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The PowerPoint being a powerful tool in the process of education delivery it is very important to know the impact which it is going to have on the students, the article "The impact of presentation graphics on students' experience in the classroom" investigates the benefits and the perceived effectiveness which the instructional technology such as PowerPoint and results suggested that the organisation and clarity, professor like ability and good professor behavior were the findings of the study. The students preferences in using the PowerPoint have been illustrated in the article An assessment of student preferences for PowerPoint presentation structure in undergraduate courses." Wherein the author has given out a questionnaire to find out at the preferred features which the students like to see in the PowerPoint usage.
Overcoming the traditional mode of learning from the black boards and overhead transparencies till late the interesting fact the liking of the students along with their learning outcome, the effectiveness of PowerPoint was one other aspect which was investigated in the article "effectiveness of PowerPoint presentations in lectures". The use of PowerPoint has become an important aspect in modern day education system both in school and university levels but the point on how to improve the teaching using the PowerPoint scheme has been the most important criteria to be considered and this was illustrated in the article "PowerPoint Presentation Technology and the Dynamics of Teaching".
The use of PowerPoint though has become an important part of modern day education the need to put it forward in the most effective manner is essential and the guidance for effective PowerPoint presentations is illustrated in the article "Powerful PowerPoint Presentation". The use of the powerful tool of PowerPoint in education of physically challenged individuals has seen explained by Parette, H., J. Hourcade, et al. (2008), the article illustrated the fact that the tool can be used for literacy and skill development among the young children who are at risk or having certain disabilities. Though PowerPoint is an effective tool the usage of the tool in a accurate manner is an essential aspect for achieving effectiveness in lecturing and this has been illustrated in the article "the Do's and Don'ts of PowerPoint Presentations".
Â Overcoming the traditional mode of learning from the black boards and overhead transparencies till late the interesting fact the liking of the students along with their learning outcome, the effectiveness of PowerPoint was one other aspect which was investigated in the article "effectiveness of PowerPoint presentations in lectures". The use of PowerPoint has become an important aspect in modern day education system both in school and university levels but the point on how to improve the teaching using the powerpoint scheme has been the most important criteria to be considered and this was illustrated in the article "PowerPoint Presentation Technology and the Dynamics of Teaching".
Â The use of PowerPoint though has become an important part of modern day education the need to put it forward in the most effective manner is essential and the guidance for effective PowerPoint presentations is illustrated in the article "Powerful PowerPoint Presentation". The use of the powerful tool of PowerPoint in education of physically challenged individuals has seen explained by Parette, H., J. Hourcade, et al. (2008), the article illustrated the fact that the tool can be used for literacy and skill development among the young children who are at risk or having certain disabilities. Though PowerPoint is an effective tool the usage of the tool in a accurate manner is an essential aspect for achieving effectiveness in lecturing and this has been illustrated in the article "the Do's and Don'ts of PowerPoint Presentations".
The article "PowerPoint's power in the classroom: enhancing students' self-efficacy and attitudes" discussed and debated about the educational literature over weather non-interactive educational technology, such as accompanying lectures with PowerPoint presentations, is beneficial to students. The interesting facts which were found in the research was that students felt that the PowerPoint is more liked by the students over the traditional teaching mechanism and on the other hand the limits to the powerful have been also illustrated by same author as who has illustrated th potential benefits of the tool, in describing both the activities the author has given a broad understanding on the performance as well as limiting factors of the tool.
The last article Using IT in the undergraduate classroom: should we replace the blackboard with PowerPoint?" discussed the potentiality of using information technology in classroom environment in undergraduate level of education. The main finding which the authors took forward is the decision which needs to be taken on replacing the blackboard with PowerPoint. The next section consists of annotations to four articles out of the ten researched and the last page consists of the references of the articles.
Apperson, J. M., E. L. Laws, et al. (2006). "The impact of presentation graphics on students' experience in the classroom." Computers & Education 47(1): 116-126.
The use of presentation graphics (e.g., PowerPoint) in the classroom appears to be gripped enthusiastically by faculty and administrators at institutions. Many classrooms are being equipped with computers and costly projection devices to support presentation graphics, as well as other visual presentation media. This article articulates a debate on the effectiveness of using presentation slides method of teaching to improve the performance of students. The intended audience of this study is the whole education fraternity as its underlines the fact that use of presentation technology in classroom teaching will enhance the learning experience of students. It also helps faculty to invest more time interacting with students and make lectures interesting. A number of articles have been used by the author to explain the influence of visual methods in learning. The studies used in the article reveals that use of presentation slides in teaching has increased the attention of students in the lecture. Students have shown increased concentration and are able to recall the lecture material in presentation slides method of teaching. However, these studies delineate the fact that the method of instruction has not shown any difference in grades of the student. Many studies were conducted using different methods of instruction but all these studies showed same result in the performance of students. Inclusion of presentation slides in the method of instruction has just increased students concentration in lecture and was seen as the preferred medium by students. On the contrary, other researchers incorporating multimedia presentations in a variety of psychology courses (developmental, statistics, abnormal psychology and introductory psychology) have found higher final examination scores and more favourable subjective comments on student evaluations of those courses. The study in the article was conducted to further examine the benefits and perceived benefits of use of presentation graphics (i.e., PowerPoint) in the classroom. A multidisciplinary approach was used by examining the use of PowerPoint in classes from several academic programs. The research was conducted on students enrolled in ten separate classes across two semesters at a co-educational state located in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States of America. Five lecturers of the university were also part of the research. In the first semester, lecturers used conventional method of teaching and in the second semester, PowerPoint presentation was used as the medium of instruction. At the end of the semester surveys were conducted with students asking them to evaluate their learning experience using these methods of instructions. They were also asked to give their preference for presentation graphics. Analysis of the research indicates that students who completed the class during the semester in which PowerPoint was used to present class material were more likely to feel that it was easy to stay focused on lecture material, that the instructor maintained student interest in the course material, that PowerPoint is helpful in increasing classroom learning, and that PowerPoint increases the interest level of a college class. Analyses of the impact of the use of PowerPoint on student's final grades in the classes revealed no significant differences between the classes with and without the use of PowerPoint. It seems that the use of PowerPoint may have created a generally favourable impression of the class and the professor while not significantly affecting grades. The learning seems to be the same, but the overall experience appears to be more favourable in classes taught with presentation graphics than in classes not taught with presentation graphics. This appears to spread beyond the factors directly and obviously related to the use of PowerPoint such as lecture organization and clarity and the relevance of topics to the course. The research in the article shows use of PowerPoint enhances professor likeability directly (over-all rating of instructor, and willingness to take another course with instructor) as well as indirectly by enhancing the perception of ''good professor behaviours'' such as providing helpful feedback on assignments and giving assignments that required critical and creative thinking, all of which were presumably consistent across semesters. This article has improved my understanding of use of technology in the education system. This article confers a message to the education system to invest more finances in incorporation technology in learning process. In conclusion, author suggests that lecturers should be made familiar with the use of these technologies for the betterment of students learning skills.Â
Parette, H., J. Hourcade, et al. (2008). "Using MicrosoftÂ® PowerPoint(TM) to Support Emergent Literacy Skill Development for Young Children At-Risk or Who Have Disabilities." Early Childhood Education Journal 36(3): 233.
This article underlines the need to support growing literacy skill development for young children at risk or who have disabilities. The article targets play school teachers to incorporate softwares like PowerPoint in the learning process of young children and children with disabilities. The author suggests use of presentation softwares like Microsoft PowerPoint in the learning process to improve the learning skills of children in early childhood. Specific suggestions are presented in the areas of phonological awareness, alphabetic principles, comprehension, concepts about print, and vocabulary development. Technology has intervened completely in people's life. Today kids grow in an environment surrounded by all technological gadgets and equipments. Through recurrent experiences with computers that include images, visual layout, colour, sound, and movement, children develop understandings of particular communication events within language based social contexts. Technology provides tools that can be used as engagers and facilitators of thinking, helping young children construct their knowledge of the world. But children with disabilities often have difficulties developing such developing literacy qualification skills as phonological awareness, alphabetic principles, comprehension, concepts about print, and vocabulary development. The article suggests use of presentation software having features with which children may already be familiar (e.g., animation, colour, large screen presentation format) may promote developed emergent literacy in these and other children. The author justifies this by discussing about Making A Difference Using Assistive Technology (MDAT) Project. In this project, 10 preschool classrooms were provided with technology packages containing a personal computer and keyboard; microphone; scanner; digital camera; and ceiling- mounted projection system with Bluetooth keyboard, wireless mouse, and wall screen. Microsoft Office suite was included in the systems. The contents of these technology packages were used specifically to develop classroom literacy activities that would support the development of emergent literacy skills. PowerPoint was frequently reported as a valuable tool. The teachers associated with the project reported the effectiveness of software in improving the engagement of student in the learning process. Then the author suggests some key features of the software of which the teaching fraternity should be aware of to use the software effectively. Firstly, Phonological awareness is important. It refers to awareness of both large and small parts of spoken language. Educators can help young children develop initial sound fluency by making them aware of words that start with the same sound. Secondly, the author suggests use of PowerPoint for alphabetical principles. It refers to the relationships between letters and their associated sounds. PowerPoint activities can be created to help young children develop letter-sound correspondence. The study suggests that the teacher might use the animation features to control the appearance of each letter in a word so that it is isolated, and can be linked with the sound that corresponds to it. Animation can also be used to make slides more engaging for young learners. Then the author suggests use of this software to enhance the comprehension skills of children. The teacher can use PowerPoint software to tell a story to the children, which will gain attention of students and thereby improving their comprehension skills. Then the author suggests use of this software to make young learners understand that print carries a message. PowerPoint offers unique possibilities to create interactive learning activities with engaging texts. Large, colourful fonts in good contrast to the background can help to maintain learner interest. Pictures can also be entrenched on the slide, and appear in targeted spaces in closeness to the word to facilitate the child's growing comprehension of print as communication. Finally, the author proposes use of this software in developing vocabulary. By developing vocabulary, children gain knowledge about the meanings of spoken and written words. Using PowerPoint the teacher can identify two or three target words, and then show a slideshow of a story having these target words. The author very well explains the use of PowerPoint software for the development of young learners. He also urges the teaching fraternity to incorporate this software in the learning process so that the teachers will develop competence with this software. In conclusion, the author predicts scenarios in which children initially receptively engage with the literacy content presented through the technology, consuming presentations prepared by others. Later, as they acquire higher levels of skills in both literacy and technology, these same students can begin using this and other technologies to express themselves in contemporary and relevant formats.
Susskind, J. E. (2005). "PowerPoint's power in the classroom: enhancing students' self-efficacy and attitudes." Computers & Education 45(2): 203-215.
This paper debates about the educational literature over weather non-interactive educational technology, such as accompanying lectures with PowerPoint presentations, is beneficial to students. This study examines the effects of non-interactive computer assisted instruction on students'Â performance, self- efficacy, motivation and attitudes. One of the main features of PowerPoint is that it provides a structure to the presentation. After an in-depth research, researchers found out that students find PowerPoint presentations are more interesting than traditional lectures. Furthermore, accompanying lectures with PowerPoint presentations enhanced students' academic self-efficacy. Students felt it was easier to understand the course material and to take notes when PowerPoint was used. The questions which are being assessed in this paper are 'how easy it is to understand the material' or 'how interesting the course is' depend on which courses students' use as their comparison group.Â
To account for these methodological issues, half the lectures presented to classes were taught in a traditional lecture format and half were accompanied by PowerPoint multimedia. Four hypotheses were made that lecturing with PowerPoint would create the perception of structure and organization. The first hypothesis was that students would have more positive attitudes about the course when lectures were accompanied by Power- Point presentations. The second hypothesis, that students would have stronger course-relevant self-efficacy beliefs when PowerPoint multimedia presentations were employed. Third, as students are expected to view the material discussed in PowerPoint lectures as easier to understand, they are predicted to perform better on the exam that covered material from PowerPoint lectures than on the exam that covered material from traditional lectures. Finally, if students believe they are more capable of learning material taught via PowerPoint, then they should be more motivated to attend the PowerPoint multimedia lectures than the traditional lectures.Â
All the participants for this research were students who attended a small liberal arts college. These students were divided into two sections. For the first five weeks the first section received traditional learning methods and the second section PowerPoint presentations. After which there was an exam held. After which the teaching methods were exchanged for the next five weeks and another exam was held at the end of it. At the end of each exam students were asked to fill in survey forms regarding their perceptions of the course. These responses to the attitude questions were analysed using the one sample t-tests. The analysis of Hypothesis 1 was strongly supported as students displayed more positive attitudes for PowerPoint lectures. Similar analysis was employed to examine the results of the self-efficacy questions. Hypotheses 2 was strongly supported as students believed that they were more effective when PowerPoint accompanied lectures. To examine the effects on achievement and on motivation, 2x2 mixed ANOVAs were conducted. Hypothesis 3 was not supported as the use of PowerPoint presentations accompanied lectures did not affect the grades of the students. Simple effects analyses of time during the semester within each class section were conducted to investigate the pattern of the interaction.Â Hypothesis 4 was partially supported as the predicted pattern was only observed for one section.Â
The results of this study pertain to the difference between the students'Â subjective and objective performance. The results imply that additional lectures with PowerPoint presentations do not significantly affect student achievement. Although the PowerPoint lectures were perceived as more organized and easier to understand, they did not enhance the students'Â performance on exams. Both students'Â responses to the attitude questionnaire and their open ended comments reflected greater positive attitudes and self-efficacy beliefs when PowerPoint accompanied lectures. As expected, the students claimed that when PowerPoint was used, the lectures were more structured and their main points were highlighted more. They believed it was easier to understand the lectures accompanied by PowerPoint, which made it easier for them. A number of researchers found that the results not only replicate previous findings of positive attitudes and enhanced self-efficacy when PowerPoint accompanied lectures but also improve the validity of these claims. Students that received traditional instruction first and then received lectures with PowerPoint did not experience a change in classroom motivation. However, students who were initially taught with PowerPoint and then received traditional lectures became less motivated during the traditional lecture format. Results of this study provide reason to believe that non-interactive computer assisted instruction yields more subjective effects than objective ones. Thus, additional research should attempt to understand the manner in which computer technology influences student outcomes.
Szabo, A. and N. Hastings (2000). "Using IT in the undergraduate classroom: should we replace the blackboard with PowerPoint?" Computers & Education 35(3): 175-187.
The PowerPoint software, which is included in the `Microsoft Office' package, is a powerful presentation tool which has replaced the traditionally used colour slides and overheads at important conferences. Originally PowerPoint was developed for commercial and business purposes, but it has quickly penetrated the scientific and educational circles as well. Three studies were performed to investigate the efficacy of digital PowerPoint lecturing in undergraduate classrooms. Â
In the first study, students' opinion about PowerPoint lectures was surveyed after receiving all their lectures in one module in PowerPoint. These elements include colour, pacing through line-by-line or concept-by-concept presentation of the information, Flexibility for graphical interfacing, a well thought pre-organisation and easy variation of the size and the type of the fonts. Two hypotheses were tested: 1. Students will prefer PowerPoint lectures in contrast to traditional lectures. 2. After four PowerPoint lectures students will achieve better grades, on their first test at the university, than after four traditional lectures. One hundred and fifty-five male and female students participated in this study. The results of this study suggest that digital PowerPoint lecturing is perceived by the students as beneficial for learning, but the actual grades do not support this in this claim. The findings say that 72% of all respondents wanted to see PowerPoint adopted in all modules also reflects students' appreciation of the method. However, it is hard to determine whether such a desire emerges from personal needs for better education or for better entertainment. Grades of one cohort were then compared with the grades of another taking the same test one year earlier. No significant differences were found.Â
Â In the second study, students received a mock test 1 week following: (1) an overhead lecture, (2) a PowerPoint lecture and (3) a PowerPoint lecture with lecture notes. It was hypothesised that PowerPoint lectures will yield better retention than overhead lectures. Further, it was presumed that PowerPoint lectures combined with the handing out of all the lecture notes will yield the best performance 1 week later on a ten-item multiple-choice mock test. Fifty-two second year students taking a compulsory `Research Methods in Sports and Exercise' module took part in the study. Students were blind to the hypothesis without being subjected to deception. The obtained data were analysed with repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). The findings from the second study indicate that PowerPoint lectures resulted in better performance on the multiple-choice test than overhead lectures. The fact that handouts did not yield a further increase in the students' performance may be attributed to a ceiling effect. There were no significant differences between the two PowerPoint lectures both of which resulted in higher grades than the overhead lecture.Â
To investigate the dilemma with preparation and further lecture difficulty, the third study was devised. In the third study, two cohorts had two identical lectures, in a counterbalanced order, presented either with PowerPoint or by using overheads. They were tested in practical sessions in which they could receive a real in-class quiz every week. The answer cards were computer-read and the grades were entered in Excel spreadsheets from where they were transferred into an SPSS (Statistical package for Social Sciences) statistical spreadsheet for subsequent analyses. The results revealed that the lecture difficulty, but not the method of lecturing, contributed to the grade differences on two mock tests. It is suggested that the efficacy of PowerPoint lecturing may be case specific rather than universal. Â
The mere substitution of the blackboard with electronic lectures delivered by the use of PowerPoint presentations does not result in superior academic performance in Psychology related modules as based on the graded assessments. However, it appears that PowerPoint lectures may benefit recall (or perhaps recognition) from memory. PowerPoint could be useful in precise instruction where dynamic models, animation, and variation of colour may definitively help in the better illustration of the key concepts. Thus, PowerPoint should not be viewed as a replacement for the blackboard, but rather as an efficient supporting medium, that can improve learning for students. Else, PowerPoint will only entertain the students, rather than educating them.