Primary Schooling In A Tribal District Of Maharashtra Education Essay

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The notion of 'Scientific' is been considered as the ultimate degree in the field of education and research. Scientific means a statement or event which can be verified and could be applied across the places in any given time. Similarly, in case of research the findings are considered scientific when it could be falsified at any point of time and place. The research aims at identifying the relation between the cause and effect which is why a degree of objectivity is urged. The degree of objectivity could be achieved through methodology of the research, which is the core of the research. The methodology decides the findings and the viability of the research. The sound and scientific methodology of research design results in more scientific outcomes and findings. This assignment critically analyse the two research papers (qualitative and quantitative) through analysing the methodology of research.

Research Paper 1- Primary Schooling in a tribal district of Maharashtra: Some policy relevance

The divers culture and prosperity have diversified the educational need. It is been always criticised that the planning commission neglected the needs and aspirations of the marginalise sections of Indian society, especially tribals (Scheduled Tribes). In compare to other caste and class of the Indian society, tribes are the most socially and economic backward which further translate in the educational deprivation as well. Maharashtra in compare to other state is considered as the developed state but the stratified understanding of the development shows that there are many marginalise community which are completely neglected from the development. Tribal of the Maharashtra state are backward in all aspects of the development because of many reasons, like the physical accessibility and ignorance of the people. The present study examines the quality of the education in one of the tribal district of Maharashtra state of India.

Objectives of the study-

The study mainly focus on the two prime objectives-

To understand the nature of the absenteeism among the age group 6-12, through their parents and also understanding the reasons behind it.

To understand the quality of the education in the selected villages.

The gender differences were the main focus across the above mentioned objectives.

Methodology of the study-

Village selection-

Nandurbar district of Maharashtra was selected as it has the highest tribal population in Maharashtra. The district has six blocks (talukas), out of these blocks the six villages were selected. For the selection and further scrutiny two criteria were selected, one the lowest literacy rate village and village with high tribal population. Six villages were randomly selected from the universe of the villages based on the criteria.

Household selection-

The listing of the households done for each village, such that the houses which have children in the age group 6-12 were enlisted. Then randomly the households were selected from each village. A total number of 183 household were selected with children 245.

Data collection-

The major tools and techniques used are as follows-

Semi-structured interviews of the parents.

Structured interviews with the school principles (Headmaster)

Four non participatory observations.

Seven in-depth interviews of educational personnel like District Education Officer(DEO), Block Education officer (BEO), Sarva Shikshak Adhikari (SSA), Tahasildar.

Along with the primary data a set of secondary data was also collected through the reports of the districts, secondary data of educational statistics from Block Development Office and data available from the school registration.

Results and Discussion-

Out of 245 children, about 60 percent are going to primary school, in which the proportion of the boys is much higher in compare to the girls. Among the group of children who ever attended school, about 44 percent are either dropouts or not attending school.

There are various reasons for the non-attendance of the children in school such as irregularities of the teacher, domestic work at home, working for supporting to the house, learning inabilities among the child. Out of all above mentioned reasons the economic factors contributes much more directly or indirectly. The parents think that the schooling of their child is luxury for the household which they cant afford.

The quality of education is quantified through the teacher-student ratio and various amenities at the school. The research shows that the majority of the schools have high teacher-student ratio and don't have classes as mentioned in the documents at district level. As in two villages the school had class up to 5th std instead of 7th std. And there is lack of basic amenities in the school like classroom and blackboard.

All the above mentioned results varies across the gender. In this regard can be concluded that the deprivation of girls from the education is the result of the larger patriarchal picture of the society, were the educational needs of the girls are neglected under the values, tradition and customs of the patriarchy.

Drawback of the study-

The 'quality of the education' which is the qualitative part of the study has not been handled accurately as the basic amenities and teacher-student ration are not only criteria which explains the quality aspect of the education. The teaching learning procedure which is the core of the quality of education is been completely ignored. It seems that the 'quality' of education is forcefully included with the primary objective of the study of 'understanding the reasons of non-attendance'. The main ethical question is about the participation of the children in the study. The study focuses on the issue related to the children but have no tools or techniques to collect data from the age group selected for the study. The listing of the household would have been further classified into the household were children ever attended the schools and the household were the children never attended the school, comparison between these two groups and the reasons among these group could have sharpen the results of the study.

Research Paper 2- The quality of Primary Education- a case of Madurai and Villupuram Districts of Tamil Nadu, India-

Like in the rest of the India wide range of initiatives were started to increase the quality of education in Tamil Nadu. The state was near to achieve the goal of 100% enrollment, though there are trade off between the quality and quantity of the education. The critic has been put forward regarding the quality aspects of the education been provided by the government in the state. In such wake of the situation a qualitative study was initiated to understand the quality aspects of the education provided by the state.

Objectives of the Study-

To assess the current state of primary education in two districts of Tamil Nadu.

To identify the factors affecting the quality of education.


The study uses micro approach to analyse the quality of primary education in Tamil Nadu. This study is a pilot study for the Tamil Nadu, it fall under the domain of the qualitative study as it aims at generating the hypothesis and theories regarding the quality of education rather testing the preconceived hypothesis. Thus for the pilot study two districts were randomly selected from the state. The study uses following tools and techniques for data collection-

Interviews (semi structured interviews, specific questions)

Observation (participants, school and classroom setting)

Secondary data like reports and MIS data available at district level.

Different quality indicators are formed for school setting, teaching-learning procedure and accountability. They can be listed as- school (infrastructure, school atmosphere, academic emphasis, school leadership), curriculum (developing cognitive skills, language instruction), teachers (level of education, training, knowledge of subject, motivation and job satisfaction), students (gender distribution, number per class), teaching learning materials (textbooks, teacher guides, basic school material, subsidies), learning time (official learning time and absenteeism), Educational Administration (relationship between school and district administration) and community (PTA's and community participation and empowerment of local bodies). These indicators cover various quality aspects of the education which ranges from the infrastructure to the teaching learning materials and methodology, and also considers the role of community in the education.

Result and Discussion-

School Management-

Various officials have crucial role in the school management from the school level to the district level. The school Head Master (HM) and Area Education Officer (AEO) have important role but they have given very less important in regard with their responsibilities and capacity building. All the officials lacks capacity building programmes and also seems that there is underestimation of the capacities through the kind of work they have given, like the HM is just like the member of staff, just few responsibilities (all administrative) are given extra.


The study reveals that there is less or no accountability at teacher, school, block and district level in the absence of the any direct monitoring and evaluation system. There is no proper instruction given at different levels, which translate into the absenteeism of teachers and other educational officials in their working period.

Material Resources of School and Classroom-

The schools in the both district lack many physical infrastructures like drinking water, toilets and classrooms which either directly or indirectly affects the presence of students in the school. Ironically there are best practices which have helped in the improvement of the certain quality of education, like there resourceful use of back board. In other words there is greater emphasis is given on the teaching learning material for the students.

Drawback of Study-

The quality aspects of the study more or less cover all aspects of education, but the development of the student should have analysed through the study which could have exactly explained the quality of the education. Education has extrinsic and intrinsic aspects and helps in complete development of the personality along with the social development. Thus the aspects of 'personality development' are important in quality of education. The personality development not just considers the cognitive skill but also the analytical skills and communication skills as well. The emphasis on these aspects would have improved the applicability of the study.


Both the research paper covers the quality aspects of the education in India, in which the first is a quantitative study only covers few aspects of the 'quality' but have scientific methodology and also tries to include the various stakeholders of education. Similarly, second research paper covers the 'quality; aspects through the qualitative research methodology like the first paper it also emphasises on all stakeholders of the education and also have wide range of indicators to explain the quality of education. Both the paper explains that the quantifying the 'quality' is not an easy task in the research study and it is also important to understand the different facets of the quality.

Besides, the quality of the education is just not the matter of the physical infrastructure and teacher-student ratio, which generally considered by the people. The second paper proves the wide range of the quality aspects through different indicators and understanding of these different aspects helps to identify the real drawback of the quality of the education and thus helps in further improvement.

The first paper uses various quantitative tools for data collection like interviews and non participant observation unlike the second qualitative study which uses case study as methodology with interviews and participant observation. The scale of the studies and area covered nullify the errors in the study, besides few theoretical and ethical.