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This essay shows how the unfair practices like plagiarism affects to international students. In this article it is defined that unfair practice occurs with the use of the internet access. It shows the various types of unfair practices, the reasons why students adopt them, how it is problematic for international students and the effect of it on students.
As everyone knows the main unfair practice is plagiarism, this essay would show the importance and the side effects of plagiarism. How plagiarism occurs, under which possible conditions, the causes, by plagiarism how students are facing problems or the steps that they should take to prevent it.
Internet access cause the plagiarism most. It has its own prons and cons. For international students internet is the useful resource to collect the knowledge about the external environment. By the usage of an internet students can be able to understand the system in which they have to live, the academic scenarios, the wider knowledge, study skills. At the other hand by using internet the chances of unfair practices also raises. In British universities also it is a big issue that international students commit unfair practices knowingly or unknowingly. The various reasons behind it are mentioned in this literature further. Students' lack of knowledge or the colleges' more expectations could be few of them. So many techniques are there which can fall into this category. In this same manner submitting bought or commissioned work, double submission, collusion, fabrication are furthermore examples. http://www.dcs.shef.ac.uk/
Plagiarism can be defined as "claim to have own work though it's from another person". It is not every time intentionally but it can be unintentionally as well. So this article focuses the main agenda as "plagiarism".
In contrast to "banks", commissioned work is referring to copying the data from many sites. So it is also committing a crime if they sell any kind of data like this.
In Double submission, one can present in own way which is already presented by someone else provided it referenced properly.
In collusion, different students work together with the help of idea sharing. At last they submit it individually.
In order to define fabrication, it can be viewed as a dishonest work. So person can't submit the work which is dishonest or not reliable.
The main method of unfair practices is plagiarism which is focused area of this literature and how it creates the problems for students. The main methods of it, the situations under which students encouraged to do plagiarism, the advantages and disadvantages, the steps that they should follow to prevent the plagiarism. So they won't get any problem.
The definition of plagiarism can be defined as follows:
"The action or practice of plagiarizing; the wrongful appropriation or purloining, and publication as one's own, of the ideas, or the expression of the ideas (literary, artistic, musical, mechanical, etc.) of another."
There might be some reasons behind it. Likewise the lack of time management and ignorance could belong to them. International students abroad usually not used to with the environment or the system, which could be converted into inferiority complex. They got stressed by the system or the environment around them. The professors don't provide the enough background or enough information. In starting students try to make their academic work best but if they couldn't then it lead them to plagiarism. Mainly, this is the degrading of their career or the main problem they are facing. To copy from different sources like articles or journals or new papers are not allowed, but in worst case if students read them and converted that into their own way then it is allowed. Students can't even steal the ideas or imaginations of others. So to put them into proper way or to quote them if necessary could be the possible solutions for this sort of problems.
For an example, Wetlands emit 150 million tons of methane each year [Bunce, N.Environmental Chemistry(Winnipeg: Wuerz, 1994, p. 18)]. If they want to judge whether this statement is in correct form or not just check the referencing.
No one would understand if this is not referenced properly. The main things which are included into academic work are preparation of literatures and assessment. Universities really want to know about the students whether they know everything or not. They don't want to check the knowledge of author or the writer. In the terms of solution they should make the students familiar with the environment rather than explaining to the local students. Because at the same time one "cannot transcend one's own culture without first exposing its hidden axioms and unstated assumptions" (Hall, 1981, p. 222). For that schools should arrange some induction program to introduce international students to their culture. So there are some protocols to measure plagiarism and to prevent as well. After all, the criteria are defined from the different schools in different manner. In some colleges it is around 20%. So it is same for every school to have a model for plagiarism. The schools implement the strategy in their own way. So students who follows in this category has to suffer i.e. they have to suffer with the examinations or they have to repeat the year. So there are different types of plagiarism software or tools as well. Therefore it is very poor for students as well as universities.
One of the most influence methods of plagiarism is "ghostwriting". In the universities it is also a major issue. Students facing the problem and afterwards they occupy somebody to write their assignments. In result, they can't compete with others and the main problem they facing is "terror of study". In past people used to write someone's biography but it changed to write academic work to get paid. In such matter, the student as well as the writer both is committing a crime. It is not limited to a person only but it is the business for some companies as well. There are lots of factors which might affect this sort of situation which is explained in this article as well. Geisler (1994) denotes to (the myth of) the ideal of the academic text as an independent text. According to her view, students should be innovative. If students make their proposal they have to add their own ideology rather than copying from others. Due to lack of ideas students got fail to promote or they conduct the misbehaviors. In short they deviate from the right direction. So if the students got the correct terms of the particular topic they can easily manage the studies. So in brief they need to put the correct terminology with the using of proper referencing.
"Routine and unreflective writing practices" and lack of witting or about the perceptions of students lead them to the unfair practices. "who can explain, why much of the explanations about the use of citations and plagiarism do not cover the complexities of the conventions of citation, the role of acknowledgment and the textual synthesis of references peculiar to academic culture" (Scollon, 1995; Pennycook, 1996; Sutherland-Smith, 2005). So from all of the above issues the same thing that they come to know that the fair practices are the reflection of students mind. So in solution they can analyze the literatures or they can understand the local referencing system, they can avoid the unfair practices by their own criteria. Plagiarism has its own fundamental which are already being used.
To avoid the plagiarism is not only the problem for the students but it is also problem for schools. At the same time, they could take it as a responsibility. As far as universities are concerned they can easily restrict it by giving proper knowledge or at worst they can make students aware of the situation that they might face after caught into plagiarism. For that they can give special lectures or workshop or seminar which could be beneficial for the students. If it is not solved yet, then they should legally proceed further. From the point of students in response they might get fine for these unfair practices. So they should understand the responsibilities by their own. They should think about the system as well.
In examples, here are two examples which illustrate the real paragraph, the plagiarized one and the remarks.
Among the more important are the following prima facie duties: to give the patient at least what he or she considers to be adequate information, and often more if the doctor knows that more information will probably be appreciated and relevant to good decision making; not to lie to or otherwise deceive the patient (unless he or she deliberately chooses such deception); and to allow the patient to have at least strategic control over which course of action to pursue - that is, the doctor may advise, but the patient is then given the opportunity to decide whether to accept that advice. (Gillon 1995 p.165).(" http://dissc.tees.ac.uk/Plagiarism/ ")
Among the more important are the following prima facie duties: to give the patient at least what he or she considers to be adequate information, and often more if the doctor knows that more information will probably be appreciated and relevant to good decision making; not to lie to or otherwise deceive the patient (unless he or she deliberately chooses such deception); and to allow the patient to have at least strategic control over which course of action to pursue - that is, the doctor may advise, but the patient is then given the opportunity to decide whether to accept that advice. (Gillon 1995 p.165)
Gillon (1995 p.165) states that the doctor should not deceive the patient, except when that is the patient's own choice. Otherwise, adequate and accurate information should be given. In my placement, I worked with two patients who had the same illness, but who asked for very different amounts of information. One wished to be told as much as possible; the other did not want to be told anything, and said so. I co-operated with the patients' different wishes. The underlying principle is that the patient should be the judge of what is the proper amount of information, not the doctor or nurse.
From the example, first student come across with his own idea but he has not followed the perfect procedure. He just paraphrases the paragraph and ideology. So it is not right method but second student provided the perfect terminology and referenced it appropriately.
In fact, after 1870 the food and the eating habits of the British people began to be transformed. They began, for instance, to eat fruit, previously a luxury. To begin with working-class fruit consumption took the form of jam; later also of the novel and imported banana, which supplemented or replaced apples as the only fresh fruit eaten by the urban poor. Even so characteristic a landmark of the British proletarian scene as the fish-and-chip shop first appears in this period. It spread outwards from its original home in, probably, Oldham, after 1870. (Hobsbawm 1990 pp.162-3).
In fact, after 1870 the food and the eating habits of the British people began to be transformed. They began, for instance, to eat fruit, previously a luxury. To begin with, working-class fruit consumption took the form of jam; later also of the novel and imported banana, which supplemented or replaced apples. (Hobsbawm 1990 pp162)
The period around and after 1870 saw many changes in British life and culture. Hobsbawm (1990 pp162-3) describes changes and improvements in diet, including an increase in the consumption of fruit and the arrival on the scene of the fish-and-chip shop. Far from being a timeless traditional part of British life, the fish-and-chip shop was a product of these years of change at the end of the nineteenth century. Many aspects of Britain which are sometimes thought to be very old were similar innovations of this period (Colls & Dodd 1987).
Apart from copying from the source first student didn't do anything right though he referenced properly, so this is the best example of plagiarism while another student has used the referencing system properly and added his own ideas as well. so this won't be plagiarized.
So from this literature one can able to understand the term "plagiarism". In simple terms it reflects that the claiming of another's work as our own. So students should take care about this kind of problems and they have to consider these things seriously. Plagiarism and other unfair practices occur intentionally or unintentionally. So to avoid it, one can take all the scenarios in consideration. So it is important that students stay far from this kind of problems.
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