PROBLEM OF ATTACHED CHILDREN AND ITS PERSPECTIVES

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The secure attachment to parents provides way to children's adaptive adjustment. The securely attached children experience their parents as available and responsive to their needs. This security enforces adaptive exploration and buffers children from stress. In contrast, those children who experience their parents as unavailable, unresponsive or rejecting are found hardly attached to their parents and avoid relying on them for support. These avoidant attached children because of their weaker relation ship, expects less guidance and protection from their parents. And those Children who experience their parents as inconsistent in their availability and responsiveness also become insecurely attached, specifically anxious or preoccupied. These anxiously attached or preoccupied children are not sure to expect support of their parents prefer to be dependent and clingy.

School is a social institution set up by the society to serve its ends. It is charged by the society with the duty of training and bringing up the students so that they may be able to take part effectively, harmoniously and efficiently. Knowledge gained in school must be linked with the life of the community in society.

Parents play a vital role in boosting their child's efficiency. They inherit their child to explore and take up a position in the community. Parents nowadays are interested in the welfare of their children and require mental, physical, moral and social development in them.

In the words of S.Balakrishna Joshi, close cooperate between the parent who is the first teacher and their child will definitely enhance the ability of the child. In the absence of a caring and nurturing relationship from their parents the child fails to train and develop their knowledge, skill, mind and character etc.

Parents play a vital role in shaping the child's personality and to provide proper guidance in the academic and personal problems. By motivating their own children in learning, parent can prove the potential.. Parents develop more confidence about helping their children to learn at home and more understanding of the school results in their enrollment of continuing education.

During adolescence Parent-child relationships undergo important transitions where they shift themselves from dependency to mutual reciprocity. Parents play an important role in supporting secure attachment during these transitions. Adolescents benefit from parental support which encourages autonomy development. Yet it ensures continuous monitoring and emotional connectedness.

Education is the knowledge of putting one's potentials to the utmost use. I can safely say that a proper sense cannot be brought in human until he/she is educated. Every human being has their own academic achievement. Specific parenting skills which promote attachment security and autonomy development include psychological availability, warmth, active listening, behaviour monitoring, limit setting, acceptance of individuality, and negotiation of rules and responsibilities .Parental support during stressful periods of transition (e.g., entry to high school) predicts positive adolescent and the age of success.

Traditionally, parent help their child in the area of homework, through the parent organization at school. But they can move to an extend that they help in classroom and in deciding the policies and curriculum issues on sitting in committees. This support of parents will promote the development of attitudes that are key to achievement, attitudes that are more a product of how the family interacts than of its social class.

Parents develop more positive attitudes about school and school personnel and gather community support for programs; the relationship between parent and child improves and the frequency of parental involvement in the child's activities increases. Attentive, responsive relationships between parents and their children are associated with the development of self-esteem, competence, and social responsibility in the child. It is advisable that parents who have experienced extreme difficulty in early child-parent relationships anticipate the challenges of adolescence and assess the need for mental health support.

A parent-child relationship in an African-American family varies depending on the mind setup of the adults that are present or involvement in the lives of the children. A perfect family structure has a major influence on parent-child relationship. So Influence of extended families play a prominent role in parenting style.

There are different kinds of parent-child relationships either will promote the child's attitude or would even affect it. Research has found that the behaviors of parents are of different categories. The categories that describe the ways children act and the ways that adults act with the children. The strongest attachment- relationship is called 'secure'. The way a child is attached to her parents also changes the behavior around others; when her / his parent are not around. Here the relation spit stands broad.

It is true, focusing on contexts in which a parent needs to protect a child may produce better predictions with infant-parent attachment. However, focusing on the parent refers to vital information which is overlooked. It is important to understand parent's protective behaviour in relation to children, and the family environment must also be investigated as a background for assessing parents caretaking behaviour and its effectiveness.

  Symbolic Punishment behaviour of parents is another way of eliminating a certain mode of behaviour is to ignore it. Eventually, the child will stop repeating the same (such as whining) if the parent stop paying attention to it. Of course, you should avoid this tactic if it endangers his safety or the safety of another child, or if he takes advantage of your indifference.

While compared to the parents of younger children, parents of older children never report different parenting practice. Nonetheless, children feel that parent - child relationship declines as they grew older. Older children reports that their parent understand less and it leads them to argue more. And they feel that their parents are less warm, more rejecting, and feel to be less ease than as younger children.

While compared to the parents of younger children, parents of older children never report different parenting practice. Nonetheless, children feel that parent - child relationship declines as they grew older. Older children reports that their parent understand less and it leads them to argue more. And they feel that their parents are less warm, more rejecting, and feel to be less ease than as younger children.

"I want so much to be a good parent." "I want my child to succeed in life." These anxious remarks are a common refrain among parents. This shows the demanding nature of the parent. All too often, parents are afraid of making a mistake that could mark their child or fear "leaving out" something important.

Parents show their love in different ways in different cultures. Children can have good relationships with parents. In all cultures, adults capable to be sensitive know to respond to children signals can be build secure attachments. The way they respond will be very indifferent from one culture to another. Parents who work with children from different cultures should watch for differences.

Symbolic Reward behaviour of the parents promotes specific attitudes. There is every indication that rewards a child for his good behaviour and sensible decisions. Still it is the best way to raise him. This encourages him to continue in that vein. There are very simple ways of rewarding a child: a kind word, a smile, an affectionate remark, a word of encouragement, a caress...

Over a period of many years; Parents cannot create angry feelings in a child and then expect that the child will show loving behavior in return. The key to understand human behavior lies in understanding the feelings that underlie and produce the behavior. The key to guide children's behavior into socially desirable channels consists in knowing how to create those positive, loving feelings which will produce positive, loving, and, therefore, non-delinquent behavior in the child.

Parents must touch the child, have eye contact, and give quality time to the child. The end result is called forming a strong attachment to the parent, which is otherwise object reward behaviour of the parents. Coincidentally touch, eye contact, and quality time also must be present to create and sustain a healthy adult relationship. Children want to be close to their parents in order to feel safe and secure to explore their environment which builds the brain. The gift of time also demonstrates to the child that actions do speak louder than words. The message to the child is that she is worthy of the parent's time. As a result, the child's sense of worth and value grows.

Neglecting is the most common form of abuse seen and may have long-term effects. Neglect ion fails to provide adequate food, clothing, shelter, supervision or medical care. Parents must provide adequate care, guidance, supervision and protection to keep their child from physical or mental harm. Parents must also provide appropriate treatment for their child's problem problems. During childhood children may have minor injuries. If it continues, it must be because of neglection.

Parenting is also associated with adjustment in elder and older children in similar ways. That is, for both girls and boys of all ages, angry, arbitrary parenting (i.e. low use of reasoning) is associated with a poorer parent-child relationship (i.e. child perceptions of parents as less warm and more rejecting) which in turn is associated with poor child adjustment.

1.02 DEFINITION

1.02.01 Parent-Child Relationship

A formal definition of the parent-child relationship is persons related by blood or adoption. A functional definition of the parent-child relationship would be likely to carry out decedent's presumed intent with respect to the distribution of probate property. A parent is likely to want a child to share in the parent's estate (and vice versa) if the two persons functioned in a caring and nurturing manner as parent and child.

The parent-child relationship is a combination of behaviors, feelings, and expectations that are unique to a particular parent and a child. The relationship involves to the full extent of their development.

The parent-child relationship has major influence on the child's psychological development than changes in the composition of the household. A healthier child development, parent's marital or employment status is highly responsive while parenting.

Parenting behaviour thus provided the opportunity to determine whether parents engage in different parenting strategies with younger children versus adolescents. Mother's involvement in school attitudes decreased with age: mothers of younger children reported more contact and involvement in their child's school than mothers of older children. Harshness of parenting (as reported by parents, e.g. yelling and physical punishment is more when child breaks rules) did not vary with child age. Nonetheless, older children supposed their parents as significantly less warm (e.g. listening less to their Parent-Child Relationships and Adjustment in adolescence).

Confiding in Father and Mother

The speaking less of good things children does opinions and ideas, , and the more rejecting (e.g. nagging more in little things, enforcing rules depending more on the child's mood) than younger. Although confiding in mother did not change with anything like age, older children were less prone to discuss problems with their fathers than younger children.

According to ST. PAUL, Minn, "Valentine's Day is a good time to reflect on relationships, including those between parent and child". Developing a good relationship with your child is like adding to the bank account of goodwill.

The parent or caregiver helps the child to develop his/her own self-regulation by soothing distress, enhancing alertness, and allowing the child the experience of self-regulation by sensitively responding to the child's signals of need for soothing or increased stimulation.

Grayson Holmbeck and his colleagues, in Handbook of Parenting, noted that "The amount of warmth and responsiveness in the relationship between parent and child continues to be important in predicting positive outcomes during the adolescent years and even into the adult years".

Andrew Collins and Brett Laursen have quoted that "Although parent-child conflict is typically increases during adolescence, the conflict serves as an important signal to parents that parenting behaviour need to be modified in response to the changing developmental needs of their children". Thus, parent-adolescent conflict can serve as an adaptive function, as conflict can be an impetus to change.

Collins, W. Andrew. Parent-child relationships and the transition to adolescence: Continuity and change in interaction, affect and cognition. In From Childhood to Adolescence: A Transitional Period? Advances in Adolescent Development. Vol. 2.

Child urges for independence during the time of adolescence. He may even challenge parent's authority, as the young adolescent strives to establish a sense of emotional autonomy, or individuation. Many parents find early adolescence as a difficult period requiring a fair amount of adaptation. Early adolescence is an important turning point in the parent-child relationship. As the child enters adolescence where they have the biological, cognitive, and emotional changes of the period spark transformations in the parent-child relationships. Transition into adolescence coincides with the parent's transition into midlife, and this, may also introduce additional challenges into the family system that spill over into the parent-child relationship.

1.02.02 Importance of parent-child relationship

A Warm and approachable relationships between adolescents and parents are associated with a variety of positive outcomes, including self-esteem, identity formation, and socially accepted behavior, better parent-adolescent communication, less depression and anxiety, and fewer behavior problems. In Keith's study, parental involvement is included with four components: parental educational aspirations, parent-child communication, the structure of the home, and parental participation in school activities.

1.02.03 Importance of Parenting and the Parent-Child Relationship

Harshly parents punished were an important determinant of how children perceived their relationships with parents. Harsher discipline was related to children's perceptions of parents as less warm and more rejecting. The quality of parent-child relationships was a predictor of child adjustment throughout this period of development. Children who enjoy positive relationships with their parents were less likely to engage in overt or indirect aggression, bully others, commit property offences, or affiliate with deviant peers. Those who are involved in their schoolwork, had higher self-esteem and fewer internalizing problems, and were less likely to be victimized by others. In addition, the children reported fewer hyperactivity attention problems, were more likely to use safety precautions (i.e. seatbelts and helmets), and experienced few serious injuries.

Miller, Jenkins and Keating (2002) found that harshly performing parenting was the primary determinant of behaviour of problems for both 2-3 and 8-9 year-olds; in reality, a one-point increase on a 10-point scale of harsh parenting was related to a 50% increase in risk in behaviour problems.

Miller, F., J. Jenkins and D. Keating. Parenting and children's behavior problems. In Vulnerable Children: Findings from Canada's National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth. Willms, J.D. (ed.). Edmonton, AB: University of Alberta Press, 2002. Moffitt, Terrie E. Adolescence-limited and life-course-persistent antisocial behaviour:

Simons et al., (1989) as noted that, though attempting to cope with difficult, distressing child behaviour may lead parents to punish more harshly, and to be more rejecting and less warm, parental rejection is likely to have stronger negative effects on child adjustment than the reverse.

Weitcock (1991) describes that "A healthy parent-child relationship will increase student self-esteem and in student achievement on Student Achievement Test scores and other final testing scores". Students show an increase in academic achievement and cognitive development. Parents should develop more positive attitudes about school and school personnel and gather community support for programs; the relationship between parent and child improves and the frequency of parental involvement in the child's activities increases.

Parents need to be careful not to dismiss problems in the adolescent-parent relationship as simply due to age temperament or other child characteristics. Both the parent and their adolescent age contribute to the quality of the relationship. They should understand that as adolescents move into romantic relationships they can benefit from parent's emotional support and guidance.

Simons, Ronald L., Joan F. Robertson and William R. Downs. The nature of the association between parental rejection and delinquent behaviour, Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 18,3 (1989): 297-310.

Parents need to be available to adolescents to discuss their feelings, values and decision making regarding issues of intimacy and sexual involvement in romantic relationships.

1.02.04 Ways to Strengthen Parent-child Relationship

(i) Say I Love You

(ii) Teach Your Faith

(iii) Establish A Special Name Or Code Word

(iv) Develop and Maintain A Special Bedtime Ritual

(v) Let Your Children Help You

(vi) Play with Your Children

(vii) Eat Meals As A Family

(viii) Seek out One-On-One Opportunities Often

(ix) Respect Their Choices

(x) Make Them a Priority In Your Life

1.03 PARENT - CHILD RELATIONSHIP AND CHILD'S ADJUSTMENT

The purpose of a parenting plan is to encourage creative, individualized, and clear arrangements, as well as to facilitate cooperative parenting which leads the child to boost their adjustment ability. A positive parent-child relationship involves affection, warmth, effective communication, appropriate boundaries and discipline, mutual respect and caring, child-oriented time spent together, and a general enjoyment of each other's company.

Investigation of parenting factors related to shifts from secure to insecure attachment versus from insecure to secure attachment during adolescence. Thus identification of mediators and moderators of the relationship between adolescent attachment and functioning in young adulthood(i.e., poverty, parental psychopathology, peer relationships, school success). Development and evaluation of both universal and targeted programs that focus on attachment, family relations and adjustment in adolescence will help the parents to enhance their child's adjustment ability.

Parents need to recognize the continued importance of their relationship with their adolescent for adjustment, despite their child's increased interest in and time spent with peers. They need to anticipate that their adolescent will require increased availability and support during periods of transition, such as entry into high school. Parents should support their adolescent in effective planning and management of this transition.

Social adjustment can be defined as "The manner in which an individual fulfills his/her roles in social relationships and the individual's well-being within these relationships". The parent-child relationship serves the purpose of child-rearing and caretaking responsibilities.

Chao et al., 2002; Miller et al., (2002) Children have linked parenting and child adjustment in a similar way; support the parent may play a causal role in determining child adjustment. Nonetheless, to assess the directionality of these associations, analyses of parenting and children's development over time are necessary.

It is also possible that both parent and child behaviour may be a result of another factor, such as their genetic makeup. The shared family background of children in a single family will provide the opportunity to clarify both these issues regarding the link between parenting and child adjustment.

Chao, R.K. and J.D. Willms. The effects of parenting practices on children's outcomes. In Vulnerable Children: Findings from Canada's National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth. Willms, J.D. (ed.). Edmonton, AB: University of Alberta Press, 2002.

1.04 PARENTS-CHILD RELATIONSHIP AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT

The recognition of the importance of parent-child relationship and academic achievement stimulated a wide variety of investigation on academic success. Children are frustrated when they study for a test, because they do not know how to study or may study the irrelevant material. Efficient and effective work habits contribute to achievement. Motivation is also important factor to succeed in words.

Mays (1923) called the affection of parents that is, the educators to the factor of that the time devoted to study has an important beginning on academic achievement.

Alderman (1927) found successful groups of students to be interested in their school work.

Vogt (1929) explained that "The failures were due to poor preparation in the school and lack of interest".

Young (1952) says that "Parent's play a significant part in shearing the child's interest and motivation". The improvement of parent - child relationship, not only help in promoting better work, but also influences child's moral and sense of satisfaction.

According to Nicholas (1979) "Motivation may affect attention in class or influence the amount of study time devoted to a particular subject, directly influencing academic achievement".

Sudana Ghosh (1986) found that the factors related to inferior work were poor preparation, indifference and head strong disregard of obligations. Further observed that students with superior ability often studied least.

1.05 ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT

1.05.01 Achievement an Important Objective of Learning

An understanding objective of school reading program is to help the pupils to be academically successful, because achievement is an important need of human being. Achievement a broad concept, may be used for practical purpose, be defined as "scores in the examinations", which measure in quantitative terms is a mastery of some given content. Nobody could dispute that scores in examination; co-achievement is an important area of 'concern' to the students. But the fact that challenges the educators is that, some students with apparently higher scholastic abilities and aptitude. Researchers by Klingelhofer (1954), Simth (1955), Entuistle (1960), Ryan (1967) and Bethleham et al (1973) showed positive effect of training in " how to study " course on the academic achievement of college students. From their findings, it may be due to ignorance in the 'art of study'. Thinkers in the field of education had been worried about this lacuna in our educational set up.

1.05.02 Successful Intentional Learning

As individuals have different learning experiences and a maturity as learners. They gradually became more confident, sophisticated, adept at understanding, managing an increasingly complex ,interplay of personally relevant social, cognitive, affective, and cognitive learning factors. Thus, the significant contrast in how an individual approaches learning, their learning orientation, lies in the unique personal way that they understand and manage their own intentional learning construct.

In considerating the extent and depth of an individual's fundamental belief about why, when, and how to use learning and how it can accomplish personal goals or change events is fundamental to understand how the individual learns successfully and experiences intentional learning. In contrast, how well the instructors and course designers understand learning orientations; in turn, how well they present instruction that motivates and encourages successful intentional learning. [1] 

1.06 DEFINITION AND EXPLANATION OF ACHIEVEMENT

"Achievement means ones bearing attainment, accomplishment and Proficiencies". Academic achievement is directly related to pupils growth and development in educational situations where teaching and learning are intended to go on. In the words of Baron and Bernard (1954) "Ihe concept of achievement involves the interaction of three factors: aptitude of learning, readiness of learning and opportunity of learning".

It also refers to the achievement of pupils in tile so called 'academic' subjects such as teaching, writing arithmetic and history as contrasted with developed in such area as arts and physical education.

1.07 Meaning of Academic Achievement

It is important for status among the adolescent in each schools can be measured simply by the proportions of response. Which specify good grades "or brain as adolescents often put it, as means of entry in to the leading crowd? Being a good student contributes to social acceptance.

1.07.01 Definition of Academic Achievement

Academic achievement in education precisely speaking is with reference to ones knowledge, understanding and skill in specific subjects and

groups of subjects. Academic grades or marks assigned by teachers are scores

on standardized achievement tests.

The Encyclopedia Dictionary of Psychology and Education defines, "Academic achievement as a measure of knowledge gained in formal education usually indicated by test scores, grades, points, averages and degrees.

The Dictionary of psychology defines, "Specified level of attainment or proficiency in academic work as evaluated by the teachers by standardized test or by a combination of both"

The Dictionary of Education refers academic achievement as, "The knowledge attained or skill developed in the school subjects, usually determined by test scores or by marks assigned by teachers or both".

The term achievement is widely used for a number of years, relatively little attention has been given to the definition to achievement.

According to Comery (1949) "Achievement is the accomplishment of proficiency of performance in a given skills or body or knowledge". Achieving in schools implies "moving towards instructional objectives".

Good (1959) defined academic achievement in the Dictionary of education as, "The achievement of students in the so called "Academic subjects, developed in such areas as industrial arts and physical education".

1.07.02 Problems in life and academic achievement

"The academic achievement of the individual is the product of maturational forces within him and the experience provided by the environment" (Morrow W.P.1961) it characterizes achievement as a function of maturity, social stimulation and self - application.

Under achievers they undergo different types of problems such as low self esteem and unsatisfactory parent - child relationships. Children from small families were found superior in school grades. Griffith (1963) stated that "Younger children were able to obtain higher grades than older children".

Family size, as factor affecting achievement, has its greatest importance in early childhood. In the amount of time children spend in conversation with an adult is taken into consideration.

Klein.K (1965) states "Abnormal family background and parent - child relationship affects the academic achievement for most of the middle class children". In such cases the family setting differs. One or both parents do not live with the child and this affects the scholastic. So the performance of the child will be in below average.

Douglas Ross and Simpson (1968) observed the following:

Attainment is less related to family size in middle class that in working class children.

Eldest boys are definitely superior in reading skills, but not in not-verbal intelligence.

Children, especially boys with younger sibling are more successful than children who are single.

Boys with elder sister have lower attainment that those with older brothers.

Brich .H.G. and Gussow .J.P.(1970) indicates that "Present to create a high level of anxiety in their children about failing to measure evaluative situation may effect child's overall adjustment and self concept as well as his intellectual performance and academic achievement".

In the opinion of the Gupta (1972), "Academic achievement is influenced by a number of factors which can be broadly classified".

Abilities (intelligence, scholastic aptitude)

Efforts (Drive, Achievement Motivation, Aspiration, etc)

Environment (Social and Economic of hence and schools)

1.07.03 Obstacle to Achievements

Many people who are willing and able to work from achieving what they are capable of by crossing the obstacles over which they have no control. In most part these obstacles are environmental; primacy favorable social attitudes based on sex, race, religion or age.

Martin (1952) found that the following factors contributed to student's failure.

Lack of motivation

Poor study techniques

Personal Mal adjustment

Outside work

Lack of preparation

Difficulty with instructional method

Lack of attendance

Frustration

Lack of guiding

Lack of interest

Srivastava (1968) found poor environment as the major factor and further observed that under nourishment, low level parental education and inadequate training by parents were associated with low academic achievement.

Kolesnik (1970) stated that "The existence of emotional problems can severely inhibit academic achievement".

1.08 CONCLUSION

The emergence of custom study has been discussed briefly in this chapter outlining the need and importance for the parent - child relationship, the term operationally defined in this study have been reviewed theoretically from the related literature available, so as to give a broaden theoretical perspective, in the light of which appropriate hypotheses could be framed and tested. A detail discussion of the related literature on the chosen problem is presented in the next chapter.

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