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The management of professional competencies of academic staff in Finnish universities. It explored the different ways university leadership in Finland goes about quality enhancement of the teaching staff in the university. Administration questionnaire was employed in the process of data collection. Although the results show comprehensive techniques of enhancing the quality of staff in Finnish universities, some of the conclusions that emerged from the study include the acknowledgement of the crucial importance of improving staff quality in keeping them current in their fields of expertise, its importance in institutional survival and the need for universities to commit themselves to staff development as innovation strategy for individual and institutional development. Other higher education institutions should draw their lessons from Finnish case.
Key words: academic staff development, Case Study, Finland, quality enhancement of professional competencies, university.
1.1 Explain the importance of the Self assessment and how it can be reviewed?
Self Assessment is required to analyze your abilities and it makes the work more efficient when we have a predefined and assessment of our work. Self Assessment helps in many ways. It helps in accomplishment of task and the leaders approach becomes more and more suitable if the assessment is done with clarity. It also helps in finding out the shortcomings and helps in gaining the future momentum. Moreover while talking about the Finnish Universities then they may get their goals prior to their expectations if the academic staff gets its own assessment before the supervisory remarks. As in the Finnish Universities the questionnaires are used to assess the performance of the staff so if the staff helps itself to build the assessment so it would make the work more and easier.
There are many more critical factors that help employees by doing Self Assessment. One of them is that it saves a lot of money if we do self assessment before the actual assessment. If the management has to analyze the performance of every employee they may forget to evaluate the performance because there performance of whole year is like a very time taking. So many officers simply don't remember if the employees performed in the year, especially if they oversee a large amount of group. Asking workers to review themselves is a fine way not to overlook important actions and to get a savor of how employees recognize themselves.
1.2 Define term "Self Assessment Inventory" with example.
It is a process in which the staff collects the information about him and the purpose of this is to make the future decisions. The inventory means that the person making the assessment has some future target and it would have complete assessment of him self to make future goals. Self assessment may have following characteristics analyzed in it. Interests, values, personality, and skills.
For example, Rita met with a career development professional who decided which self assessment tools she would use to help Rita find some appropriate careers.
Self Assessment inventory helps make a lot of useful complements about the environment around. While talking about the nature of the work place if you have some strong points to your career then you will obviously have the advantage to keep them in your record. Self Assessment helps a lot of mistakes bring in picture and it would obviously help the member to make some positive improvements. Like in Academic Staff the workers need to have assess what they are doing and what area is needed to be improved. In Finnish Universities the workers have a lot to offer to the students and thus they have a lot of positives in them. Many common examples are from the top universities where Self Assessment has helped in regaining the status and quality in the services. Since it's a very serious issue to be considered and researched upon the employees need to be very sharp in their approach because negative assessment will definitely make things go wrong and it would obviously have a negative impact on the performance. While assessing the basic need of the working area the pre requisites should be kept in mind and the requirements should not exceed the limit of the available quantity. Many different aspects have been raised the issue have a lot of impact on the performance of the staff and the work related problems have been minimized through self assessment. Major source of these problems were minimized because of basic thinking and rational judgment.
1.3 Explain the importance of "Portfolio" of work.
Portfolio of work is the set of the best tasks performed by an employee in work. It helps in making the best goals achieved and thus Finnish Universities recommended their employees to make their portfolios in order to get the best outcome and show their performance. For example we can see some of these...
For a chef, he may look into the best possible written recipes and menus that he can create and also inspection reports. But still he may need to show the practical work in order to convince the recruiters.
Similarly a book keeper may include the detailed list of the software systems the be use. For the book keeping he may include the pages of the reports that he may use and also letter of recommendations.Â
While doing some jobs the employees often gets many rewards and recognitions. He may get some benefit from these but while making a portfolio of work he would obviously get the benefit of that work. He can place those rewards, achievements and complements in that portfolio, that would obviously show the effect of the goals achieved.
In conducting the interviews there is often need of an advantage and it is difficult to show the work in that short time. Hence while giving an Interview that portfolio would definitely helps in showing the work. (David 2002).
There are many different ways in which a company can have a good look at employees and their interest in the company. Hence they must develop this technique to make sure that the employees are performing at a good level. Hence making portfolio shows that the employee is not wasting time but trying to learn from his work and making a good progress. Most of the people have a quick look on the internet before the interview rather then the desired time span that should be allocated to this work.
Actions speak louder than words.
There are many ways in which the supervisor looks at the staff and they need to make sure that the work is done with intention to perform well. Hence the staff needs to make sure that they have done their home work and the management will be impressed by his approach. The best examples must be put together and then efforts that you put must be shown in the work which would obviously help the manager make a positive note about the employee. It can also help the candidates while going for an Interview.
Performing do lets they make out how first-class you really are, and eradicate any inquiry of you overstress how good you are. The self-confidence it obtain to let work address for itself, as well as being truthful about your ability level, is inspiring and create you place out. So if you are on foot into a job meeting unfilled hand, you are gone astray a great chance to confirm you are the dream applicant for your vision work. But still if you by no means show your collection in a meeting, it is still a high-quality idea. It means you are very prepared to answer any interview query about your knowledge, skills or past employment. Your self-assurance goes up and that shows in the interview. And it is a huge tool for refreshing your recollection while you are in the coming up room and it can lift your feelings while job hunt.
Best benefits we have for, I found it that it allocate you to increase some time in an interview to meet your opinion. A problem is fling at you to see how you tackle with uncertainty. Frequently it is concerning a little skill or understanding that was not bring up in the job ads. It takes you to discover the case in your portfolio gives you a possibility to believe through what is at the back the query and put in order what you want to say. And contain just the correct example to answer the question to the interviewer, who more often than not expects the individual interviewing to be confused or unsure of what to respond.Â
In interviews, words are contemptible, Work twist your interview into a chance to show them where you do extremely well and precisely what they can wait for if they hire you. And that frequently means the hire supervisor can get to a level of console about hiring you that few applicant can match. And that might just present you the perimeter in an interview and signify you dig up the first offer.
1.4 Differentiate the "Short term" and "Long term" learning objective and importance of personal development targets.
There are a lot of learning objectives. Some are short term and some of them are long term. Many different reasons have been found while discussing the Short term and long term learning objectives. So whats the difference between these two is obvious. Like in the following table some of the short term and long term learning objectives are mentioned.
Short term planning should
Long term planning should
recognize individual needs, abilities and prior attainment;
Show a broad and balanced curriculum;
take account of the outcomes of pupil's performance when planning next steps of learning;
Identify priorities for what we will assess in depth
identify focused learning objectives;
Identify what End of Year / Key Stage Assessments should take place;
Demonstrate use of a wide range of strategies and techniques to be used to assess individuals or groups of pupils which reflects pupils' different learning styles
Demonstrate how pupils' achievements will be assessed against the requirements of the Foundation Stage Curriculum at the end of the Foundation Stage;
Indicate any specific individuals or groups who will form a focus for assessment in a particular lesson/series of lessons;
identify when statutory assessment will take place;
involve pupils in self / peer assessment;
Evaluate assessment information regularly;
take account of our agreed priorities for what we will assess in depth; be annotated by staff to reflect learning outcomes or assessments
Inform medium term plans;
Reflect whole school priorities
Personal Development Plan
Personal Development plan have a lot of research done to show the main idea behind the basic problems that needs to be analyzed. The personal development is necessary in many aspects as it helps the workers to keep what is their right track and what they should do to make progress in their achievement path. Following are the benefits of personal development plan in the University level.
â€¢ It looks at the development of the individual employee.
â€¢ It is all about the aspirations of the employee.
â€¢ It looks at broad long-term development, usually for the next year.
â€¢ Development does not have to be related to work tasks.
â€¢ PDP's should be written in a structured way, recorded and reviewed. This usually means that you and your line manager:
- agree long term targets
- decide how to achieve them
- break down targets into short term goals
- Regularly review what you have done, usually at least twice a year.
â€¢ When PDP's are used in an organisation it is usual for all employees in the organisation to have one.
2.1 Explain the methods of evaluation the development progress?
Many different organizations use many different types of progress evaluation methods. These methods and techniques help to regain momentum in the market and they boost the confidence of the management team. Most of the organizations try to make some good progress and thus they use development evaluation through such means that make their goals more clear.
Following are few of the examples of the methods commonly used for evaluation of development progress;
Formative and Summative evaluation
Formative: This method is used when the instructions are not fully developed and they need to be analyzed.
Summative: This technique is used after the issuance of the instruction used, but before implementation properly
2. Summative and Process evaluation within 5 Level ROI
This method is used after the implementation
This evaluation method be supposed to stress "final outcomes of better group or institute performance" with Business Impact and ROI being the majority preferred that take delivery of the most support
3. Confirmative and Meta (quality of evaluation)
This approach is used when long term evaluation is needed and during each stage of evaluation process
This evaluation approach is taken from HPT Model with multiple model determined approaches for every type of valuation types are accessible and compared within.
This process is based on Success Case Model
This is usually used when the instructions are fully made.
From the survey and more widespread follow up to a moderately small taster of both most and slightest successful trainee to settle the extent that fresh training completed a major different to the business (i.e. the instructional contact on recital).
It has been very successful when the document about the nature and the value of business in the application in order to learning and identifying and explaining core value of the perforating context and factors that enables few trainees and help them achieve greatest possible results."
Provides quick picture of information on both commerce collision of instructional program.
It is another way of evaluation in which there are reactions to Measure the "satisfaction" and learning i.e to participants what are the changes and attitudes that help them improve knowledge or increase skill, moreover it also help in behaviors and a change in behavior which then results in production increase improve quality, cutting costs, profits increase
While considered one of the most popular approaches, most do not complete the behavior and results levels that are deemed the most valuable.
Success Case Approach Model to be used for Underwriting Training Evaluation:
with a few
Deepen Impact with
Extend Services to
New Training Programs
Enhance or Impede Business Impact
Develop More Effective Underwriting Training Products and Services
Greater Business Impact with Each Operating Division
Increased Capability to Achieve Business Results from Learning
Greater Capability to Meet Emerging Business Needs
Follow Up Survey
2.2 Elaborate the importance of Evaluation of objective, feedback and reset objective.
Importance of Evaluation of objective, Feedback, and Reset objective:
Evaluation is use for the purposes of creation judgment regarding the value or accomplishment of public or things" (p.240)
Purpose comparison based on 5 common purposes:
Education as it supports better group or organization performance
"There should be all-inclusive extent and assessment procedure to imprison the donation of human resource development."
Determining punter contentment of participant and managers (immediate, senior or top executives)
Performance development not incomplete to instructional interference
assessment produce information that will,
(1) Help the association value or judge the consequences of a performance,
(2) Trigger or hold up a choice concerning the performance, the performer or the organization.
Performance development, counting the brunt of non-instructional "presentation system factor"
An assessment plan builds "managerial potential to add to the presentation and commerce value of the training investment" .
Evaluation must charge:
How well an organization is using knowledge to force performance development
What an organization is liability that facilitate presentation development from knowledge
What an association is doing that is hinder performance step up
Teaching and other human presentation "interventions linked with strategic and tactical preparation, performance improvement, organization development, customer satisfaction and societal contributions".
In difference to those who think evaluation a procedure to supply in order to decision maker, for Kaufman et al. the purpose of evaluation is to compare results with intentions
3.1 Identify the work-based problem and suggest the solution for said problem.
There hade been a lot of work based problem. This is one of the problems that needs to be analyzed which make the progress. This is a problem common to other studies of student outcomes. The 1995-6 evaluation of 42 California Partnership Academies enrolling over 5000 students found that over students' four-year tenure in the academies, students improved their attendance and grade point averages (Foothill Associates, 1997). Yet again, while internships are one element of the academy program, it is unclear whether all students participate in work-based learning. The report states that some academies have a community service component while others offer internships, some of which are paid. And, the researchers found that the largest gain in performance occurred early in the four-year program, between the ninth and tenth grades. Again, it is likely that these students had not yet engaged in work-based learning. Thus while student outcomes are positive, they can most likely be attributed to components of the academy program other than work-based learning. Another study compared career academy students with students in the general,17 academic, and vocational tracks at public schools in the same district, and found that while the career academies enrolled more at-risk students than the other tracks, the students were as likely to attend college as students in the academic track (Maxwell & Rubin, 1997). In this instance it is impossible to determine whether that outcome has anything to do with work-based learning; the report does not specify how many of the students studied participated in it. The interim evaluation report of the New York State School-to-Work system states that "students who actively participated in STW programs and activities demonstrated better academic performance than comparable students with little or no STW exposure" (Westchester Institute for Human Services Research, 1997, p. 33). These findings come from an analysis of transcripts and surveys of randomly selected high school seniors from seven school-to-work partnerships in the state. However, the report also notes that less than 15 percent of high school seniors have participated in structured work-based learning experiences, and "work-based learning generally does not involve a school-based component that extends or complements the knowledge and information gained at the worksite" (p. 27). Once again, we cannot use these findings as evidence that work-based learning improves academic performance. In sum, the research in this area has mixed results so far. It seems that participation in a work-based learning program can improve academic achievement, but in some cases the positive effects aren't attributable to the work-based learning component itself. Stasz and Kaganoff (1997) raise the possibility that any positive outcomes of programs may be due to their characteristically small size and personal focus. We might expect results to be better for programs that make concerted efforts to18 integrate work-based learning with academics; yet a lack of information makes it impossible to compare the programs studied above on that basis. Thus the quantitative evidence is as yet inconclusive. In the next section, we turn from quantitative data to our own and others' qualitative data on students' work-based learning experiences.
3.2 Explain the importance of Communication and variety of styles and various levels.
Interpersonal communication are of many different types and they include written communication, oral and nonverbal communication, Often we see that the communication is spoken in which two bodies communicate and share some certain information. They often help the employees to make some fast and easy ways to communicate. Business communication is the most important of these communications because in this type of communication the way to talking should be very impressive and friendly. Some of different communication types are staff meetings, discussions on projects, review of employee performance, and chatting. In this form of communication when the staff meets with the clients from outside the organization they take a number of different forms of communication in which client meetings, interviews for jobs, and sale visits. The importance of communication can only be known when the deals are made effectively.
The process of communication starts when we observe an idea which is formulated by some person. The person is called sender and he decides to change the observed thing into a message, and then transfer of that message is communicated through some mean to target person called receiver. The person that takes the massage changes it's in the required form and then he replies in the form of feedback and sends it to the sender and it means that the formal communication is complete.
Often we observe some problems in the communication process and the errors should be sorted out if we need to make a good use of communication. For example, often the sender has some different meaning in his mind for the perceived information and the receiver think that the information is different then the misunderstanding occurs. Sometime the receiver does not take the full attention while receiving the information and hence the problems occur. Errors can occur when the receiver does not think the massage is same as he was thinking. In the end there remains a cloudy impression and inaccurate, that is inconsiderateÂ communication which makes the time wasted and is called poor communication. Poor communication can lead to wastage of some valuable time, which upsets employees, and destroyÂ reputation and goodwillÂ toward management. Thus the communication is of very important in the business as well as organization which are related to education industry.
Interpersonal Communication Styles
There are different styles of communication and the communication can be sorted out in many different ways. In general interpersonal communication is being classified in one way or two way communication. One way communication is one in which the sender sends the information and is in the form of direction or order and he is not expecting the feedback or response. For example, when a manager issues a memo or an office order then the communication is one way communication and he is not expecting the response from the employee. In one way communication the sender is the only responsible person and in this regard it becomes easy and faster. In this communication there are no responses and disagreement from the other side.
On the other hand the two-way communication is about the sharing of useful information in which two or more parties are involved. For example, Two way communication is one in which the meetings are held where some decision are to be made about some certain task. In two way communication the sender and the receiver are both liable and both wish to respond to each other. It is somewhat difficult and time consuming when the communication is required from the other side but the communication is accurate and the massage is accurately delivered.
These are two types of communication, one way or two way communication but still there are many different types of communication like a lot of research is being conducted on the communication and a lot of different styles of communication is developed and found out. be broken down into a variety of styles, or specialized sets of behaviors. As the research from (Bateman and Zeithaml) has showed following different styles of interpersonal communication;
These are six styles of communication which are being used in business settings:
They say that "Different people have different styles of communication" the further says "A communicator should understand that some styles are more successful than others in convinced situations."
The controlling style is of the form in which we have one-way communication which is used in order to make compliance with others. This is some what a authoritative style in which the managers reinforce the massage in order to enforce the massage and moreover they donot need the manipulations. This type of style is often used when there is emergency situation and the people are in hurry to make the some particular effort. This is also helpful when some respectable person is taking control.
On the other hand the egalitarian style is the two way communication in which both the sender and the receiver involve. It is usually used to share information. It is also used to express the ideas and opinions from the mutual point of view. In most of the situations in which the cooperation is needed it is more effective then the other form of communication.
The structuring style is the one I which the organization is involved and the structured communication is used to make some decision. Officers use company directed communication in this style of communication. There are some standards and rules defined in this type of communication. When a goal setting is done the structured style is being used and the tasks are made easy because of this task. It is some what balanced with the egalitarian style.
The dynamic style is one in which a certain motivation style is being used and the managers use energy to take action from there point of consideration in order to complete a task. This is usually more acceptable in the crisis situations and then it becomes ineffective when the receiving person uses the information without any intent or he don't know how to act.
The relinquishing style is of very uncommon type and is the differential rather then the direction giving type. It is somewhat accessible to the others, in order to shift the major responsibility to receiver for communication. For example, in employee empowering situations when managers try to give their employees some credit they ask them to make some final notes to the assignments. This is usually acceptable when the receiver has the knowledge to complete the task and the management is willing to keep the trust in the employee.
The withdrawal style is of the type that the communication is lacking. This style is commonly used to make the unwillingness shown to involve in the communication. Hence this is somewhat a non acceptable way to communicate.
In interpersonal communication the receiver must be of good type to get the major response and the problem would definitely become more of the predictable nature if the receiver is good. The good speaking skills also involve good speaking skills. Listening is also a part of communication and the receiver should have ability to interact in a positive manner in order to make the communication effective. It usually involves a keen interest from the listener and the speaker, which means concentrating on what the speaker says. In order to have a good communication the techniques and the means are used. There are many other different ways in which the effective listening ensures: it requires keeping mind open and the emotions should be sidelined. It also helps to be equipped for the discussion, to obtain notes as desirable, and toÂ recapÂ the speaker's announcement.
The effective interpersonal communication involves skills, and is the utilization of the variety of different techniques and styles, and it is mainly important for the business owners to make the notes for the supervision. As the Bateman and Zeithaml have described a few characteristics in which the supervisors might receive there utmost marks from employees. First, the management tends to make the communication more effective then the other management. It involves the explanation of the reasons which make the decisions and it provides in advance changes for warning. Second, most of them make the temptation to employ egalitarian over controlling style while communicating with employees, asking for there consideration rather then demanding their observance. Third, it is their willingness to consider the others need and the feeling of them while communicating. Finally, the effective managers are good listeners because they give careful consideration to the concerns of employee and have a good heart for them.
3.3 Explain "Time Management" and importance of Time Management.
Time management is very necessary in the management of the people and the necessarily it should be kept in the mind of the management while doing some work. It is a type of self management. How well the employee or the staff member keeps itself managed to the time.
The management of time is about completing all your tasks as effectively as possible in a considerable amount of time. Every manager has a considerable amount of time and the management should take the best possible time schedule to keep the time in there hands.
Importance of Time Management:
Often people have a to-do list as long as the work sheet. And they are usually stressed to the tasks they are to perform and are stressed with the work they have to do. Then it becomes very difficult to make the decisions and the conflict arises while making the possible decisions. This usually makes the environment look worn out and the worker need to keep some time management to keep all of this in hand. Time management is about keeping the work load to the best possible availability to the time in each day. The management of time also requires the personal goal setting in order to keep the work load minimum.
We should have a clear vision in order to keep the management of time and should have a smooth work related environment. It is often done by prioritizing the work load. The management of time is also important when making the quality assurance and the best possible results are to be finding out.
Characteristics of Poor and Good Time Management
Symptoms of Poor Time Management
long hours of work
feeling uneasy when a lot of work is being done and in short time
No specific purpose
Symptoms of Good Time Management
Making good progress and reviews
Balance in work life
Controlled and stress free work
Goal achievement is regular
Time and tasks are met
The importance of time management is required in order to keep the management in full control. When we have time in our control then we surely make the changes in our daily life to the positive impact. It is usually hard make estimations about the importance of time. Everyday is a new day and the time management is required to make the changes each day. There are also some common sayings like "make the best of each day" or "live each day as though it was your last".
These assertions show up the significance of time management - but usually they are not sufficient. Here I provide time management demonstrations, the option that you take in using your time determines your effectiveness - wasting time can lead to a wasted job or even a lack of purpose and meaning in our lives.
Every day have 86,400 seconds which are to be used. Time can't be saved or invested it is to be utilized then and there. Each day gives us the same amount of time. While we can save and invest money, time is a resource that can't be replenished - once time has passed it is gone for ever.
The importance of time raises important problems and the questions arises which then become more meaningful with the passage of time
4.1 Explain different methods for development of document.
There are many different ways in which the documents are developed and the management needs to be analyzed those techniques to make use of the work in order to find the meaningful work out. There is a Japanese 5s approach which is commonly used for manaufacturing and it can be used in the document development if we relate these two. This approach suggests improved quality less wastage and to meet the quality and efficiency. These five word of Japanese language are
Sort i.e Seir),
Set in Order means Seiton,
Shine means Seiso,
Standardize means Seiketsu,
and Sustain means Shitsuke.
The firs S is Sort as it focuses more on sorting out the major workplace environment and sorting out the unnecessary items which are of no use the work environment. The Seiri is more useful when we sort the workplace environment when the unused items are a hurdle in the work . Similarly this approach is also used to develop a document. We must sort out the data in the first place because the environment should be of very useful nature. The data that is necessary in the manufacturing of the document is sorted out and the other one is wasted. This also shortens the available data which then helps in making the document easy.
Set In Order (Seiton)
This S is about the Setting of the required material in order and makes the arrangement to work. This means that when the work is to be done the efficiency is required which is only possible if all the required things are put in order before hand. Similar is the case with the development of the document and the person making the document should set all the useful information in order before hand to make sure that there would not be any misunderstanding or trouble in finding out the required information. The set in order is very necessary part of this tool. Then these are few major considerations in the set in order,
Tools that are needed to do the work.
What should be the place top keep the goods.
Keeping the goods in a specific order.
There are few things needed to complete a research paper and the work requirement that should be needed to do the document so the set in order command is very necessary to keep in mind while developing the document. .
Shine (Seiso) or sweeping.
The unnecessary things should be eliminated from the workplace while doing the work and that's what the Japanese phenomenon of Seiso says. It requires shining the place and sweeping the wastage before starting to do a work. Similarly while developing a document the necessary thing is that we should keep the documents that are being used in our approach and the remaining part should be removed from the place. Time to time checking of the documents will also be necessary and the work environment should be kept very clear and unnecessary wastage should be kept away from the work place in order to have a smooth flow of work. This would also clear the vision of the worker. Similarly, while developing any type of document the method adopted must be very precise and there must not be any vague thing involved in that process. Obviously if such problems are not reduced then it would become very risky in order to have a smooth flow of work.
This is the fourth S in the 5s approach to develop a work. This part says that the standards must be set before going for the work. The standardization is required in order to keep the work in a specific order and the workplace in the qualitative manner. Similarly, in the development of document the person doing the work must have a broader standardization of what the person needs to do in order to keep the work in some specific state that may fullfil the requirement and the purpose of doing that.
This is last of the five steps and is Sustain in the right frame of mind till the completion of the task. Many people don't keep focus till the end and they lose a lot of credit due to this. Hence developing a document need to be done in a manner that at the end the proof reading or double checking should remove the errors. Hence the review system is the basic need to develop a document.
Implementation of different methods of development of document;
As the companies have utilized the 5s approach to gain some very good results and complete there tasks without errors. Hence similarly the development of different documents based on such rules would lead to some specific results. It has been used in many companies to improve the performance then the development of documents should also be used to make the progress in effective manner. Some of the results these companies achieved are as follows:
The following are some of the important rules while developing a good document you should keep them in mind and then make the necessary steps to make the document upto a standard,
It is essential to write a document while using word processing software because it is easy to edit and change. There are some software's that check the grammar as well as the wording. Of course, there are many grammar checkers which are not perfect. The English language is not that easy for software to make the correct meaning.
There are auto spell check options which give us the report after checking the document.
After doing this you must keep a document in the hard format and then make that read from some other person and ask him to find mistakes.
When someone reads the document there are a number of hidden mistakes that are not obvious for the person who is developing that document.
After checking the document then edit the master copy and keep on updating it until no errors are remaining.
4.2 Explain importance of lifelong learning and suggest ways of encouraging towards lifelong learning.
In lifelong learning the society has the greates of advantage.
In order to create an enriching and dynamic society in the 21st century, it is vital to form a lifelong learning society in which people can freely choose learning opportunities at any time during their lives and in which proper recognition is accorded to those learning achievements.
Lifelong learning comprises two main aspects: the concept to comprehensively review various systems including education, in order to create a lifelong learning society; and the concept of learning at all stages of life. In other words, the concept of learning in the context of lifelong learning encompasses not only structured learning through school and social education but also learning through involvement in such areas as sports, cultural activities, hobbies, recreation and volunteer activities. The places for conducting learning activities are also diverse, including elementary and secondary schools, universities and other institutions of higher education, citizens' public halls, libraries, museums, cultural facilities, sports facilities,Â lifelongÂ learning program facilities in the private sector, companies, and offices.
This is extensively elaborated:
Lifelong learning is therefore about:
acquiringÂ and updating all kinds of abilities, interests, knowledge and qualifications from the pre-school years to post-retirement. It promotes the development of knowledge and competences that will enable each citizen to adapt to the knowledge-based society and actively participate in all spheres of social and economic life, taking more control of his or her future.
valuing all forms of learning, including: formal learning, such as a degree course followed at university; non-formal learning, such as vocational skills acquired at the workplace; and informal learning, such as inter-generational learning, for example where parents learn to use ICT through their children, or learning how to play an instrument together with friends.
Learning opportunities should be available to all citizens on an ongoing basis. In practice this should mean that citizens each have individual learning pathways, suitable to their needs and interests at all stages of their lives. The content of learning, the way learning is accessed, and where it takes place may vary depending on the learner and their learning requirements.
Lifelong learning is also about providing "second chances" to update basic skills and also offering learning opportunities at more advanced levels. All this means that formal systems of provision need to become much more open and flexible, so that such opportunities can truly be tailored to the needs of the learner, or indeed the potential learner. (Europa, 2003)
4.3 Examine different type of research methods and there source.
he goal of the research process is to produce new knowledge. This process takes three main forms (although, as previously discussed, the boundaries between them may be obscure.):
Exploratory research, which structures and identifies new problems
Exploratory research is conducted into an issue or problem where there are few or no earlier studies to refer to. The focus is on gaining insights and familiarity for later investigation. Secondly, descriptive research describes phenomena as they exist. Here data is often quantitative and statistics applied. It is used to identify and obtain information on a particular problem or issue. Finally causal or predictive research seeks to explain what is happening in a particular situation. It aims to generalise from an analysis by predicting certain phenomena on the basis of hypothesised general relationships.
Constructive research, which develops solutions to a problem
Constructive researchÂ is perhaps the most commonÂ computer scienceÂ research method. This type of approach demands a form of validation that doesn't need to be quite as empirically based as in other types of research likeÂ exploratory research.
Nevertheless the conclusions have to be objectively argued and defined. This may involve evaluating the "construct" being developed analytically against some predefined criteria or performing someÂ benchmarkÂ tests with theÂ prototype.
Empirical research, which tests the feasibility of a solution using empirical evidence
The termÂ empiricalÂ was originally used to refer to certain ancient Greek practitioners of medicine who rejected adherence to the dogmatic doctrines of the day, preferring instead to rely on the observation of phenomena as perceived in experience. Later empiricism referred to a theory ofÂ knowledgeÂ in philosophy which adheres to the principle that knowledge arises from experience and evidence gathered specifically using the senses. In scientific use the term empirical refers to the gathering of data using only evidence that is observable by the senses or in some cases using calibrated scientific instruments. What early philosophers described as empiricist and empirical research have in common is the dependence on observable data to formulate and test theories and come to conclusions.
Research can also fall into two distinct types:
Primary researchÂ (collection of data that does not yet exist)
Secondary researchÂ (summary, collation and/or synthesis of existing research)
In social sciences and later in other disciplines, the following two research methods can be applied, depending on the properties of the subject matter and on the objective of the research:
Qualitative researchÂ (understanding of human behavior and the reasons that govern such behavior)
Quantitative researchÂ (systematic empirical investigation of quantitative properties and phenomena and their relationships)
Research is often conducted using the hourglass model Structure of Research. The hourglass model starts with a broad spectrum for research, focusing in on the required information through the methodology of the project (like the neck of the hourglass), then expands the research in the form of discussion and results.
There are an amazing number of types of research methods. This number has increased tenfold in the recent years with the development and honing of technology, in particular the internet. Nearly every topic you can think of can be researched online.
There are several basics concerning research methods. Scientific research. This method takes an idea or topic and uses the application of science to determine the answers to questions, typically through experimentation. This type of research method is very hands on and relies on result over documentation
Historical research. This method of research relies on the past research results to determine answers to current questions.
When discussing scientific methods of research we would talk about such things as formation of topics, followed by a hypothesis or theory of the outcome, conceptual definitions, meaning what the idea of the process is to be, operational definations, meaning how they will get there, then the gathering of date, followed by anlayisis of th data, followed by testing and changing the hypothesis as you go along until you reach a conclusion.
When discussing a historical method of research you talk of identification of the start date of your topic, then evidence of its location and recognition of the originator of the history, followed by analysis of the data.
Additional methods of research are Exploratory research, meaning identifies the problems to be researched, Constructive research, which finds solutions to problems, Empirical research which tests solutions to see if the do indeed solve the problems.
You can also break research in to two types of research, the primary research and the secondary research.
Research is something that has evolved in the manner in which it is done. This having been said the basics of how research is undertaken has remained the same only using the vast technology to make these processes take half the time.
When researching a question you will always start with the defining the question, hypothesizing of an answer, gathering of data, testing the answer and redefining your hypothesis until the true answer is reached. This repetitive process applies across the board.