropriate questions in this session, so that they would concentrate the discussion by using different clips whether they felt tired or loss of focus.
Meanwhile, I recognized that 6 learners learnt in different way, two of them were most active in both theory and practical session and also they usually asked the questions most of the time; the others two were quite passive and needed to be motivated, thus the tutor would give them more support and individual demonstration; another two were introvert, that was why the tutor named them directly to answer the questions. As Reece, I and Walker, S (2007) explained that communication was the most important factor of teaching and learning. Developing effective communication skill was to consider how teachers select the teaching and learning strategies to the learners. Due to the different learning style, the tutor accessed the lesson by using Q & A, demonstration, practising on the real objects or individual support to integrate the active learning and learning differentiation. By the way I could not find there was any obstacle to participation and understanding. Fisher and Webb (2006) described the subject specialist as a combination of deep subject knowledge and a range of appropriate teaching and learning techniques which make for the most powerful interactions between teachers and learners. Thus the tutor used a lot of Q & A session to promote the learning environment as well as explaining the different condition with his own experiences and using open discussion with video clip.
(3) Advancing your professional practice (observing other teachers)
This was a special lesson observed by Ofsted as well as the education department of College on 22/03/2010. It is small group of 9, C & G Level 2 Beauty Therapy learners. They sat in a theory room where posed with lot of posters of Health and Safety legislations and Anatomy and Physiotherapy dummies in both corners of the room, four general resources were found in the room which are a set of computer, projector, whiteboard and flipchart. There are also a few cupboards full of different subjects' handouts and workbooks. On top of the cupboards are some reference books displayed. I found it a well prepared theory lesson because the room was already set up in 3 small group. Nice, bright and airy do not make the learners feeling sleepy; basically, theory lesson is taking place every Monday morning for 3¼ hours long.
The tutor has set up the room before starting the lesson. Following the registration, she explained clearly the aims and objectives straight forwards and also emphasised this lesson would focus on reviewing the BT4, Facial and BT6, Waxing unit towards the examination in May. She also outlined the lesson was planned to use different tasks, games or activities to integrate and enhance their knowledge. I thought that was an excellent practice because the learners might not get bored nor would wait for something different happen.
Starting with three small tasks of reviewing the codes of ethics, skin structures and hair structures, which were precise and engaging as we supposed the learners knew the three areas very well. Cotton (1995 p.18), assessment can gather the information offering initial guidance and advice, so diagnostic assessment can take place at different stages of the learning process. Therefore I found the tasks could assess their previous knowledge as well as motivating their confidence.
The 4th task was a facial matching game, it is one of the products of my creativity and innovation project. Werthiemer(1922), the Gestalt theory was the idea of “grouping”, the primary factors that determine grouping were - proximity; similarity; closure and simplicity. It helped to increase the interaction in between tutor and learners, I found they used the cards discussing with each other as well as finding the right description to each facial muscle. There was no sign of resistance even encouraging them to ask questions. Before the end of the lesson was a big domino game, tutor tried to use half of the room to play the game which was a fun and engaging game because it made the learners moving around. I extremely liked this game.
Learners not merely recapped all the knowledge towards the examination, but also their problem solving and communication skill in terms of other key skills. Tutor spoke on the pace, very confident and good voice controlled. If she spoke loud, I recognised she was in whole group discussing; in contrast, she scaled down her voice that I recognized as 1 to 1 supporting or small group discussion. I found most of the learners were engaging and proactive, they did not show the funny face or refusal. Moreover, they were high participated and showed positive attitude.
I found the tasks were considered the learning differentiation, one of them was joining line; one was circling the picture; one was matching; one was finding the missing words; one was ladder game and the other was “big domino”, whether the learners were behind or would be challenged more, all the activity were considered the learning differentiation. They could also support to each other in the small group. Petty (2009) stated students want approval from their peers, or at least enjoy being successful in measuring themselves against their peers. I found additionally the ladder game had the same effect and helped enhancing the common and professional knowledge very efficient. I observed the game only ran a half hour, they could nearly remember 80% of the questions and answers.
I could not find any obstacle to participation and understanding. However, the tutor gave the winner a little surprise if someone finished the game first. As Petty (2009) stated that motivation is crucial for learning; it provided in part by repeated success and by prompt reinforcement for this success.
The overall lesson was an engaging lesson, I found the consistency of the tutor is very important to maintain a creative and quality teaching and learning environment. I thought I could really learn from this lesson what are interaction, inclusion and differentiation as well as learning styles. As Wilson (2009) outlined the facilitative teachers will spend much time for preparing, planning and designing the lessons. Operating lessons in relation to providing learning inclusive, teachers will manifest in a variety of ways in general, such as,
* Organising the process in advance with planning
* Connecting with their existing knowledge and understanding
* Using materials and resources that relate to learners to enable them to use existing knowledge to build on
* Providing diverse teaching strategies for mixed learning styles
Creativity and Innovation Project
Creativity and Innovation Project
As a beauty therapy tutor, there is a lot of areas considered. Developing work within our work place is one of the important areas we should be aware of integrating the professional knowledge; encouraging and motivating learners; delivering appropriate teaching and learning; addressing resources or materials creatively and innovatively etc. As Craft et al (2001 p.23) stated ‘creative activity is possible in all subject at school and in all areas of life.' Therefore the creativity are the intimate cohesion of the above areas mentioned.
The Creativity and Innovation Project brings up a proposal and a rationale how the creative resources help teaching and learning in the facial unit, as well as showing how I discussed my ideas and the finished resources with my mentor in the placement. This critically report on my project also finds the action plan to explain how the resources are able to implement in my placement.
When I shadowed my mentor's lesson in the end of December, I spotted one of the facial massage routine handouts. I was shocked by its presentation which was not fully presented and not professional as well as not showing the movement direction clearly. Following the few more lessons of ‘client session', I discovered the learners could not truly integrate the professional knowledge into practices such as identifying the skin characteristics; promoting the additional services and products and stating the benefits of different facial techniques, etc. Ogunleye (2002) stated the reason of adult learners' underachievement rates in their learning were deficiencies in teaching styles (Longhurst 1999); and instructional strategies (Druckenfield 1999) because of less encouraging, initiative and active learning. It is definitely true why my initial vision came up to modify their handout.
Craft et al (2001 p.18) mentioned the definition of Creativity, ‘imaginative activity fashioned so as to produce outcomes that are both original and of value (NACCCE, 1999 p.29).' NACCCE embedded 5 key concepts of creativity (Craft et al 2001)
* Using imagination, it is a thought process that will establish a new idea or imagine something which is not existing before.
* A fashioning process, it is a active process and help developing one's creativity or building up one's skill of problem solving.
* Being original, there are 3 areas mentioned the originality: historic, relative and individual. ‘NACCCE (p.30) suggests that exceptional historic talent will flourish when individual and relative originality is nurtured (Craft et al 2001).'
* Pursuing purpose, it is a fertilizer which can change ideas into reality and produce tangible outcomes. It may create a new theory, scientific formula or new art work.
* Judging value, it is very difficult to judge the value, however, the importance is making use of peer review and self-evaluation by learners. It may find different value judgements.
The above key concepts as guidelines covered the directions how I produce the resources for teaching and learning in facial unit. As Brookfield (2006) stated one of the reasons for teaching creatively is ‘to encourage learners' interest in a topic (p.73).' It means that learners can be inspired by the tutors' personal animation and passion or can be helped to develop the connection between the topic and their knowledge,
On the other hand, Best and Thomas (2007) outlined a ‘creative cycle' whether we create any teaching resources, materials or activities, they are come from our vision or purpose. Brookfield (1990) mentioned an organizing vision will help to release the feeling of uncertainty, guiding us the clear direction in teaching and learning. I have come up some ideas before starting this new assignment. Since I knew the creativity and innovation project as a part of the assignment, I was pleased to discuss my ideas with my mentor at once. Our first conversation in the end of January, focused on how to improve the learners' professional knowledge in the unit BT4, improve and maintain facial skin condition. She explained to me there was a lack of funding to renew and update the resources from the professional organisation, HABIA. It costs £400-£450 for the basic facial treatment teaching tool kit. Regarding Ogunleye (2002 p.175) described ‘learners' underachievement at the end of a course programme will result in a corresponding loss of funding. Besides the direct loss of FEFC funding, there might exist an opportunity cost of misapplied teaching time and college resources (Fielding et al 1998).' That is why she is simply using the existing resources and materials such as power point presentations, handouts, textbook, workbooks and demonstrations.
With reference to Petty (1996), the creative process of this project consists of six working phases.
* The inspiration phase happened in the 1st week of February, Petty (1996) described this was not a phase in which to be negative or worried. As my mentor's descriptions, I came up some basic directions. When I proposed the ideas to my mentor, she advised me to think about the facial unit as well as establishing the professionalism.
* The clarification phase, I tried to modify the facial massage handout before sorting out drawing the facial massage pictures. Meanwhile, I also thought what I want to achieve if I only modify the handout. What are the internal and invisible problems in college? What do the learners need to learn? What would I like the finished work to be like, functional, flexible, lively, animated or professional looking? Brookfield (1990) explained that we have to be clear about why we choose to lecture. From the first lesson of beauty therapy, I thought to encourage learners' interest in a topic. This is a main purpose and direction to go in the next stage.
* Distillation phase, this is a self-critical phase (Petty 1996). The ideas I have had were only ideas, may not complete solutions. Therefore I brought the layout of facial pictures in the 2nd meeting and discussed with my mentor. Due to her explanations, funding problem, traditional teaching methods, not engaging and motivating. The concrete ideas would be come out in the next meeting hopefully.
* Perspiration phase, I generated the ideas and proposed 3 resources initially to my mentor in this stage. They are
1. Flexible facial massage routine handout (Appendix 1)
2. A2 size manual ‘smarter board' (Appendix 2)
3. Facial muscles game cards (matching, snapping or sticking…) (Appendix 3)
According to the creative process, ‘icedip' phases (Petty 1996), the last 2 phases of evaluation and incubation eventually will be taken place in the next 2 meetings; however, my mentor is busy preparing for the external verifier week and the observation by Ofsted. I am going ahead to produce the 3 resources. When I produced the 3rd resource, I was stuck on finding the pictures I wanted. I looked for the presentable, professional looking pictures but my mentor suggested using the pictures in the workbook. I did not completely agree with her. Though, I did the cards with two different pictures which will be used in the lesson on 22nd of March, the observed lesson by Ofsted. Therefore my mentor and I can evaluate the effectiveness. As Petty (1996) stated ‘many people dislike the evaluation phase at first.' ‘Highly creative people are nearly always inveterate revisors.' We shall ask for the feedback from the learners.
In terms of the concept of creativity and improvement of achievement in adult learning, creative curriculum, teaching and instructional teaching are important aspects for supporting achievement in adult learning (Ogunleye 2002). In contrast, there are also some concerns if ‘the subjects of the curriculum promote creative thinking, behaviour and action, we need to pay attention at least two pitfalls (Craft 2005 p. 79).' First, is avoiding to confuse the subject of school curriculum with domains or disciplines; second, is integrating curriculum needs to have ‘clear understanding goals in terms of the subjects that it brings together (p.80).' As the statement mentioned the concept of creativity will help to improve the achievement in adult learning, it means that teaching creatively will facilitate in teaching and learning more interactive as well as motivating and encouraging.
As well as two reminders of pitfalls, I came up more concrete ideas to create one more new additional resource continually which can help the learners understanding the knowledge in relevant to facial movements. Although the stage of idea generation (Best and Thomas 2007) seemed to finish and I have produced two resources (picture board and facial massage routine handout), Ogunleye (2002) stated promotion of teaching could help the learners' achievement rates, thus teaching and learning should be more creative to make the impact in their achievement. I outlined these two resources and discussed with my mentor. She then explained to me how the learners remembered the names of facial muscles. I thought the method used was passive and not fun. Then I came up another idea to refine the 3rd resource (facial muscles game cards). IDP Survey 2 described ‘the need for creativity in learning process is informed also by the reality in job market where knowledge and skill adaptability, transferability, problem-solving skills and creativity.' Therefore, the 4th resource is created, a facial booklet (Appendix 4) to reinforce their professional knowledge by identifying skin characteristics and promoting the additional services and products. I thought the 4th resource will help them more effective and work commercially. As Abbott and Ryan (2000) described, ‘mastery of basic skills such as literacy skills; the ability to work with others (communication skills); being able to deal with constant distractions; working at different levels across different disciplines; using mainly verbal skills; problem-solving and decision-making (Ginnis 2002 p.7).' In this stage, I found to share rationale with my mentor is important not only for development of creativity, but also the development of professional strength among tutors (Brookfield 1990). Therefore, I can understand further what skill do the learners need to reinforce.
Basically there were some technical problems of drawing a facial massage picture by using the computer firstly if I wanted to show my mentor the physical draft or layout during our discussion before the meeting of 2nd week in February, so that we could discuss further action point. I have to sort out the problem in 3 days. After few days, when I showed her the layout of new handout, she was extremely pleased with the professional looking handout and suggested a further idea as leaving some of the pictures blanked. Then the learners can draw the movements by themselves during the facial lessons either in theory or practical session. She was right because it would create the interaction between tutor and learners as well as promoting deep learning and ‘whole brain' learning further (Petty 2006). The first 2 meetings were very constructive, we focused on what the learners needed to learn, how they can learn? How we can help them to reinforce the professional knowledge and remember the professional terms as well as considering the production cost of all resources and materials. As Petty (2006) stated the 20-80 rules, ‘Twenty per cent of what we do makes 80 per cent of the difference (p.3).' I thought by following the initial idea of modifying facial handout until creating a new facial picture and other resources which can completely support the learners' understanding easily as well as building up the professional image of the college and the course. The rule also mentioned that let us ‘work smarter, not harder, by concentrating on the factors that make the difference (p.3).' When my mentor and I brainstormed the ideas and the layout in February; our concerns were nearly at ease such as the costing (approximate £40 for 4 resources), time consuming, inputting and presenting the new resources in different group. We have to wait and see the feedback after using the new resources in the following lessons.
Creativity in the classroom, it will encourage both teachers and learners to focus on the objectives of each lesson (Craft 2006). In terms of a professional looking handout, linking the pictures in a way is related to relevant theory and creates meaning and understanding (Petty 2006), the facial muscles game cards will entirely support the handout. As my mentor mentioned how the learners remembered the names of facial muscles, which was passive, surface learning in addition to lack of motivation, encouragement and less engaging. Petty (2006) explained ‘the learners must know the conditions when ideas are relevant or useful to make the learning functional (p.8)'. He also described if ‘the learners could translate the language of instruction into the language of meaning and understanding: mentalese, they would get something from it as the ‘penny dropping' or ‘I get it' feeling (p.9).' Therefore the resources I created were visual aids, ‘this provides another channel through which learners can interpret my ideas, and it will be especially appealing to those who think visually (Brookfield 1999 p.82).'
Craft (2005) explained that shaping a new knowledge can involve a range of levels of engagement and support; having some understanding of what the learners has already known. The game cards were designed for playing different level from lower (matching) to higher (snapping or sticking) as well as considerating of learning differentiation. As Petty (2006) mentioned ‘Bloom's taxonomy', low cognitive demand is a stage of reproducing; learners merely recalled or reproduced the knowledge from teacher talk. What the teacher has presented, they could state the information as same as the teacher. Matching the cards by using the muscles' names and the muscles' pictures will provide to the learners in level 2 in the early learning stage, so that they can be encouraged to attain the task easily and identify which is which.
After a month learning, the cards will be used again for stating the features of each muscle by using other cards with descriptions. This stage in ‘Bloom's taxonomy' called the comprehension and application. Learners still stick on reproducing stage. After a few months, by using the same cards and playing like as ‘snap cards', this is a ‘reasoning' stage, learners can analyze and respond creatively or give more detail descriptions or features about each facial muscle. They can also explain how to treat certain problems during facial massage such as stating the facial massage techniques to improve the muscle tone. This shows how to use the facial muscles game card to improve the learners' reasoning skills and develop their learning from low cognitive demand (surface learning) to high cognitive demand (deep learning). They can also integrate the professional knowledge into their work commercially. Furthermore, the handout and the cards are considered the learning theories (Reece and Walker 2007), Behaviourists like memorizing (matching / snapping cards); Cognitivists like thinking (sticking the cards or drawing the facial movements); Humanists like doing (drawing and practising the movements). In order to learning theories, the cards are designed playing with different methods in different stages and the handout is called ‘flexible' facial massage routine handout because some of difficult movements have been drawn and some pictures are blanked. Even though, the idea of the game cards can use the extent to other subjects such as bones, hair, nails, etc.
The first two resources are ultimately supportive and engaging in teaching and learning. However the College does not provide an extra technical support to tutor except the power point presentation. There is only one Smart board in the library so that tutor cannot use it frequently. Supporting the facial unit fully, the 3rd resource, A2 size manual smart board, calendar looking board laminated, so that tutor and learners can draw anything on the top of the facial pictures. Best and Thomas (2007) stated ‘effective teaching sits within the creativity cycle', ‘teachers need to use creativity to select the most appropriate teaching and learning methods to achieve the desired learning outcomes (p.42).' That is why I think the A2 facial pictured board will give the extra support to the other two resources completely. I also think ‘the approaches are holistic (Petty 2006 p.19).' It means whether or not the facial lesson is taking place in a theory and practical room; the tutor can bring and present these additional resources anywhere as well as mixing and matching with other existing resources and facilities.
Petty (2006) described which teaching methods are most constructivist, I agree with this statement, ‘fun teaching methods create engagement and so help deep learning (p.27).' The picture shown on the boards is an enlarged picture as same as the new facial massage routine handout. With reference to Gestalt theory (Reece and Walker 2007), presenting the similar sort of pictures in the sessions will be helpful so that they can easily to identify and remember the movements. ‘Gestalt is extremely keen on the nature and emphasis a relationship with the environment which is a useful approach within exploring creativity and to be creative (Beadle, no date).' We usually use demonstration to show learners how to do the movements, in spite of this is passive, less interaction and poor learning differentiation. I think about using the pictured board which can help to create the interaction between tutor and learners in addition to supporting the learning differentiation further. Petty (2006) stated demonstration is a ‘present' method as well as being a poor method, thus, teaching via the pictured board will be encouraging and creating more fun and building metaphors. Best and Thomas (2007) explained ‘metaphors are powerful symbols which demand that our subconscious finds meaning (p.128).' The new created facial picture will be a metaphor to link with the facial movements, facial muscles and other appropriate areas.
Since I learnt the learning theories and different learning styles (visual, auditory and kinaesthetic), I always consider and plan my lessons appropriately and adaptable for different learners. However, Petty (2006) described Coffield's advices to promote ‘whole brain' learning. It means that do not type learners or match their styles; integrating different methods for all learners; ‘encouraging learners to use unfamiliar styles (p.30), the purpose is helping the learners to develop ‘deep' approaches to learn. Developing the ‘whole brain' learning, Herrmann developed the ‘whole brain' model (Petty 2006) who outlined four learning styles related right-brain and left-brain styles. Dr. Dew (1996 p.91-93) mentioned ‘the truly creative professionals will find ways to incorporate the talents of both brain hemispheres to maximize people's personal effectiveness.' Herrmann worked out the 4 learning styles as theorist (like using textbook and bibliographies); organisers (like discussion and textbook); innovators (like playfulness, creating visual discussion) and humanitarians (like group discussion, group interaction). The main purpose of Herrmann's work is ‘working with opposites helps learners to become more creative, encouraging change and growth positively and telling us not to sterotype learners but to encourage everyone to use all styles (Petty 2006 p.33)'. As left-brain thinking process is very systematic steps in developing a solution to a problem and right-brain thinkers come up to root-cause analysis (Dr. Dew 1996). I think each learner has his or her own potential and talent in learning if the tutor identifies the 4 learning styles mentioned as complementary ways to understand a topic or subject, not in alternative approaches, so that the method used will be more effective to build up the ‘whole brain' learning. It may also help the learners learn in holistic approaches.
As Theall (2007) mentioned an understanding of creativity allows to transform prior learning and to combine it with the knowledge and skills to form unique conception or products. My perception is a learner of beauty therapy who does not like to read or write, using visualized methods are the best teaching approaches, however, beauty therapists also need the professional knowledge to support their work. Regarding Herrmann's ‘whole brain' model, a booklet of skin characteristic is designed to help enhancing their professional knowledge in order to helping them communicate with the client professionally. NACCCE (1999 p.13) described ‘people who can adapt, see connections, innovate, communicate and work with others.' The content of the booklet shows the information in relevant to the parts of face separately; linking the facial pictures where they can draw and identify the problems, then using the extent to promote the addition services and products to the clients. It will help the learners' thinking broadly. Best and Thomas (2007) outlined ‘Alistair Smith's Accelerated Learning Cycle (2004)', the key aspects of the cycle shown is to build up ‘the right learning climate and also closely fit the realities of classroom-based learning (p.165).' The cycle described (1.) ‘Connect' relates to connecting to the learners themselves as the information shown in the booklet is related not only their clients but also their skin problems as well. (2.) ‘Activate' involves learners being exposed to new ideas, thought-provoking with the stimuli such as pictures or some descriptions shown on the booklet. (3.) ‘Demonstrate' involves learners having an opportunity to show what they have learned such as asking questions; group discussing; practising with peers or clients or receiving feedback from tutor for improvement. (4.) ‘Consolidate' phase is providing an opportunity for the learners to using the knowledge for long-term, seeking the ways in which the learning can be extended in other area.
Furthermore, the best way to help people to maximize their creative potential is to allow them to do something they love (Amabile 1996; Runco & Chand 1995; Torrance 1995). As we say beauty therapy course is a concept of art of beauty, a higher level of beauty therapist should be like an artist to perform enthusiastically and professionally. A beauty therapist may have altered creativity in beauty as well. Teachers may incorporate the above statement and learning cycle into classroom by using a sort of resources to enhance their potential. Therefore the booklet will arise their understanding in depth. As Craft et al (2001) stated the appropriate use of humour is further creative attributes that should be encouraged and developed in learning taken place. That is why the outlook of the booklet will be designed more fun rather than a formal handout. It may also design a quiz inside so that the learners can use the extent to their clients. Craft (2005) stated a model ‘learning to growth', offering opportunities for learners to explore in their own time and space, avoiding frameworks that could move learners into identifying questions or answers before they may be ready. The booklet may create the way how the learners develop ‘learning to growth' as well.
Craft et al (2001) described, ‘Roger claims that teaching can only be a meaningful and valuable activity in that it provides an environment in which learning can be taken place (p.106).' It is absolutely true as teachers provide an appropriate resource and material as well as integrating the learners' creative thinking. The creative approach of humanistic model (Craft et al 2001) mentioned a student-centred learning which are identifying the learning needs; recognizing the needs as motivators in learning; using the needs as the basis for facilitating learning; sharing feelings and thoughts with the learning group.
According to the feedback from C & G Beauty Therapy level 2 learners, the facial muscles game cards, are easy to understanding and help them to learn. That is why I think the resources in creativity and innovation project are adaptable, enjoyable and knowledgeable, in addition to the economic criteria; they can be massively produced at college's printing room. Basically, they are supportive, engaging and interactive in both learners and tutors.
As Kolb (1984) suggested that without reflection, people would continue to repeat their mistake. Since the module started I struggled to the words ‘teaching creatively' and ‘teaching for creativity'. I thought they seemed to carry the same meaning but they were not. I was confused initially when I started my written work. I tried to understand the words and search the references, there was a book called ‘Handbook of Creativity' from Sternberg which stopped me to read. I found it could not grow my interest because of the words used, they are small, big words and too academic. Meanwhile I thought if I created something like this, the result was the learners would not be encouraged or not understand. That was why I refined my 4th resource. As Brookfield (2006) stated one of the reasons for teaching creatively is ‘to encourage learners' interest in a topic (p.73).'
In contrast, I found the module would be the most interesting one compared with other modules as creating some physical evidences (resources), which would help to enhance my teaching files as well as being creative. Ogunleye (2002) stated improvement of achievement in adult learning; creative curriculum, teaching and instructional teaching are important aspects for supporting achievement in adult learning. I found that was really true as I examined the feedback from one of the creative resources where the learners commented the facial muscles cards' activity could help to reinforce their professional knowledge in addition to integrate their understanding. However they suggested refining the descriptions of the muscles features, they said there were a bit confusing in some descriptive features. I thought I might come back to my perception that the learners still stayed with their comfort zone, ‘the low cognitive demand (Petty 2006)'. I went back to check all the descriptions and asked my mentor for comment. There was nothing wrong but they were not the same statements as their usual text book.
I thought the learners might merely be familiar with their textbook and would not go further to explore extra descriptions from other reference books. Sometimes I thought the cards could whether help them to promote high cognitive demand (Petty 2006) or they would not want to expand their professional knowledge. In spite of this, I was assured that the cards could create the inclusive and engaging learning. As I observed the lesson, I realized they enjoyed to play a part of the activity and discussed with the others.
With reference to the Kolb's learning cycle (1984), reflective observation, I learnt from this was to find the first person to refine the problem if there was something needed to modify. In another stage, abstract conceptualization, I have to think about how the cards be presented for the next time. I have to use the prepared muscle names together so that the learners would not be confused which is which.
Apart from the learners' feedback, I found other useful feedback from the observing tutors. They could help me to move forward as well as managing the later comer, how to deal with their unacceptable attitude, their assessment performances, etc. I realized I was more open and positive to deal with the above aspects since one of the learners who could not achieve the requirements during being assessed. I thought if I did not discuss with her performance in depth, I could not help her to pass the assessment. Ecclestone (2005 p.15) explained that feedback can help learners to identify their learning's progress and achievement relating to the summative criteria for assessment. I recognized that she gained a lot of improvement in her next assessment after giving constructive feedback. As Ecclestone (2005 p.2-3) stated that the idea of assessment is integral to effective learning and motivation underpin attempts to maximize the educational benefits of assessment. She was not the only person I had to discuss with, there were also two learners I tried to discuss with their practical skills. I found their active engagement with feedback is all integral to its effectiveness (Ecclestone 2005).
I obtained pretty much benefit from observing other teachers where I recognised their common teaching style as they facilitated the lessons were engaging, inclusive, interactive, using appropriate teaching methods and resources. I found there was a lot of thing to learn. I have to use some extent to my future lesson such as a giant domino game and a giant microphone, especially, one of tutor demonstrated his empathy on the learner.
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A facial massage routine handout
A2 size manual ‘smarter board'
Facial muscles game cards
A facial booklet