Abstract: This paper explores the difference in job satisfaction between private and public sector universities teachers of Karachi, Pakistan. Based on detailed literature review, following hypothesis had formulated; Private University teachers are more satisfied with their jobs as compared to Public University teachers. The sample of the study comprises of 160 participants, 80 public (40 males; 40 females) university teachers and 80 private (40 males; 40 females) university teachers of Karachi, Pakistan. Age range was from 24 to 65 and average age was 38.92(SD 8.353). A Job Satisfaction Survey (Spector, 1997) was administered to measure job satisfaction. For statistical analysis, independent "t" test was performed to obtain the difference between private and public university teachers on job satisfaction. A result suggests significant difference between Private and Public University teachers. Furthermore, private university teachers were more satisfied with their job as compared to public university teachers.
Job satisfaction is an important aspect of employees' work life. Different researches have been conducted on employees involved in various occupations, resulting in raised awareness about issues concerning employees and factors that influence employees' job satisfaction. Therefore, a better insight of management of factors associated with job satisfaction can improve the quality of worker performance. According to the findings of Bowran and Todd (1999), "job satisfaction and job performance are positively correlated". Job satisfaction does not only improve performance of the workers, it also affects other areas of a person's life. Hackman & Oldman (1980) found that a higher job satisfaction is associated with increased productivity, lower absenteeism and lower employee turnover.
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Education is one of the fundamental needs of societies; it not only gives a feeling of accomplishment and fulfillment to the ones imparting education but also lays foundation for a new generation to find its right values and academic expertise for the future. Therefore, education is a profession that needs special attention and care by society.The educationists, thus, are the people who need to be satisfied with their jobs for other sectors to receive future employees. Higher education, in fact, is the breeding ground for the professional of highest caliber in a society. It channelizes young; peoples' ambitions and aspirations and turns them into effective workers for diverse employment sectors. For these educationists, job satisfaction in the form of good remuneration package, healthy work environment that is positive and learning oriented can lead to maximization of their potential as leaders, visionaries and role models.
Robins (2005) defined job satisfaction as a collection of feelings that an individual holds towards his or her job. In other words, "Job satisfaction can be defined as the degree to which individuals feel positively or negatively about their jobs (Schermerhorn. Jr, et al., 2005)"
There is an imperative role of higher education in the success of any nation. In higher education, its faculty plays a vital role. Only when the faculty members are satisfied with their job, they can enhance the intellectual and academic potential of students. Job satisfaction of faculty members is based on a variety of factors like personal factors, social support systems, and health or fitness of faculty and administrators moderate the negative relationships between job strain, health, life satisfaction, and job satisfaction (Blackbum, Horowitz, Edington, and Klos, 1986). A study by Sorcinelli and Near (1989) found that the job satisfaction of university faculty is independent of gender and positively correlated with academic rank. They also suggest that job satisfaction is positively related to faculty's life satisfaction and their non-work satisfaction.
Another important element that affects job satisfaction of faculty members is the sector from which they belong i.e. public or private university. The government or public sector has some encouraging incentives like grade based salaries and job security. Private sector teachers have other optimistic rewards, which include, higher salaries, good work condition, challenging work tasks etc. There are different factors in Private and Public University that can influence the performance of the faculty for example, job security, pay, working condition, contingent reward, relationship with co-workers, promotion, supervision, fringe benefits, communication with other colleagues, and nature of work.
Pay overall effects the degree of job satisfaction. A study of university academic staff by Pearson and Seiler (1983) found, "academics have high levels of dissatisfaction with compensation-related elements of the job (e.g., fringe benefits, pay, and performance criteria)". Various researches findings show that pay level of public and private sector employees is one of the sources of dissatisfaction. A study of Voydanoff, (1980) findings shown that, "monetary compensation is one of the most significant variables in explaining job satisfaction". In their study of public sector managers, Taylor and West (1992) found that pay levels affect job satisfaction, reporting that those public employees that compared their salaries with those of private sector employees experienced lower levels of job satisfaction. Another research conduct by Boone and Kuntz (1992) suggest that, offering employees fair and reasonable compensation, which relates to the input the employee offers the organization, should be the main objective of any compensation system. Included in the category of compensation are such items as medical aid schemes, pension schemes, bonuses, paid leave and travel allowances.
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A promotion opportunity improves motivation of employees. According to the research, "An employee's opportunities for promotion are also likely to exert an influence on job satisfaction (Landy, 1989; Larwood, 1984; Moorhead & Griffen, 1992; Vecchio, 1988)". In addition, Robbins (1998) maintains that, "promotions provide opportunities for personal growth, increased responsibility, and increased social status." Not only promotion opportunities but also merit-base promotion gives satisfaction to its employees. Witt and Nye found that (1992), "Individuals who perceive that promotion decisions are made in a fair and just manner are likely to experience satisfaction from their jobs". A study by Moses conducted on academic staff (1986) supports the view that, "faculty was dissatisfied with the undervaluing of teaching excellence in promotion decisions." She concluded, "â€¦ tenured and well-paid employment provides satisfaction of the lower-order needs, whereas prestigious and autonomous work enables academic staff to satisfy to a greater degree higher-order needs than is possible for the general population (e.g., esteem need the need for self-actualization)".
Employees are likely to have high levels of job satisfaction if supervisors provide them with support and co-operation in completing their tasks (Ting, 1997). Results of other study show that the, "quality of the supervisor-subordinate relationship will have a significant, positive influence on the employee's overall level of job satisfaction (Aamodt, 1999)". Employees also feels more satisfaction if the supervisors take opinion from them in their decisions. Moreover, as described by Chieffo (1991), "supervisors who allow their employees to participate in decisions that affect their own jobs will, in doing so, stimulate higher levels of employee satisfaction".
The Relationship with co-workers in any organization plays a significant role on the worker's satisfaction. Kalleberg found that (1977), "good work relations with co-workers can raise job satisfaction". A study conducted by Manger and Eikeland (1990) found that, "relations with colleagues were the largest predictor of intention to leave the university". Communication is an important vehicle at workplace and high-quality interaction between co-workers increase job satisfaction. According to Avtgis (2000), "people who reported increased communication and high reward in communication also reported greater relational satisfaction and greater perceived organizational influence".
Working condition is another significant feature of job that motivates employees to stay in their job. According to Flowers & Hughes (1973), "the relationship between job satisfaction and environmental factors, particularly in accounting for reasons that employees stay in their jobs". According to Luthans (1998), if people work in a clean, friendly environment they will find it easier to come to work. If the opposite happens, they will find it difficult to accomplish tasks. Vorster (1992) maintains that working conditions are only likely to have a significant impact on job satisfaction when, for example, the working conditions are either extremely good or extremely poor. Moreover, employee complaints regarding working conditions are frequently related to manifestations of underlying problems (Luthans, 1992; Visser, 1990; Vorster, 1992). Nature of work is also one reason, which can satisfy or dissatisfy employees. According to Ninomiya and Okato (1990; cited in Mwamwenda, 1995), "job satisfaction among teachers was associated with freedom to do their work as they saw fit, a sufficient supply of learning material and equipment, a good salary, a reasonable class size as well as the support and cooperation of colleagues".
The review of literature showed there are different elements, which contribute to job satisfaction of the employees among teachers of Public and Private Universities. Among these factors are pay, promotion, contingent reward, nature of work, working condition, nature of work, fringe benefits, supervision, and communication. Therefore, in designing a study to explore difference in job satisfaction between Private and Public University teachers, it is crucial to reflect on these factors.
The objective of this study is to find out difference in job satisfaction between Private and Public University teachers in addition to what are the different factors that affect the satisfaction level of the teachers towards his/her job. The following hypothesis was formulated based on previous literature: Private Sector University teachers are more satisfied with their jobs as compared to Public Se ctor University teachers.
A sample comprises of 160 teachers, 80 public (40 males; 40 females) university teachers, and 80 (40 males; 40 females) private university teachers of Karachi, Pakistan. Age range was from 24 to 65 and average age was 38.92 (SD 8.353). Education level was Masters 80.5%, MPhil 9.5%, and PhD 3.8%. Duration of the service ranged from1 to 32 years, and the average duration was 8.76 years (SD 7.049). The job positions of the participants were lecturers (32.5%), assistant professors (41.25%), associate professors (18.75%), and professors (7.5%). All respondents were permanent faculty members who worked in public and private universities.
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A demographic form was used, consisting of several questions about gender, age, academic qualification, job status, marital status, organization type, and length of service.
The Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS; Spector, 1997) JSS is a nine-subscale measure of employee job satisfaction. The nine facets are 1) pay, 2) promotion, 3) supervision, 4) fringe benefits, 5) contingent rewards, 6) operating conditions, 7) co-workers, 8) nature of work, and 9) communication. The JSS consists of 36 items to be rated by participants on a 6-point likert format response scale (i.e., disagrees very much, disagree moderately, disagree slightly, agree slightly, agree moderately, and agree very much). In the present study, JSS found to be internally consistent at the level of = .822.
The universities teachers were approached from different departments such as faculty departments, than the, purpose of present research was explained to them, and they were requested to participate in the present study (written consent was taken). Many of them rejected to participate, and those who agreed to participate were further preceded in the study. The rapport was established by introducing self and than by telling about the objective of the study. They were ensured about confidentiality that their provided information would be used only for research purpose and their named will not mentioned in this study, they were also informed that their participation will be on voluntary basis and they can leave the study at any stage. After establishing rapport and trust, participants were provided with demographic form to obtain their personal information. After taking demographic information, Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS; Paul E Spector, 1994) was administered in order to assess Job satisfaction of the (employees) participants. After completion of measures, participants were thanked for being participation in this research and for their precious time. After completion of data, demographic form was analyzed and Job Satisfaction Survey was scored according to the instructions given in the manual.
In order to analyze data in terms of statistics firstly, data was tabulated on Microsoft excel sheet. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), version 16.0 was used for all statistical analyses. Descriptive statistics for demographic information and t-test was performed in order to find out difference on job satisfaction between private university teachers and public universities teachers.
The result of the study suggests that significant difference was found between Public and Private University teachers on the variable of Pay (t=-3.138, p <.05); Promotion (t=-2.174, p <.05); Fringe Benefit (t=-2.554, p <.05); Contingent Rewards (t= 3.823, p <.05); Operating Conditions (t= -2.247, p <.05); and Nature of Work (t=-2.482, p <.05). However, no difference was found on the variable of Communication (t=.315, p >.05); Co- Workers (t= -.878, p> .05); and Supervision (t=-.595, p >.05).
The result of the study shows that there is significant difference in job satisfaction between Private and Public university teachers. According to the findings of the study on the variable of pay, promotion, fringe benefit, contingent reward, and working condition there is a significant difference in job satisfaction of private and public university teachers. Additionally, insignificant difference was found between private and public university teachers on the variable of communication, supervision, and co-workers.
A bivariate analysis of the results depicts that there is difference in job satisatfaction between public and private university teachers. Literature also suggests that differences between public and private sector employees exist (Goulet & Frank, 2002; Perry, 2000; Perry & Rainey, 1988; Wright, 2001). Furthermore, employees choose to work for public sector organizations based on other expectations and promises and thus they support the idea that public sector employees are motivated by different aspects than public sector employees (Borzaga & Tortia, 2006; Burgess & Ratto, 2003; Perry & Wise, 1990).
As private university provides various facilities to their teachers for example, competitive salary packages, satisfactory working environment, promotions, as compare public universities. The results of the study shows that private university teachers are more satisfied with their pay as compare to public university teachers. According to Volkwein & Parmley, (2004) Public sector organizations are financially rewarding their employees somewhat less than private sector organizations and are offering less careear development opportunities. In addition, on the variable of contingent reward and frienge benfits significant difference was foud between private and public university teachers. Literature also suggests that Burgess and Ratto (2003) pay is not the best incentive for public sector workers because public sector employees are motivated by other incentives than private sector workers. The possible explanation of this finding is that fringe benefits include health insurance, retirement benefits, pension plan, life insurance, and health insurance, and private universities in Pakistan offereing high-quality plans to their teacher as campare to public sector universities.
According to the results of the study on the variable of nature of work private university teachers were more satisfied than public university teachers. Aryee (1992) reports that public sector employees perceive a lower quality of job content and are less motivated. A recent study of Lyons, Duxbury and Higgins (2006) reveals differences in work-related values, especially in the values: contribution of the job to society, opportunities for advancement, challenging work and prestigious work. Along with nature work operating condition is also contributing a key role in job satisfaction. Private universities in Pakistan providing well-equiped work environment which includes computers, internet facilities, digital librararies with latest books, rooms for faculties that will motivate employees and increase their job satisfaction.
However, the results on the variable of co-workers and communication suggest no difference in private and public university teacher. In both sector teacher's communication and relationship with worker is not varying because its human need to be affiliated with each other no matter from which culture or sector they belong. This finding is in line with Gabris & Simo (1995) that public sector and private sector employees do not differ on the need for affiliation. In the light of the findings of this study no difference was found between public and private university teachers on the variable of supervision. Both sector university teachers are satisfied with their supervision.
The findings support the difference in job satisfaction between private and public University teachers. The results have implications for the policy makers and the government that dissatisfied teachers in the univerersity can not satisfied students need. Furthermore, it will give rise to turnover, absenteesim and low motivation in their work. Gaining a thorough understanding of job satisfaction has implications for improving the working life of faculty members via providing insights to administrators responsible for designing and implementing staff development strategies and interventions within the higher education context.
There are some limitations of the present study. First, the study depended on self-reported data. There is always a risk of being biased and selective recall when using such data (Smith & Glass, 1987). Second, the afore-mentioned findings derived from an aimed convenience sampling process; therefore, the generalizability of the findings is limited. Finally, this study coversPublic and private university teachers from Karachi. Expansion on the present study would allow greater knowledge into the predictors of job satisfaction in the teaching profession.
To conclude, findings of the study illustrates that job satisfaction improves performance of the teachers. These findings suggest that when teachers are satisfied with ther job they can enhace the academic potential of the students.In addition; there is difference in job satisfaction between public and private university teachers in job satisfaction.