Communication is the act or process of transmitting information as about ideas, attitudes, emotions, or objective behavior, Merriam-Webster, 2012. It is one of the factors that can determine the development of organization. Hall (1980 as cited in Alanezi, 2011) believed that organizational effectiveness is highly dependent on communication. Effective communication is needed in every organization that should be open, two-way and credible (Harshman and Harshman, 1999 as cited in Alanezi, 2011). Open communication is essential for the manager and employees. For the manager it can be used to explain what should be done by employee, and for the employees it can be used to compile problem relating with their job, complaint or even suggestion or idea to the betterment of organization. Furthermore, it can be used to overcome problems, attain success, and improve leadership effectiveness (Dubrin, 2010 as cited in Alanezi, 2011).
In school organization effective communication is required to build relationship between school administrators and other school stakeholders (faculty, support staff, community members, parents, and central office). The school administrators can share what the school is attempting to accomplish for example: the mission, vision, values, and goals of the school. The one who spends most of their time in interpersonal communication with various stakeholders is a principal. They should provide some minutes in their day to communicate with parents, teacher and student. Because of that a principal must know how to communicate well. Meanwhile, understanding the importance of communication both formal and informal is needed by principals because they have several meeting program such as: faculty and department meetings; individual conversations with parents, teachers, and students; and telephone calls and e-mail message with various stakeholder groups.
Studying communication satisfaction is the way for principals and teachers to be effective and efficient communicators. Moreover, by having communication satisfaction in the school will make all members satisfied while working. Lindsay Nicole Ehlers (2003) mentioned that communication skills for the management positions within an organization very important to assist in keeping the satisfaction of the employees high.
The school which has good communicator members can create a more optimal workplace. Communication skill not only needed by the principals, but teachers must be able to communicate well so the principals can receive both complaint and praises. Understanding and concerning by principals to their teachers will help to retain teacher and realize the value of communication will assist in the development of a more efficient school.
An organization's internal communication practices consist of the full spectrum of communication activities, both formal and informal, undertaken by its members for the purpose of disseminating information to one or more audiences within the organization (Jules Carriere and Christopher Bourque, 2007). Generating internal communication practices that can foster communication satisfaction among employees will affect job satisfaction and organizational commitment. It can be done by principal by providing teachers with timely and highly valued information which involved the quality and quantity of information that can motivate teachers to perform their job well. It demands principal to design and implement an effective and efficient internal communication system that meeting teacher's communication needs and wants. Teachers who are satisfied with communication within school tend to be more satisfied with their employment situation. When job satisfaction of teachers increased, it will be followed by increasing organizational commitment of teachers, thereby significantly reducing frustration in the work place and possibly enhancing career satisfaction. This support by Philip G. Clampitt and Cal W. Downs (1993) found that communication was perceived to have an impact on productivity that varied in both kind and magnitude.
Furthermore, in generating communication in the school, support from the school leadership and peers has beneficial for teachers. Because teachers feel that their needs for affirmation, encouragement, social interaction and assistance have been fulfilled by organization (John J. De Nobile, 2008). Supportive communication can be done by principals by giving positive feedback about a job, motivating staff on doing a job well and helping them to solve problem relating with their job. It motivates them to do a good job and enjoy their work. When the staff enjoys their job, it can decrease occupational stress. Supportive communication can enhance job satisfaction and decreased occupational stress (John J. De Nobile, 2008). In addition, interaction with co-workers is useful for teachers, because they can support each other and share information how to deal with difficult student.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
In every learning community communication is needed to interact among students, teachers and administrators. Not only for good human relation, effective communication is one of the factors that can determine the success of the school. In any organization where communication is proper, employees are motivated to work more because their complaints, suggestions and grievances are taken care of properly.
Organization which has communication satisfaction will improve employees' job satisfaction and helps to promote organizational commitment. Lack of communication in school will effect in teaching and learning process or any instructional deeds. Hargie, tourish, and Wilson (2002 as cited Ahmad Salamah Alanezi, 2011) found that the potential consequences of low employee communication satisfaction highly correlated with to weak organizational commitment, absenteeism, high staff turnover, and less productivity. This is support by Siti Fatimah Mohammad (2008), stated that communication was found to predict the employee's turnover intention. Lack of communication within an organization can decrease productivity, lower moral and be the cause of other serious workplace issues (E.J Lumley, M. Coetzee, R. Tladinyane & N. Ferreira, 2011). Derek Shaun Cortez (2008) also found that negative communication, in the form of complaining can be perceived as lacking commitment to the organization. Teachers who complained for the sake of complaining were viewed as lacking commitment to the organization.
Creating organization which has good communication is not easy. There are several difficulties in generating communication in the work place. Sidika Gizir and Hasan Simsek (2005) found that high individualism, lack of common goals, and lack of motivation are the most common issues regarding work related communication. It has impact in the atmosphere of the organization which not warms enough to facilitate communication (it called cold, artificial and boring). So, there are many problems that cannot be solved. Organization which has poor interprofessional communication was a source of occupational stress (Stacey Q. Deshkulkarni, 2009).
OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
This study attempts to observe about the communication satisfaction and their relationship with organizational commitment among secondary school teachers in International Islamic School (IIS) with the following objectives:
To examine the teacher's level of satisfaction on school communication based on the following aspects :
Satisfaction with communication climate
Satisfaction with communication with the people in management
Satisfaction with organizational integration
Satisfaction with media quality
Satisfaction with horizontal and informal communication
Satisfaction with organizational perspective
Satisfaction with personal feedback
To examine the differences between teacher's level of satisfaction on school communication with selected demographic variables:
Years of experience
To examine the relationship between teacher's level of satisfaction on school communication and teacher's organizational commitment.
There are three research questions propose in this study, such as:
Are teachers at International Islamic School (IIS) satisfied with communication in their schools?
Is there any significant differences between teacher's level of satisfaction on school communication based on selected demographic variables:
Years of experience?
Is there any significant relationship between teacher's level of satisfaction on school communication with teacher's organizational commitment?
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Communication is an essential element of the development of an organization. In the learning organization, communication is not only used to getting good human relationship between administrator, teachers, and students, but it is one of the factors that can determine the success of the school.
Having good communication skill is essential for the member of the school. For principle it can be used to motivate teachers to do a good job and also may help teachers to overcome problems relating with their job. Communication skill can be used by teachers to reveal their problem, and also suggestion to the betterment of the school. The school which has good communication system will motivate teachers to work more and enjoy their job, because their complaints, suggestions and grievances are taken care of properly. When they are happy in doing their job usually they are happy with their working condition. It has impact in their perception of organization which can increase their commitment to organization. On the other hand, teachers who feel dissatisfied with their job will result in lower organizational commitment.
Absenteeism and higher turnover are some of the impact of lack commitment of teachers with their school. When it is happened in the school, the goal of the school will be difficult to achieve. So, it is important to designed, implemented and evaluated the communication system within school.
Communication satisfaction may help teachers to increase the level of job satisfaction and helps them to stay in their educational occupations. It is hoped that this study can be used to improve communication among the member of this school specially teachers and administrators of International Islamic School (IIS).
LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
There is several limitations related methodology used in this study. Firstly, this study addresses variables of the Communication Satisfaction Questionnaire (CQS) identified by Downs and Hazen (1977). There are eight dimensions of communication satisfaction, but the researcher eliminates one of them which is communication with subordinate because teachers at IIS does not have subordinate. So, the overall dimension of communication satisfaction used in this study is seven. Secondly, the respondent of this study only teachers of IIS which has limited number. Thirdly, for the purpose of this study the researcher used quota sampling which may lead to inaccuracy in the researcher's criteria and resulting sample selection because of limited time and cost.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
International Islamic School (IIS): The location of this school is in Batu 14 Jalan Gombak. It was established in September 1998 by Dato' Dr Abdul Hamid Abu Sulayman, the Rector of IIUM. This school is a model integrated Islamic school that could serve children of Muslim scholar of IIUM and also those of others, especially Muslim expatriates. The school is thus, a testimony to the university's continuous effort in providing quality, affordable, balanced, integrated and holistic education guided by the principles of Islam. (www. IIS.com)
Communication satisfaction: an individual's satisfaction with various aspects of the communication occurring in his organization (Crino& White, 1981, p.832 as cited in Ahmad Salamah Alanezi (2011).
Organizational commitment: the relative strength of an individual's identification with and involvement in a particular organization (Mowday, porter, & Steers, 1982, p.832as cited in Ahmad Salamah Alanezi (2011).
Teacher: is a person who provides education for pupils (children) and students (adults).
Nationality : local teachers versus international teachers
Years of teaching: the years of teaching experience as indicated by the respondent
Communication climate: the invisible concept of how communications are conducted within a workplace environment
People in management: people who are responsible for managing and supervising school faculty, education programs and staff development.
Organizational integration: an act or instance of integrating an organization, place of business, school, etc.
Media quality : The quality of communication channels through which news, entertainment, education, data, or promotional messages are disseminated.
Horizontal communication : Information exchange between departments or functional units as means of coordinating their activities.
Informal communication: A casual form of information sharing typically used in personal conversations with friends or family members.
Personal feedback: The return of information about the result of a process or activity; an evaluative response of a person.