This study covers the important learning principles. I have given my own views in this research. I have explained the factors and principles of learning one by one and in an order. It describes that effect, motivation, readiness, observation, modeling and past experiences play an important role in the process of learning. An Ideal learning environment is made up of the above factors. Better the implementation of above factors better will be the learning process.
Learning is a process of acquisition and enhancement of knowledge and skills by means of practice, study (by being taught), observation and experience that brings together behavioral, emotional, social, cognitive and environmental influences.
In my opinion an ideal learning environment is one in which every one can share its experiences and views. The learning environment should be acceptable and critical. In an ideal learning environment learners are made comfortable to introduce their own ideas. Ideas are explained and illustrated very nicely by instructors. Proper demonstrations and experiments to create interest are used. An ideal environment provides students and learners to contribute freely in conversations. A pleasant environment, to increase the self motivation level in students, is created. Instructors teach learners how they can support their ideas. A sense of satisfaction and accomplishment is developed in students. A single method of learning is never successful in creating an ideal environment of learning. To fulfill the requirements of wide range of students, variety of learning methods and activities are used.
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The principle of effect explains the importance of emotional reaction of learners in learning process. This principle is directly related to motivation. If learner is feeling pleasant and satisfied while learning then learning process will be successful but the process will be a failure if unpleasant or unsatisfactory feeling is present in learner. Naturally, a learner will continue to learn the something that provides him satisfaction and a feeling of pleasance. Regardless of learning situation, the learning environment should contain positive and satisfactory elements for the students. For example punishments will discourage students and create an unpleasant environment which will decrease the motivation level of students. Instructors should know that feelings of anger, depression, defeat and confusion cause frustration and decrease the effectiveness of learning process. Each learning session can never be entirely successful. Students can never master each and everything, 100 percent perfectly, they are taught in a learning session. But a learning session should leave pleasant feelings in the minds of students. It will definitely increase the chance of success for student.
In my opinion the most important factor of learning process is motivation. A motivating environment can produce a lot better results than any other factor. A learner should be motivated before learning process starts. Teacher should know about the learning needs of learner and develop an interesting way to teach. Motivation can be developed by different methods such as challenging, practicing kits and giving incentives for doing it etc. Comparison and affiliation are also a good source of external and internal motivation. It doesnâ€™t mean that only instructors or teachers are responsible for providing it. Learner should be self-motivated. They should know that this learning will help them in achieving their goals and objectives. But to trigger the â€œself-motivation situationâ€Â, under normal circumstances, any reward or incentive is necessary. If a learner is internally motivated, it will have a long lasting effect than external motivation. Contemporary theories say that motivation plays and important role in human learning and performance.
Readiness is also an important principle of learning process. The learning process will be effective only when learners are mentally and physically ready to learn. Usually it is the responsibility of instructor to provide an environment where learners can feel comfortable and physically fit for the learning process. The students must know why they are learning and instructors must explain the objectives of learning properly. Not only learners, but instructor himself should be physically, mentally and emotionally ready to start teaching. When both learner and the instructor are 100 percent ready for the learning process, it will make the learning process ideal.
Another very important factor of learning process is observation. I would say that observing something is learning something. Observation is very strong learning process. Let us take an example of human. From childhood to end, a human learns so many things just by observation. No other factor can take part that much. There are some limitations of this factor. The learner will only observe those things closely which he finds interesting. It is quite possible in some cases that practicing alongwith observation is necessary so alone observation may not work. The learner (observer) should have the skills to correctly reproduce useful data from observation. Again the motivation is very important for observer. If there is no motivation there is almost no learning even if observation factor is present.
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Learning through modeling plays an important role in learning process. Most of the learners find this method interesting. It is not only a learning factor, but a source of motivation. If used correctly, it can be a very helpful in learning process. Essential conditions for modeling are: attention, retention, motor reproduction and motivation. But these conditions are not very strict. If teacher is good enough to create an interesting model and the learners are a little bit self-motivated then modeling technique will provide best results. A model is created to help both teachers and learners. Explaining a model, understanding it and memorizing the key concepts of the model is very easy.
In my opinion learning from past experiences is another important principle of learning. It is mostly a self learning process. A teacher or instructor can provide further help in it. In this principle of learning, learner himself evaluates his past experiences and constructs the new ideas based upon those experiences. Most of the times, the process of learning is triggered when the learner is engaged in a discussion and shared its problems and views. The teacher or an instructor acts as a facilitator who encourages the learners in this learning process.