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The hypothesis of this study is emphasizing the problems of the IE policy formulation and implementation. It can be seen as a major root cause of poor educational achievement among the PWDs is fairly supported according to the research findings. However, the researcher discovered that there are more critical issues than the IE policy that affect the educational success of the disabled children in Myanmar. This chapter summarizes the research findings from the field work by assessing the hypothesis and objectives of the research which determine whether the IE policy has been well implemented. It also includes a conclusion of of several issues that hinder the educational opportunities for the PWDs and their level of participation in the policy formulation.
In order to sit the interviewee with some respondents from DPOs, the challenges of accessing IE services the lack of sufficient teachers, the lack of commitment, and the lack of hope by means of education, poverty. Also, human rights violations, the lack of public services, poor implementation of education policy, and the lack of relevant curriculums, and the lack of school autonomy are major factors that influence the education development of CWDs. The first part of this chapter summarizes the key findings of the fieldwork on how the IE policy meets the challenges of better educational opportunities for the PWDs in Myanmar and what factors undermine the education development opportunity for the PWDs in primary and lower secondary levels. The second part of the chapter covers a conclusion and recommendations related to the IE policy.
Based on the research findings, it can be concluded that a need for better educational infrastructure in Myanmar should be addressed as urgently as possible in order to create development opportunity for the PWDs. The concept of IE means welcoming all CWDs without discrimination in formal schools. Indeed, the foci are on capacities, developmental needs, and potentials of all children including the CWDs. IE's attempts to fit the CWDs into the normal settings can also be a very dominating factor over the performance ability and the intellectual skills of the students with disabilities. This research proved that the supplemental supports for their disabilities are needed for promoting the CWDs' overall development in an optimal setting. These supports include a consideration of overall organization, curriculum and classroom practice, support for learning and staff development. The study calls for respect of difference and diversity of individual characteristics and needs.
Regarding school related environmental issue, socio-cultural and poverty issue and other policy related factors, dignity, equality and disability rights are very important because they provide a chance for the PWDs to relocate their interest in learning. Summarizing the findings of this study, current IE policy implementation processes might not be the most serious issue that direly undermines the learning ability of CWDs, but it does affect the attitudinal changes and the ensuring educational opportunities for CWDs to get the social interaction in the society.
However, it would be substantially difficult to create a truly inclusive educational environment for some disabled children depending on their disabilities. This does not mean that the CWDs should be segregated in special schools and isolated from all life in that environment. Even though Myanmar government signed Education for All, the practical implementation is far from desired. Therefore, the researcher strongly argues that there should be an appropriate environment for PWDs that it would not be beneficial to anyone if including it in the same setting equally as other non-disabled people in both education and social sectors. In fact, this is also the rights of PWDs clearly determined by the international norms such as Declaration of Human Rights in which Myanmar already ratified and Bali Declaration on Inclusive Development for People with Disabilities and United Nation Convention on Right for People with Disabilities which were signed in 2011.
In addition, this study has highlighted the challenges of the PWDs to reach the goal of EFA through IE policy in Myanmar. The real challenge of the inclusive education is to meet the special needs of all CWDs but now the government's implementation plan has been hindered by both the nature of the policy itself and the insufficient funding support. To solve these challenges, the government needs to overcome all types of barriers mainly education policy reforming process, the changing process of social-cultural beliefs, poverty issues, and school related practices and modes of learning of the CWDs.
Moreover, budget limitation is another important factor affecting the implementation of the IE policy. This study found that the government's budget allocation for education for the PWDs is less than health and rehabilitation services. Therefore, educational infrastructure is highly required to be provided for the CWDs in order to achieve their social and educational development. In addition, schools and sufficient teachers in all areas should be provided by the government and learning should be free for all not only in theory but a stronger implementation must be in place to promise an equal learning opportunity. Limited understandings of the concept of disability, negative attitudes toward the CWDs and a hardened resistance to change are the major barriers impeding inclusive education. Of particular concern is the fact that the attitudes of parents and teachers are seen as the decisive factors for successful inclusion.
Since the research findings showed that IE education without proper adaptation to the local context is still weak for the CWDs in pursuing quality education, schools should have specially trained teachers in disability treatment, enabling them to give supports in teaching in order to promote the student's competency and learning ability in education. With respect to this, existing theories of inclusive education have been proven to be successful in other countries. However, Myanmar IE policy change is not the only issue to be addressed in promoting the educational standard of the PWDs, but the perception of the parents in the public toward their children sustainable development should also be taken into consideration. In fact, based on the findings, the researcher strongly argues that there is also a need for legal protection of human rights violations against the CWDs since the research clearly identified that the equality and the equitable undermine learning opportunities for the CWDs which later greatly affect on their individual development.
In addition, the researcher strongly believes that there should be a better implementation in teaching and learning process in which the CWDs are highly motivated to learn through special education. The current teaching and learning process does not address the individual learning needs and the curricula lack the required flexibility to cater to the needs of the CWDs. There is little scope for children's participation in creative activities or critical thinking and teachers lack training and experience in teaching and handling the CWDs. Moreover, the high cost of disability related materials was another deterring factor of the CWDs to access inclusive education services.
With the strong commitment to the long term basic education development plan and EFA-NAP, MOE tries at its best to raise the quality of basic education for all school-aged children in both formal and non-formal education. The country's educational resources for the PWDs should be strengthened and brought in line with the CRPD. In addition, a firm foundation for future growth of IE for all CWDs across the country should be put in place now. In-depth research on IE for CWDs is a key component to develop internal expertise and provide quality recommendations to the government and will press the government to pass the revised Universal Primary Education which provides the legal foundation for IE for CWDs.
To sum up, the important results of these findings are that inclusive education program recognizes the need for adjusting the learning program to change conditions in the society. The education system caters for all children not just in formal schools who because of the necessity of schooling immigration for the special schools and community learning centers. Thereby totally neglected those in the rural areas where a great measure of resources for development resides. Most developing countries are in daring need to develop national consciousness among the citizens. This has been one of the major obstacles to national development and integration. Therefore, the researcher strongly argues that the major impact on educational achievement of the CWDs is the happier learning environment for them but it would also create with a sense of respect, and dignity among the community.
From the policy analyzing, individual interviews, and focus group discussion, the following are recommendations that are proposed by the researcher in order to inform all stakeholders who work in the inclusive education, regardless of formal and special education. At the same time, this research is hoped that the information on disability related issues will be of interest and useful to me/LNGOs, DPOs, and other institutions to develop the disability and education programs and community development programs.
Data on disability
Accurate data is important requirements for promoting the accessibility of the wider understanding about the current situation and for doing an analysis on the impacts of the current education policy toward the development of the PWDs. The current data on disability only is based upon the First Myanmar National Disability Survey, so the researcher would highly recommend that further survey or research be done in order to suggest a possible reform in education in the future.
School related factors
The major recommendation is an establishment of a special education program in all government schools that would offer special education classes in each mainstream school. All classes containing CWDs should have a reasonable ratio of teachers and students, and the teachers should be especially trained to have a disability awareness, especially those teachers who taught children with visual impairments, hearing impairments and intellectual disabilities. There needs to be a usable space for the varied needs of instruction in the schools. The age of entry into and leaving from the special classes should be flexible. Also, the schools should be equipped with appropriate teaching materials.
Initiating extra-curricular activities in and out of school
Special efforts should be made to involve the CWDs in special sports and games. These activities help them enjoy school more and refresh their mind, and build their bodies. In addition, these extra-curricular activities for all CWDs are very essential. From the study of best practices, it is clear that the initiation of inclusive practices has been a result of concerted community awareness. This is an important parameter not only for promoting inclusion outside the classroom among children, but also for unfolding diverse potentials and talents of both children with and without disabilities.
Socio -cultural factors
The involvement of parents, teachers and caregivers is very essential. Earlier studies showed that for desirable partnership to prevail among teachers, parents and caregivers, a mutual sharing of knowledge, skills, experiences and decision-making is required (Semakula, 1999). Long-term and short-term developments of the educational programs are based not only on the CWDs interests and abilities, but also their families' supports and priorities. Obviously, the positive parental attitude toward schooling will provide a sound foundation for improving the children's learning. Therefore, continuous awareness-raising activities should not only be for parents or caregivers, but also for other community members.
The government should put in place legislation that makes all CWDs as the beneficiary of compulsory education so that there should also be legislation to ensure continuous provision of disability friendly learning materials and the physical school infrastructures. Moreover, the government should train more skillful teachers of special needs education, and give them some special motivation about community mobilization. The ultimate educational goal for CWDs should be focused on either mainstreaming or special schools and community based resource centers for a continuing long term shot. Lastly, the government should provide more financial support and political protection to ensure that the special tools and equipment necessary for the learning of CWDs become cheaper and more accessible.
At the implementation level, it can be seen that the child center approach can fill the gap to the failure of the formal education system in linkage between teachers and the CWDs. The approach can be applied in many extents such as curriculum reforms, active teaching styles, and importantly a space to apply what they want to learn from their real life practices. At the national level, along with the debates, discussion, and the government's strong will to take reform, reforming the whole dismantled education system will take the certain number of years, applying the lessons learned from current inclusive education programs. Apart from this, it should be very important to create a policy and space where the cooperation among IE pilot projects, I/LNGOs, DPOs and the government.