Special education is quite a stimulating and interesting field for the educators and for those who are concerned with the welfare of exceptional children. It is particularly an important area of study and research for those who have accepted teaching as a profession. In India, it is quite a new field which was totally neglected until the last two decades. The field of special education attracted the attention of teachers, parents, administrator, psychologists, social scientists as well as educators recently. Previously, society at large had a pathetic attitude towards these children. No attention was paid to cater the needs of exceptional children and hardly any institution was started in the past for this purpose.
Special education includes all aspects of education which are applied to exceptional children i.e. physically and mentally disadvantaged children as well as gifted children. Special education refers to those aspects of education which are applied to special children but not usually used with the majority of average children. Special education is distinguished from the regular education framework by some unusual quality, something uncommon, noteworthy extra-ordinary, additional to the regular which is utilized or employed for a certain purpose. Some of the concepts of the special educations are follows:
Special education is a service that helps students who are experiencing academic difficulties.
It is also viewed as a set of services for students who are slow learners.
Special education is given when educationists decide that the child meet with specific eligibility criteria.
Special education classes' help students to learn, read, write and do mathematics better. These classes help students to develop skills which they can use when they return to their regular academics classes.
Special education is also meant for those students who have social and emotional problems.
The teaching here is structured in such a way that it accommodates the students individual differences; which can be known through tests and classroom observation to plan instructions and also to evaluate the effects of that instruction.
Special education is the profession, a service with tools and techniques to meet the special needs of exceptional children. It is individually planned, systematically implemented and carefully evaluated instructions which help exceptional learners to achieve the greatest possible personal self sufficiency and success in the present and future environment.
1.2 SPECIAL EDUCATION
Hallahan and Kauffman (1991)- Special education means specially designed instruction that meets the unusual needs of an exceptional child. The single most important goal of special education is finding and capitalizing exceptional children's abilities.
Heward (2000)- Special education is a profession with its own history, cultural practices, tools and research base focused on the learning needs of exceptional children. Special education is an individually planned, specialized, intensive, goal directed instruction.
Role of Special Educators
A special educator plays a pivotal role in the formative year of the child. He plays an important role in education system and apart from teaching in the classroom- the care, sympathy and affection of the teacher- help the child to maintain balanced emotional setup.
For the physical development of the children, special educator provides opportunities to the children to participate in games, sports and physical exercises, necessary information about personal hygiene, food values and cleanliness. It works as a safeguard against the development of irrational worries regarding abrupt development which takes place in the bodies of the children.
For the development of social traits in the child and to make him a good citizen, the special educator plays a very crucial role. In all the environments, social development of the child is well directed and well shaped by teachers. They teach their students how to co-operate and keep good relation with all family members and society.
They arouse the qualities like friendship, leadership, co-operation, dutifulness, responsibility, pity and unity in the children. As a friend, philosopher and guide to the student, the special educators try their best to motivate student which ensure the smooth journey of their life.
The special educator has the rare privilege of shaking the most precious material of the land, the boys and girls, during their crucial periods of development.
So, the crucial and vital importance of special educators in the man making process cannot be over estimated. In a true sense the special educator is a guide, who is directing the journey of those whom he teaches. A good special educators should be a good inspire and the process of inspiration should be based upon the process of impression, indoctrination, instruction, training, regimentation, etc, more or less insists upon the process of imposition which results in dehumanization of individuals.
It is true to say that effective special educators may pave the way for and enlightened society. In the country, poor teaching would contribute to the perpetuation of ignorance and intellectual stagnation. The aims and objectives of education depend, to a large extent, upon the effectiveness of special educators who work in these institutions. Thus, efficient special educators become the 'sine-qua-non' of our educational system.
The special educator's primary task is to develop individual's power and abilities to equip him with necessary skills, values and attitudes so as to make him a useful member of society. It is in this light that we must study the concept of teacher effectiveness.
1.3 TEACHER EFFECTIVENESS
The term "Teacher Effectiveness" is very ambiguous. It is a relative term and consists of two words Teacher and Effectiveness. The 'Teacher' means a person who has teaching skills and possesses certain professional qualities of teaching. The term "Effectiveness "is relative and refers to the same criteria. The Effectiveness of a teacher is examined with the help of some criteria such as abilities, teaching and the performance of the student. Teacher Effectiveness refers to Verbal and Non-Verbal classroom interaction." Teacher is effective to the extent that the teacher acts in the ways that are favorable to the development of basic skills, understanding, work habits, desirable attitudes, value judgments and adequate personal adjustment of pupils." The teacher is a dynamic force of the school, and collages. A collage /school without a teacher are just like a body without soul, a Skelton without flesh and blood. Shadow without substance. A teacher must possess a strong sense of vocation and true devotion towards teaching.
Teacher also have limited control over many of the most important factors that impact students learning, including students attitudes, background knowledge of the course content, study and learning skills, time students will spend on their learning , their emotional readiness to learn and on since there is clearly a shared responsibility between the teacher and the student as to what that student learns because many students are able to learn in spite of the teacher, while other fail despite all of the best efforts of a skilled practitioner the definition of "Teacher Effectiveness" appears to be as Derek ? Bock put sin," An act of faith" on the part of students and teachers to do their best.
Meaning and Definitions
In the literal sense, the teacher effectiveness is defined in terms of what the teacher pupils do; the assessment of teacher effectives through effects on students , in terms of gains growth, changes all of which involves measurement of changes in behaviors and some of which can be attributed to the impact of individual teacher.
Barr, A.S.(1950) explains teacher effectiveness is a relationship between teacher , pupils and other persons concerned with the educational understanding by limiting and facilitating aspect of immediate situation. The success of educational proves depends, to a great extent, on the personality characteristics of the teacher who is the corner stone of the arch of education.
Mowver, O.H. (1960) defines an effective teacher as one who arouses positive emotional reaction, which among other things facilitates independent student involvement with learning material.
Hall, H.O. (1964) in teacher Encyclopedia stated the effective teacher understands behavior; they are well informed and love learning. Such type of concept cannot come to a teacher unless he has a good knowledge of the subject.
According to Combs, A.W.(1964) an effective teacher is unique human being who has learnt to use his self effectively and sufficiently for carrying out his own and social purposes. He is not a teaching machine but a sensitive human being, who is conscious of his role and responsibilities as a teacher.
Flanders, N.A. and Siman, A. (1965) define teacher effectiveness is an area of research which is concerned with relationship between characteristics of teacher, teaching acts and their effects on the educational outcomes of classroom teaching.
Crawford, P.L. and Bradshaw, H.L. (1968) views an effective teacher as the one who is able to:
Encourage and promote student understanding
Develop study skills;
Mould desirable attitude towards ideals of education; and;
Contribute to the emotional adjustment of pupils
Ryan, D.G. (1969) remarked that an effective teacher may be understood as one who helps in the development of basic skills, understanding, proper work habits, desirable attitude, value judgment and adequate personal adjustment of the student.
Dickson (1980) viewed teacher effectiveness is a demonstrated repertoire of competencies involved with (1) Teaching plans and materials (2) Class Room procedure; (3) interpersonal Skill and (4) learner, reinforcement involvement reflected in teaching behavior.
Passi, B.K. and Sharma, S.K. (1982) while studying teaching effectiveness of secondary school teachers observed that the effective teacher is one of who has clear concept of the subject matter, ability to write clear objectives for his course, ability to organize learning material, ability to communicate his knowledge to the students successfully and to deal with classroom situations.
Effective teacher's traits include buoyancy, considerateness, cooperativeness, emotional stability, ethicalness, expressiveness, forcefulness, intelligence, judgment, objectivity, physical energy, reliability, resourcefulness and scholastic proficiency. Teacher effectiveness is the effective linkage of teacher competence and teacher performance with the accomplishment of teacher goals. It mainly depends on the teacher characteristics such as knowledge base, sense of responsibility, and inquisitiveness; the student characteristics such as opportunity to learn, and academic work; the teaching factors such as lesson structure, and communication; the learning aspects such as involvement and success; and the classroom phenomena such as environment and climate, and organization and managements. If the teachers take care of these factors, their effectiveness can be enhanced to the optimum level. Effective teaching depends on highly competent teachers.
Who is an Effective Teacher?
Effective teacher are those who achieve the goals which they set for themselves or which others set for them (e.g. Commissions on Education Ministry of Education, Legislators, Govt. officials and /or School Administration). As a consequence, those who study and attempt to improve teacher effectiveness must be cognizant of the goals imposed on the teachers of the goals that teachers establish for themselves or both. That effective teacher must possess the knowledge and skills needed to attain the goal, and must be able to use that knowledge and those skills appropriately if these goals are to be achieved. In medleys (1982) terms, the possession of knowledge and skills falls under the heading of 'teacher competence'. In contrast, the use of knowledge and skills in the classroom is referred to as 'teacher performance'. Thus that who investigate and attempt to understand teacher's performance with the accomplishment of teacher goals is teacher effectiveness. Effective teacher tend to be aware of aware of and actively pursue goals.
A quality teacher and competent teacher is the one who captivates the learner. Therefore a teacher should be a perfect well being who lives his life to the maximum and sets the same trend for his learner. He must be an epitome of wholesomeness of cognitive, cognitive and effective domains, well behaved, well informed, well enlightened, self motivated, self evaluated, having scientific attitude, real thirst for knowledge and moving towards the apex. Such a teacher will be labeled as qualitative, skilled and competent, which every civilized and progressive society aspires to incorporate as a vital part of its ethos.
Importance of Teacher Effectiveness
Teacher effectiveness plays a pivotal role in teaching-learning process. It is being the hub of programmer needs, close observation and critical analysis as the enrichment in effectiveness may have direct bearing effect on the learning outcomes of the pupils. Only effective teacher are able to realize the real goal of education to their students.
An effective teacher is indispensable even in the most equipped system of education. A teacher who is effective may have the way for progressive and productive society.
The importance of a teacher in the educational process is unquestionable. However, the entire edifice of education is shaky if the teacher is weak and ineffective. An effective teacher is amongst the foremost factor contributing to educational improvement. After independence, corers of rupees have been spent to open new schools, provide them with adequate equipment and facilities, to bring quality improvement in education and to devise better techniques of teacher and means assessing student's achievement. But all this is of no use and the developmental targets are bound to remain unachieved unless schools are staffed with effective teacher. It is they who influence and shape the competence and character of the pupils. In the word of Ryan (1960) if competent teachers can be obtained, the like hood of attaining desirable educational outcomes is substantial.
Effective teacher have always promoted understanding and tolerance by adopting new responsibilities and cope up with the changing career expectations.
Effective teachers are important to any nation's progress and for the success of a system of education depends upon teacher's involvement. Hence the identification of effective and competent teaching personnel constitutes one of the most important aspects of all the educational system.
Job satisfaction among teachers gives happiness, efficiency, effectiveness and success to the teacher in his profession. A teacher who is happy in his work plays a role of pivot in development of society, well adjusted and satisfied teachers can contribute a lot to the well being of his pupils. A dissatisfied teacher can become irritable and create tension which can have negative influence on the student's learning process and it consequently affects the academic growth.
Job satisfaction is the around of overall positive effect that have towards their profession or job. It is amount of pleasure or contentment association with a profession. Job satisfaction of teachers refers to attitude and feelings of teachers have about their profession. It is not self satisfaction, happiness or self contentment but the satisfaction on the job or profession.
Professional dissatisfaction does not mean absence of motivation at work. Job satisfaction only be inferred but not seen. It is determined by how well outcomes meets or exceed expectations positive attitude towards the job is conceptually equivalent to job indicates job dissatisfaction.
The level of job satisfaction is affected by intrinsic and extrinsic motivating factor, the quality of supervision, social relationship with group work and degree to which individual's success or failure in their work. The key factor affecting professional satisfaction was carrier opportunity, job influence, team work and job challenge. Job satisfaction is result of various attitudes possessed by teachers. Teacher intelligence is a factor in predetermining his job satisfaction. Too much intelligence that is more than job requires may lead to dissatisfaction.
It can be argued that some teachers may be complacently satisfied with their job and will not be inspired to work hard or better. They may find other way to satisfy their needs. Job satisfaction as dynamic it can be decline even more quickly than it developed emotional stability of teachers is also a variable which determine job satisfaction.
Job satisfaction of teachers is essential for the effective teaching learning process in school. Thus we can say that effective teaching is the results of job satisfaction the teacher who is dissatisfied with his work will be unable to motive his pupils to attain learning job satisfaction of teacher has long been a focus of attention for educational researchers. Arguably, this is because of links between job satisfaction and organizational behavior issues such as commitment absenteeism turnover, efficiency and productivity. Job satisfaction of school employees may be related to personal characteristic, such as age, gender and years of experience.
According to Mumford job satisfaction can be defined in terms of the degree of fit between organization demands and individual needs and that the employee's satisfaction with his job and the employees' satisfaction with work performance will only are high when this fit is a good one.
In a rapidly developing industrial society, the importance of job-satisfaction which "is the whole matrix of job factors that make a person like his work situation and be willing to head for it without distaste at the beginning of his work day" cannot be over-emplaced. It is important to the employer, the worker, and the community. Investigations have shown that when a man is satisfied with his work, the employer profits by greater output, fewer quits, and many other tangible and intangible results other studies reveal that a person satisfied with his job is likely to profits on the score of individual and industrial wellbeing. That is the reason why understanding of the dynamic of job satisfaction or morale, becomes a serious consideration for the employer
DEFINITIONS OF JOB-SATISFACTION
According to Dictionary of Education "job satisfaction is the quality, state and level of satisfaction as a result of various interests and attitudes of a person towards his job. It is the desire or undesired with which employees view their work. It expresses the extent of match between the employer's expectations of the job and rewards that the job provides"
Locke (1969) defined job satisfaction as pleasurable emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one's job as achieving or facilitating the achievement of one's job values.
Barber (1980) explained job-satisfaction as the quality, state or level of satisfaction which is the result of various interests and attitudes of a person towards his job.
Weiss (2002) Job satisfaction is an attitude towards job taking into account feelings, beliefs and behaviors.
Tiwari (2008) conducted a comparative study of job-satisfaction of lecturers working in teacher education department of different affiliated colleges. It was found that there is no significant difference of added college and self financing college lecturer's job-satisfaction.
Chawmundesware and Vasanthi (2009) conducted a study of job-satisfaction and occupational commitment among teachers. It was found that there exists a significant relation between job-satisfaction and occupational commitment of teacher. Job-satisfaction and occupational commitment are all positively correlated with each other.
Chopra and Gartia (2009) conducted a study of accountability of secondary school teachers in relation to their occupational stress. It was found that occupational stress generates a substantial negative impact on accountability of secondary school teachers.
According to dictionary.com Job satisfaction is an act of satisfying; fulfillment; gratification. It is the state of being satisfied or contended. It is the cause or means of being satisfied.
Commissions including the Indian Education Commission (1964-66) have suggested that in order to attract and retain the young men and women of superior ability in the teaching profession, the salary scale should be enhanced in the principle priority in remuneration to all the teachers of same qualifications and work should be adhered to as the commission recommended that the social and economic status of teachers and school administration be raised because socially and economically dissatisfied person cannot become efficient.
According to Katzel (1964) "Job satisfaction is the verbal expression of incumbent's evaluation of job".
According to Glimber (1966), "Job satisfaction or dissatisfaction is the result of various attitudes of the person held toward his job , toward related factors and toward life in general".
According to Encyclopedia of Psychology (1975) "Job can be distinguished from work and occupation. Job is a task, an occupational activity performed by individual in relation for a monetary reward ."
According to Kotzall (1980), "Job satisfaction is an employee's own evaluation of his or her job in terms of supervision, co-workers, pay promotions and work itself. This evaluation is actually a comparison